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LONDON, 1826-1832 


Supposed secrets of the Quarterly, — Their mythical character. — 
Southe/s son-in-law. — Disappointing innocence. — Southe/s 
letters. — His grievances.— Lockhart's Spanish courtesy. — 
Scott on Canning's suspicions. — Mrs. Lockhart's diplomacy. 
— Canning's reply to Scott — Scott's answer. — Canning is 
satisfied.— Lockhart's resentment. — Scott's ** Napoleon." — 
Lockhart to Scott — The Catholic question. — Gillies. — 
Anecdote of Bums. — "Dumple it" — A gold medal. — 
Attempts to help Hogg. — Medal. — Salver, or bread-basket ? 1-42 


LONDON, 1 828-1832 

Catholic Emancipation. — Lockhart a moderate Tory. — No despot 
as Editor. — His salary raised. — His literary schemes. — Life 
of Bonaparte. — Letter to Wilson. — The Family Library. — 
Letter from De Quincey. — Proposes an "integrated Gibbon." 
—Letters to Scott — " Peel utterly undone." — Scott on Peel. 
— An honest man.— Criticism by Hugh Littlejohn. — His want 
of sympathy with Civilisation. — The Duke's duel — Lockhart 
asked to be a " reptile journalist" — Scott on the gentlemen 
of the Press. — "Rather sell gin." — Distrust of Croker. — 
Scott's illness. — Last days at Abbotsford. — Guests at Abbots- 
ford. — Visit to the graves of the Douglasses. — Lockhart as 
Biographer. — Scott visits Italy. — His latest days. — Death of 
Hugh Littlejohn. — Letter to Dr. Lockhart. . . . 43-75 
VOL. II. V b 


LONDON, 1832-1836 


Social relations in London. — Benjamin Disraeli. — ** A tenth-rate 
novelist.** — Friends. — Birth of Charlotte. — Scottish holidays. 
— ^Anne Scotfs death. — Death of Lockhart*s mother. — Lock- 
hart and Maginn. — Letter to Mrs. Maginn. — Guests and 
hosts. — Death of Mr. Blackwood. — Lockhart on literature 
and rank. — Letter to Hay ward. — Portrait of Lockhart — His 
review of Tennyson. — Editing Scott's works. — Relations with 
Milman. — Letters. — Jeffrey in the House. — Scott's debts. — 
Southey and " The Doctor." — A mystification. — The British 
Association. — Bad times. — Southey on Scott's death. — "Birds 
of prey." — Troubles with Hogg. — Wrath of Wilson. — Attack 
on Scott. — Extraordinary proposal by Hogg. — Hogg's "do- 
mestic manners." — Correspondence as to " Life of Scott" — 
Mrs. Lockhart to Cadell. — Cadell's praise of Lockhart. — 
Lockhart on his own work. — Letter to Laidlaw. — Criticisms 
of Scott's " Life.** — Mr. Carlyle. — Remarks on the Biography 
of Scott — Wrath of Fenimore Cooper. — Americans and 
Scott 76-125 



"The Ballantyne Humbug." — False impressions. — Lockhart*s rea. 
aim. — The flaw in Scott — Contradictions in his character. — 
Why Lockhart described the Ballantynes — Mr. Cadell's 
evidence. — Lockhart*s candour as to Scott. — History of the 
brethren. — Kelso. — Scott's " air-drawn schemes.*' — Extra- 
vagance in business. — John Ballantyne "penniless," — 
James's claret — Bill and counter-bill. — Negligence. — Con- 
cealments. — Change of publishers. — Death of John Ballan- 
tyne. — Constable and the bills. — Reply of the Ballantynes. — 
Unbalanced books. — Cadell's evidence. — Hughes and Cadell. 
— Lockhart "could not understand."— "Be a good man." — 



Ballantyne pamphlet. — What "might have been." — Unfor- 
tunate James. — His labours and sorrows. — Abbotsford — 
Counter-charges. — ^Attitude of the press. — False accusations. 
— CadelPs letter. — His new documents. — Opinion of the 
Chief Commissioner. — Legal advice. — Lockhart's reply to 
the Ballantynes. — Defects of taste. — Their rebutter. — Lock- 
hart's reception of it — General reflections . . 126-172 

LONDON, 1 837-1 843 

Illness of Mrs. Lockhart — Letter to " Miss Edgeworth. — Mrs. 
Lockhart's death. — Letters to William and Violet Lockhart. 
— Burial-place. — Retreat to Milton Lockhart. — ^The children 
described. — Letter to Laidlaw. — Letter to Wilson. — Grief of 
Lockhart — Wilson's despair. — His rapid recovery. — Letter 
to Miss Edgeworth. — Return to society. — Haydon on Life 
of Scott — Lockhart on his critics. — Myth of his marriage. 
— **The widow." — The Bowden Bard. — Talleyrand on 
Macaulay. — Death of Charles Scott — Letter to Milman. — 
" Demonstration." — Scientific gaieties. — Chalmers and the 
Contessina. — Letter on Quarterly gossip. — On politics. — 
Central America. — Copyright Bill. — Walter and Charlotte. 
— A Rhyme of Rose. — Louis Napoleon. — " The Jew scamp." 
" Coningsby." — Advice to Walter. — Duchy of Lancaster. — 
Walter's follies. — Letters to Laidlaw. — Court gossip. — Lock- 
hart at a ball. — Visit to Italy. — Avemus, "a third-rate 
loch." — Letter to Christie. — Pompeii described. — Return to 
England 173-222 


LONDON, 1828-1848 

Correspondence with Carlyle. — Review of Life of Bums. — Their 
first meeting. — Carlyle's description of Lockhart — Desires 
Mr. El win to write a Life pf Lockhart. — " Mr. Carlyle knows 



this to be a lieP — The Goethe medal — Lockhart proposes a 
novel. — Carlyle offers " Chartism/ — Borrows books. — Lock- 
hart answers as " Able Editor." — Carlyle on Jenny Geddes. 
— Carlyle on his wife's mother's death. — Lockhart's reply. — 
His poem. — Carlyle on the Infinities and other matters. — 
On Ae gifted Gilfillan. — Carlyle's affection for Lockhart. — 
His desire that Lockhart's life should be written . . 223-244 


LONDON, 1826-1852 

Lockhart as a journalist — Charges of Miss Martineau. — Inter- 
polations. — Southe/s ideas. — Lord Stanhope. — His displea- 
sure. — His account of Lockhart. — The marks of Croker. — 
Lockharfs articles. — His variety. — Want of permanency. — 
The reasons for this. — His idea of his duties. — His copious 
extracts. — Essay on Colonel Mure's " Greek Literature.** — 
Biblical Criticism. — Croker and Donaldson. — Letter to Mr. 
Murray. — Lockhart on Homeric Criticism, — On Biblical 
Criticism. — Satire of German vagaries. — Lockhart's biogra- 
phical essays. — Hook. — Wilkie. — Southey. — Campbell — 
Wordsworth. — Letters to Wilson on the Life of Words- 
worth. — Violent language of Wilson. — His contribution 
cannot be published. — General reflections on Lockhart 
as a critic. — The policeman of letters. — This function exag- 
gerated by him 245-288 



Gloom of Lockhart's diaries. — Death of friends. — Melancholy 
quotations. — Contrast of gay letters. — His son Walter. — 
Letters to Milman. — Clough on Walter. — Death of Sir 
Walter Scott — Letters to Miss Edgeworth. — Abbotsford 
revisited. — All debts extinguished. — Marriage of Miss 
Lockhart — Letters to Miss Lockhart — ^To Miss Edgeworth. 
— Description of Mr. Hope. — Letters to Mrs. Hope. — 



Apthorpe. — ^Wimpole. — Christinas Letter. — Lord Lonsdale's 
palace.— Letter on " Jane Eyre."— High praise of the novel. 
— Letters on Society. — Troubles with Walter.— His debts. 
— Brain-fever. — Letters to Milman. — ^A mummy at a ball. — 
Paris. — Louis Bonaparte. — Guizot — Whose joke? — The 
Dean of St PauPs 289-333 

LONDON, 1850-1853 

IlL**— The black dog.— Anecdote by Mr. James TrailL— Death 
of Wordsworth. — Lockhart's portrait . — Mr. El win. — No 
duellist — Changes of faith. — Letter to Mr. Hope. — Letter 
to Mrs. Hope. — Murchison. — Lord John Russell deer- 
stalking. — ** A wauf bit body." — Anecdote of Lamartine. 
— Dinner with Landseer. — Rackets by gaslight — Dandies 
for the Queen. — ^Junius and the Ghost— Lord Lyttelton as 
Junius. — Letter to Mrs. Hope. — The Quarterly troubles. — 
Quarterly on Junius. — Stories of the wicked Lord Lyttel- 
ton. — Mr. Gladstone ''much shocked.'' — The Dandies at 
Windsor. — Eastern and Western Churches. — Rum and half 
a pig. — Mr. Hope received into Church of Rome. — Lock- 
hajt's letter to him. — To Mrs. Hope. — The Rev. Moses 

, — French tour. — Lord Peter "hot and heavy." — 

Croker's illness. — Scandal about a saint — Birth of Mrs. 
Maicwell Scott — Walter's illness. — ** Esmond." — Reconcilia- 
tion vdth Walter. — Walter's death. — Letter to Mrs. Hope. 
— Kindness of Mrs. Hughes. — Letters to her. — Miniature of 
Walter 334-363 



Coral for Mary Monica. — Dinner on a herring. — Resigns editor- 
ship. — Letter to Milman. — Haydon's "Memoirs." — Last 
meeting with Wilson. — Journey to Rome. — Meets Thackeray. 
— Studies Italian. — Visits Horace's Villa. — Dines out — An 



invalid in Rome. — Letter to Mrs. Hope Scott. — Failure of 
vital powers. — Pio Nono. — A beatification. — Excavations. — 
Mrs. Sartoris. — Manning's eloquence. — Swathed pictures. — 
Studying Hebrew and Arabic — Father Willi^ Lockhart. 
— Longs for British fere. — Spirit rapping. — Letter to Milman. 
— Wiseman and Manning. — The last poem. — Duchy of 
Lancaster. — Retiring allowance. — Dinner with Manning. — 
Return to England. — Medal for Mary Monica. — *' Shorn 
condition." — Last letter to Milman. — Milton Lockhart. — 
Pleasant last sununer. — '*My wound is deep." — Letter to 
Mrs. Hope Scott. — " Be good 1 " — Promised visit to Abbots- 
ford. — Misunderstanding as to Lockhart's last visit — Last 
letter to his daughter. — Description by an old servant, 
" What a beautiful face he had ! " — His love of his grand- 
daughter. — Takes fareweU of Chiefswood. — Last hours. — 
"A soft sleep." — His religious ideas. — His poem on inmior- 
taUty 364-398 



Reminiscences of the Dean of Salisbury. — Lockhart on modem 
poets. — He advocates the republication of Keats. — Lockhart 
on Tennyson. — Admiration of Byron and Southey. — The 
Quarterly 2Jid. the Oxford Movement. — Kindness to Dean 
Boyle. — On Scotf s letter about the death of his first love. — 
On his friendship for Mr. Murray. — ^Thc notice of Lockhart's 
death in the Times, — The author's final reflections . 399-412 

INDEX 413 



Miss Violet Lockhart Frontispiece 

Facsimile of a Sepia Drawing by J. G. Lcx:khart, 
in the possession of Mr. Brewster Macpherson. 

John Gibson Lockhart 

Drawn by DANIEL Maclise, R.A. .... Page i6 

John Wilson Croker 

From the Picture by William Owen, R.A., in the 

National Portrait Gallery, Photo-Etched PlaU . „ 48 

James Hogg 

Z>nne/if Z^^' Daniel Maclise, R. A ,,112 

Charles Scott 

Facsimile of a Water-Colour Drawing by J. G. LOCK- 
HART, in the possession of Mr. Brewster Mac- 
pherson „ 228 



Thomas Carlyle 

From the Painting by Sir J. E. Millais, Bart, P.R^A., 
in the National Portrait Gallery, Photo-Etched 
Plate Page 242 

John Gibson Lockhart 

Facsimile of a Water-Colour Drawing of himself 
dated October 1816, by J. G. Lockhart, in the 
possession ^Major-General Lockhart, of Milton 
Lockhart, On the back of the mount there is 
written : " To Miss Violet Isabella Lockhart this 
view ofMK is humbly dedicated by ME " . „ 256 



LONDON, 1826-1832 

Supposed secrets of the Quarterly, — Their mythical character. — 
Southe/s son-in-law. — Disappointing innocence. — Southey's 
letters. — His grievances.— Lockhart*s Spanish courtesy. — Scott 
on Canning's suspicions. — Mrs.Lockharfs diplomacy. — Canning's 
reply to Scott — Scott's answer. — Canning is satisfied. — Lockhart's 
resentment — Scott's "Napoleon." — Lockhart to Scott — The 
Catholic question. — Gillies.— Anecdote of Bums. — " Dumple it" 
— ^A gold medal — ^Attempts to help Hogg. — Medal. — Salver, or 
bread-basket ? 

The life of the Editor of a Quarterly Review is not, 
even in the best times, one of poignant excitement. 
Many persons appear to believe that the archives 
of such a periodical are full of dark and deadly 
secrets, which would shake the Republic of Letters, 
and destroy the peace of families. To the best of 
my knowledge this belief in the existence of pictur- 
esque but gloomy histories about "the rampageous 
past " of the Quarterly Review is a popular delusion. 
One of the first articles which appeared under Lock- 
hart's rule dealt with the Man in the Iron Mask. 



He was not Louis XIV., nor a brother of Louis 
XIV,, nor the Duke of Monmouth, said the author ; 
V Homme an Masque de Fer was merely the Italian 
agent of a small Italian prince. The Quarterly 
mystery is not more thrilling or momentous than 
that of le Masque de Fer. 

The veiled adyta of Albemarle Street, as far as I 
have entered them by the way of letters to Lock- 
hart, do not in the least resemble the Secret Chamber 
in Castle Perilous ; they contain no horror, no weird 
inmate, calculated to blanch the locks and sadden 
the dispositions of new young editors and pro- 
prietors through all generations. I find no Castle 
Spectre, no skeleton old literary iniquity, but merely 
an energetic and deeply interested publisher; an 
industrious but intellectually rather disengaged 
man of letters ; an unofficial but very busy coad- 
jutor, Mr. Croker ; and a " chorus of indolent re- 

A devotee of the faith in old Quarterly mysteries 
"more than Eleusinian,*' was the son-in-law of 
Southey, the editor of his Correspondence, the 
Rev. John Wood Warter^ (London, 1856). Mr. 

^ I cannot resist the pleasure of making a quotation from Mr. 
Warter. He says — 

** For the few footnotes I am responsible, and they are as few as 
possible, not being myself a convert to the system of overlaying an 
author with unnecessary ^squisitions, or be-Germanised Excursuses, 
alhdt long ago not unread in German literature of all sorts, especially 
theological, and from my long residence in Copenhagen, as Chaplain 
to the Embassy, not unversed in Danish and Swedish lore, and in the 
exquisitely curious Icelandic Sagas." 


Warter suffered from that malady of fierceness, and 
that general sense of injury, which, in a biographer, 
are natural, if not becoming. He could not get 
all the letters of his father-in-law that he wanted 
to get, and he was particularly angry because no 
notice was taken of his demand for Southey's 
letters to Lockhart. Mr. Murray, also, would only 
lend copies of Southey's letters to him. " Yet," says 
Mn Warter, " I have been able " (from Lockhart*s 
letters) "to draw up a most remarkable history of 
the Quarterly Review. ... It would fall like a 
shell from a mortar of the newest construction." * 

Now, I have not access to Lockhart*s letters to 
Mr. Murray, nor to Lockhart's letters to Southey 
(which seem to have vanished into the autograph 
market) ; finally, I have not access to Lockhart's 
letters to Mr. Croker. But I have read (as far as 
Lockhart preserved them) Mr. Murray's letters to 
Lockhart, Southey's letters to Lockhart, and much 
in two huge volumes of Croker's letters to Lockhart 
To a mind eager for news about dark literary com- 
binations, these epistles would appear of the most 
disappointing innocence. Lockhart and Croker, in 
the fancy of Miss Martineau, meet over an author 
like two ogres in a fairy tale over a strayed child. 
They discuss his points, they cut him up, and cook 
him (like Perrault's cruel step- mother) an sauce 
Robert. It may have been so, but these cruel facts 
do not appear in Mr. Croker's letters. On the 

* " Selections from the Letters of Robert Southey," i. p. 13. 



r. , I'/ise bad men in a con- 

'vtidlth to poor authors, 

^ .w.:ilt. As to Southey s 

.-. ccLiined them, he would 

V-:ey are brief, they are 

- ' T^icom diverge from the 

... .•; L'! article, except when 

^ ... ui outburst of true-blue 

'"'!v.s. though in possession 

. . n.f -.ils as Mr. Warter had, I 

. .•::,i:eii society, like him, with 

:, . .>w ".is No ** strange disclosures " 

. ..: .. .> .iT^* to be expected. 

^. . : .>:o, as in the later part 

. > ;M^^-s to Lockhart are of no 

Once he had vowed that 

.; .^-^' .^i^^in curtail his articles, 

V :c^ that, in his own Oriental 

s.\vA of his eloquence loved to 

^ . .» L^rolixity." In his unpub- 

.,.v\ hoj>es that if Lockhart is 

* ^ :. '.-.clcs, he will send him the 

.^ -,. o.^iulition. Mr. Cyrus Red- 

^ / .\ Years' Recollections " (iii. 

vv".w-x\i that if he wrote for the 

v^ >>touU not be cut or altered 

X v>, *.: was, that what Southey 

v- ::ot read in any shape." 


X » 

;;:,::nbled about the curtail- 


ment of his first article, on the Soeur Nativit^,^ 
His essay has *' been much injured, at the begin- 
ning, at the head, in the middle, and all through." 
Southey was prolix, and knew it, yet he for ever 
harped on that inevitable grievance, the cutting 
down of an expansive writer. On this occasion he 
poured his wail into the ears of Mrs. Hughes, 
whose own son had been the earliest victim of the 
ferocious Lockhart — in the matter of Mr. Pepys. 
Mrs. Hughes, good lady, took the Lockharts to 
her bosom, but Southey nursed his wrath. " The 
change of administration in the Quarterly is an 
affair in which I believe all parties were pretty 
equally ill-used. . . . Sir Walter tells me, in an 
emphatic manner, that he is certain that I shall 
like Lockhart when I know him. I wish to do 
so for Sir Walter's sake, but I have misgfivings 
upon that score. Nothing can be more courteous 
and apparently respectful than his letters to me; 
but in that courteousness, which reminds you of 
a Spaniard, there is an expression which forbids 

Southey had seen Lockhart, knew his "melan- 
choly Spanish head," knew his courtesy, and " com- 
bined his information" into a good British prejudice. 
Southey was less useftil to the Quarterly than the 
Quarterly to Southey. For thirty years ( 1 809-1 839) 

' A disputable miracle-worker, about whom an indiscreet book had 
been written. 

^ Selections, &c., iv. 2. 


he, like Pistol, "ate and swore" at the source of 
his provender. 

A distrust entertained by a person of greater 
political importance than Southey, now taught 
Lockhart, once more, how little he had to expect 
from his party. In Scott's Journal, for April i6, 
J 82 7, occur the words (after recording Lockhart's 
account of the break-up of the Ministry), — "Mr. 
Canning has declared himself fully satisfied with 
J. L., and sent Barrow to tell him so. His sus- 
picions were indeed most erroneous, but they were 
repelled with no little spirit both by L. and my- 
self, and Canning has not been like another Great 
Man I know, to whom I showed demonstrably that 
he had suspected an individual unjustly. ' It may 
be so,* he said, 'but his mode of defending himself 
was offensive.' " 

Now, at the moment when Scott was record- 
ing Canning's suspicions of Lockhart, and their re- 
moval, the Quarterly (according to Blackwood) was 
" meek and mum as a mouse, . . . afraid to lose the 
countenance and occasional assistance of Mr. Can- 
ning."^ Canning himself, though disliked by the 
great Tory houses, was about to form a Ministry, 
which partly leaned, or was expected to lean, on 
hopes of Whig assistance. If, then, the Quarterly 
was courting Canning, of what misdeed did Canning 
suspect the Editor of the Quarterly? Simply of 
attacking him in Blackwood, in the very periodical 

^ See '* Noctes Ambrosianae," iii. 183, 184. 


where Christopher North was, as he says, "de- 
fending the principles of the British Constitution, 
bearding its enemies, and administering to them the 
knout." Canning, in short, accused the Editor of 
the Quarterly of doing what Christopher North 
blamed the Quarterly for not having done. 

Nobody might have known that Canning enter- 
tained these injurious suspicions, if Mrs. Lockhart 
had not done a little piece of domestic diplomacy. 
Early in January 1827 she wrote to Sir Walter 
from their house on Wimbledon Common. She 

says : " Mrs. has written to me in confidence, 

by the desire of her husband, to tell me (as he 
knows Lockhart himself will make no use of the 
information) that" — to be brief, a piece of prefer- 
ment would presently be open. The work was 
genuine work, in which Lockhart was especially 
fitted to excel Could "our grreat friend" (Mr. 
Canning) "be of any help?" 

"I received this information," Mrs. Lockhart 
adds, "unknown to Lockhart, and write it to you 
unknown to him, as he would only shake his head 
and say, * What post would ever come his way ? * 
and would rest patiently till honours are thrown 
upon him." 

On this hint of Mrs. Lockhart's, Sir Walter acted. 
He wrote about the vacant post to Canning, who 
(Feb. 17, 1827) replied with perfect candour, with 
^'all the frankness of old friendship," as he him- 
self said. For official reasons he could not oblige 


Sir Walter, Moreover, Lockhart, as he understood, 
"was invited from Scotland for the very purpose 
of attacking, with a fury unknown till lately to 
modem political controversy" (pretty well for the 
old Anti- Jacobin), "the measures to which I am 
supposed to be favourable, and, personally, mysel£" 
Yet Wright and Scott believed that Canning him- 
self brought Lockhart to London. 

It is impossible, perhaps, to discover the source 
of Canning's extraordinary suspicion. Scott, of 
course, and Lockhart, not only denied the truth 
of the charge, but were able to bring such evidence 
as convinced Canning of his error. Of Lockhart's 
reply no copy is known to exist; Sir Walters is 
spirited. In Lockhart's interest, he says, he makes 
no answer; it is enough to have been suspected 
by a man in power. For himself, whom Canning 
greets as "an old friend," he is hurt by being 
believed to have recommended to the Minister a 
person supposed to have been sent to London to 
injure the Minister. Scott adds that he knows all 
that occurred on the removal of Lockhart to town, 
and no such motive as enmity to Canning existed. 
Again, as to the Blackwood article referred to by 
Canning, he has heard the author's name, and does 
not believe he is even an acquaintance of Lockhart's.* 
Scott repeats that he writes in his own cause, not 
in Lockhart's, and thanks Canning for his candour. 

^ Scott preserved a copy of his letter to Mr. Canning. Abbotsford 
MSS. The assailant of Canning was a very obscure person. 


On March 24 he writes to Lockhart, thanking him 
for his ** perfectly satisfactory letter. ... I think I 
can guess who has put the suspicion in his head." 
I think I can guess at whom Sir Walter guessed. 
On April 14, when announcing the new Ministry, 
Lockhart writes from Wimbledon, "Barrow has 
this day made to me a communication from Mr. 
Canning that he is perfectly satisfied with the ex- 
planation given in my letter to you, and that he will 
be very happy to do me any kindness whenever 
the opportunity offers ; adding, that nothing has 
delayed this message but the pressure of these 
arrangements:" (the making of a new Cabinet). 
"I of course answered that I was much gratified 
at finding myself relieved from the unjust suspi- 
cions of Mr. Canning, and much obliged by his 
openness, which had given me the opportunity of 
being so." 

There are probably few reviewers who have not 
been accused, by authors among their acquaintance, 
of "attacking" books by these authors which the 
accused has never read, and of ^ich he has never 
even seen the review. Canning's theory, that 
Lockhart was "invited to London for the very 
purpose " of spiting hiniy resembles the suspicions of 
these men of letters, but it certainly makes it un- 
likely that Canning had any great part in Lockhart's 
appointment to the Quarterly. The Minister was 
ill— dying, in fact — and was gfreatly harassed. On 
all sides were half-estranged friends and half-recon- 


ciled enemies. Distrusted by others, he was himself 
distrustful ; nor did Canning live long enough to 
show how much of his profession of renewed con- 
fidence was genuine. 

"The timing of this thing" (Canning's civil 
message) ''was so barefaced that I wish I could 
have afforded to resent it as an insult/' Lockhart 
wrote to his brother William — "but we must take 
the world as it goes. If Canning's Government 
turns out a Whig one, I will not be a Whig. . . . 
My impression is that the Tories are no more, and 
that the Quarterly can hardly hope to survive them. 
What should you say to hearing of my being in 
Chiefswood, installed for life ? I should not wonder, 
for if Murray wishes to turn Whig, I shall let him 
take his own course" 

Mr. Murray, of course, did not dream of "turn- 
ing Whig." 

The incident shows that Lockhart was little in 
sympathy with that unabashed place-hunting which 
was part of the manners of the age Whether 
these manners are improved or not, can only be 
decided by persons within the possible range of 
public honours and emoluments, not by men of 

At this time Scott was still working on his 
" Napoleon." Lockhart wrote to him on February 
9, 1827, asking when the book would appear, that 
he might arrange for a review. In words which 
cannot but have cheered Sir Walter, he said, — " I 


have devoured the first six volumes — the two pre- 
liminary ones for a second time — and feel quite 
confident that you are about to make as great and 
strong an impression on the public mind as you 
have ever done by any two books put together, 
by 'Waverley' and 'Guy Mannering,' for ex- 
ample, or by * The Lay of the Last Minstrel * and 
'Marmion.' I do not know by what magic you 
have continued to enrich your language with such 
an overflow of new and bold imagery — much more 
of it, I think, than you have ever displayed before, 
and all this in the midst of, to my mind, the most 
historical tone of anything that has been written 
since Hume" 

Modem criticism may not re-echo this note, 
but assuredly this, and not the lamentable wail of 
James Ballantyne, was the right note to strike. 
Scott could and would make allowance for the 
exaggerations of loving- kindness, and yet some 
cheerful warmth from the praise would remain, and 
would comfort him in his weary task-work. Lock- 
hart's remarks on " Napoleon," in the " Life," 
scarcely fall below the brief letter to Scott, in the 
warmth of their admiration. 

In the midst of the correspondence with Mr. 
Canning, Lockhart wrote to Scott, on March 6, 
about the Catholic question. A kind of compro- 
mise had been aimed at : there were " negotiations 
between Norfolk House and the Churchmen (I 
know it from having revised some of the letters)," 


but no result came of these efforts. " I shall make 
an exact minute, it may be curious some day," 
says Lockhart "I understand, /rom CroJker, that 
Cannings moderation in the business of Lord 
Liverpool's illness has been admirable; and he 
has disclaimed all idea of being Premier in the 
sense in which Lord Liverpool was, and is perfectly 
satisfied. to let things go on in their late divided, 
balanced, and, I think, uncomfortable manner. 
Crokey trembled sorely for his place while things 
were hanging tn equiMrio. ..." The rest of the 
letter is concerned with R. P. Gillies, the Bore, 
whom Lockhart had invited to stay at Wimbledon, 
"He continues in one of the most fashionable hotels 
in London. God help him, for man cannot ! " Mr. 
Gillies managed his affairs badly, but his '' Recol- 
lections of Sir Walter Scott " is a valuable book, 
written in an admirable spirit. Scott replied with 
two anecdotes of Burns received from a son of 
Mr. Millar of Dalswinton. These might be useful 
to Lockhart, who was working at his "Life of 
Burns." Concerning the first anecdote Scott sug- 
gests, "this perhaps it may be invidious to mention," 
nor is it mentioned by Lockhart. Though the 
second tale is known, it may be given in Scott's 
version : — 

" Perry, of the Morning Chronicle, through my 
informer Mr. Millar, offered Burns five guineas 
a week as an occasional correspondent — also guer- 
don as a reporter and as a general contributor 


if he would settle in London. He declined it, 
alleging his excise situation was a certain provision 
which he did not like to part with. Mr. Millar 
seemed to think his refusal was rather to be im- 
puted to his reluctance to part with his associates 
in Dumfries. I think it must have been a natural 
dislike of regular labour of a literary kind. I think 
the famous * Scots wha hae wi' Wallace bled ' first 
appeared in the Morning Chronicle. I remember 
reading it in that paper, announced as being either 
a song of ancient times; or an imitation by the 
first of our living poets." 

Now and again, as on March 24, Scott recurs 
to the question of the edition of Shakespeare: 
" Cadell, I can see, is very desirous it should go 
on." This does not seem to tally with Mr. Thomas 
Constable's belief, that the book was sold for waste 
paper in 1826. 

In April (no date or day) Scott sends his review 
of John Home's works. "You know you can 
dumple it as you like. I hope you talk over your 
own prospects in this new world with that worthy, 
trusty, and true old English bull-dog, Wright. 
He is like to g^ve you good advice, for, look you 
here, you must stir a little. Croker, I think, will 
be of service if he can." But Lockhart did not 
stir, or there is no evidence of his activity. 

On April 5, he announces to Sir Walter that 
the Royal Society of Literature wished to send 
him a gold medal. Sir Walter had no belief in 


Royal Societies of Literature ; but Lockhart writes : 
''The medals are worth fifty guineas, and you can 
make a very pretty salver or tureen thereof, with 
the inscription of the Royal Humbug duly trans- 
ferred I am glad of this, for, after all, it would be 
a fine thing to get one of their pensions for James 
Hogg, and a little interchange of civilities between 
them SLnd you may facilitate our operations."^ 

Lockhart was always serving, or trying to serve, 
Hogg ; in the Memorials of the Shepherd, by his 
daughter, Mrs. Garden, Lockhart s kindness meets 
with its usual reward Scott did what he could 
about the pension.' He wrote to Lockhart, as his 
Journal records : — 

"I do not know which of my bad parts, as 
Benedict says, the Royal Society of Literature have 
fallen in love with me for, or whether it is for the 
whole politic state of evil — but here comes an official 
communication to tell me it is for my whole bodily 
Balaam.' You must attend and take the medal for 
me. I will write of course a proper answer, but you 
must pay some smart touch and go compliments at 

I A sentence, not very tactfii], in which Lockhart declared that 
Hogg was not the ^boozing buffoon" of the '^Noctes Ambro- 
•iamci" was meant to help him with " The Gaffers and Ganuners of 
the Royal Literary Society." A reply, in Wilson's manner, occupies 
twelve pages of "Noctes Ambrosianae" (iiL 178-190). This afl^r 
will be elucidated later. The Q^arUrfy is distinguished from its 
Editor, and Hogg is made to speak of ''a heart fii' o* everlastin' grati- 
tude to John Gibson Lockhart and Sir Walter Scott" 

• Journal^ x. yjo^ 391. 

' *' Halaam " meant feeble ^ copy," in the slang of Blackwood's. 


the reception. I wish anything could be done with 
the Gaffers or Gammers of literature on behalf of 
Hogg, who is like, I fear, to need it more than ever, 
and is, besides, as headstrong as any of his four- 
footed namesakes. He might make a good thing 
of the farm even yet, if he would let it lie in grass 
instead of keeping three ploughs and six horses to 
raise com on the top of Mount Bengerlaw. I will 
do anything for him except becoming myself one 
of the cuddies. 

" I have some curious untouched matter respect- 
ing Burns, which I send you enclosed. I hope you 
will go on with that piece of biography. 

" I enclose a letter from Mr. Catterwawl " (Catter- 
mole ?)f " or whatever his name is, and have promised 
that you shall attend on my part, time and place 
within mentioned, so 'Follow this lord, and see 
you mock him not.' My article on Home is finished, 
all but the Rebellion part, and will reach you pre- 
sently. — Yours truly, 

"Walter Scott. 

"Kindest love to Sophia, Johnnie, and little 
Walter. I shall certainly take your hint of con- 
verting the medal of the Hon(rnJuatudinitatibtis 
into something useful. Anne seems to wish a 
substantial bread basket for dinner, or to hold rolls 
for breakfast. Sophia will know best, and may 
make some inquiry when in London. For my 
part I should like a salver as well.'' 


On April 1 6 (after the passages given in the 
" Life," ix. 99), Scott writes,—" I have little to tell 
you in reply to so much curious and interesting 
news " (" the Duke of Wellington out "), " save that 
Napoleon hurries me like a bottle tied to a cur's 
tail. We live here as in a cloister, only Mr. Bain- 
bridge means to give a fSte and fireworks to-morrow 
night The fireworks by Captain Burrard, a well- 
triable sort of fishing friend of his. I shall take 
care to keep my distance, remembering an exhibi- 
tion of my own when, in early youth, I meddled with 
such kickshaws. My fireworks went off with great 
applause, till an unhappy and ill-compounded rocket 
took a lateral and congreve sort of direction, did 
some hurt, and spread so much alarm, that I 
never after could collect a company of specta- 
tors, the folks growing timbersome^ so gave up 
my trade of fire-worker in ordinary for Georges 

" My kindest love to Sophia, little Johnnie whom 
I long to see, and baby. — Always yours, 

"Walter Scott." 

The unhappy Lockhart passed through the 
Thyestean banquet of claptrap of the Royal 
Society of Literature, survived, and bore Sir 
Walter's gold medal away. "Such twaddle as 
their proceedings, the whole of which I was fain 
to hear, I really did not believe could exist in 


any Christian land." He bore it for Scott's sake, 
and in hopes of serving Hogg.^ 

Misfortune was not weary of pursuing Lockhart 
and his house ; hence the following letter of Sir 
Walter's, on an occasion when custom demands 
speech, and speech is of no avail. His brother 
Richard had been drowned in India : — 

"Edinburgh, igtA May 1827. 

"My dear Lockhart, — It was with great con- 
cern that I learned, by a letter from Lawrence, the 
loss which you and your family have sustained by 
the loss of poor Richard, cut off in the midst of our 
reasonable hopes that he must have attained to 
celebrity and distinction. I most sincerely share 
the affliction of your father and mother ; for you, 
my dear John, I know how you must feel on this 
occasion. But what is good for a bootless bene? 
I am a poor comforter in cases of remediless sorrow 
and deprivation, as indeed who can be a good one ? 
Our misfortunes must come, Tmll be mourned, and 
it is time and the sense that our sorrows are in 
vain which proves in the end the only effectual 
comforter. I should wish to know the alteration, 
if any, which this most melancholy event makes 
upon your plans, and whether it means Sophia to 
remain a little longer in London, or brings you 

^ " The Boar of the Forest called this morning to converse about 
trying to get him on the pecuniary list of the Royal Society of 
Literature."— yiwrwa/, May 11, 1827. 



down perhaps at the same time with her. I have 

a family spare bedroom in Walker Street, and I 

believe the Portobello lodgings are secured. I 

heard from Anne yesterday. All well. — Yours 


"Walter Scott." 

The Lockharts passed the summer at Portobello, 
then a little town of seaside lodgings, though now 
it is almost part of Edinburgh. Scott conceived 
the idea of his "Tales of a Grandfather," "stories 
for little Johnnie Lockhart, from the History of Scot- 
land," on May 24 : a lucky day for the children of 
two or three generations. On June 7, Sir Walter 
welcomed his son-in-law and his family at Porto- 
bello, whither he journeyed with "a bottle of cham- 
pagne and a flask of Maraschino, making buirdly 
cheer for the rest of the day." Johnnies general 
health was better, and the spinal disorder "no 
worse." Sir Walter dined at Portobello "regu- 
larly every other day," says Lockhart. During the 
autumn he and his family were with Scott in the 
country ; his industry was mainly given to the 
" Life of Burns," and, of course, to the Qtiarterly. 
A little flutter of expectation may have been caused 
by a friendly message from Canning to Lockhart, 
sent through Sir William Knighton, on July 25. 
But in a few days Canning was dead. There was 
to be no patent place for Lockhart. By October 
25 he had returned to London (to 24 Sussex Place, 


Regent's Park), and was sending to Sir Walter a 
hundred-pound note for an article in the Quarterly. 
Rates had risen again to Southey's favourite level. 
Peel and Croker had "soldered their quarrel," the 
causes of which are stated in Mr. Croker's Corre- 
spondence. On November 20, Scott sent to Hugh 
Littlejohn the first copy of the "Tales of a Grand- 
father" (three volumes), and promised a prettily 
bound example at Christmas. A few anecdotes 
of this engaging child were sent to Sir Walter, on 
December 19, by Mrs. Hughes : — 

"Johnnies governess, Mrs. M'Ghie, leaves a 
written character of his daily progress, and this 
character he eagerly greets me with as soon as 
I come in. 'Good,' 'indifferent,' 'very careless,' 
were the reports of last month, and Johnnie faith- 
fully repeated the words, however they might tell 
against himself. I could plainly read in his little, 
expressive face what he was about to tell me, but 
for the last ten days he has been radiant with 
pleasure. 'Improving, still improving,' and Mrs. 
M'Ghie's mental bulletin may be fairly applied to 
his corporeal state. ... It is difficult to recollect 
tn the animated, blooming creature who runs to 
meet me, and springs up on the sofa behind me, 
the little, languid invalid whose looks betrayed 
such patient suffering. Walter is a lovely, intelli- 
gent, and engaging creature, and I delight in him, 
but Johnnie is my first love. ..." 

Master John sends his own letter : — 


•" Dkar Grandpapa, — I thank you for the books. 
I like my own picture and the Scottish chief : I am 
^^xng to read them as fast as I can. ... I read 
the Bihle» and I am come about to Joseph and the 
death of Israel, but he is not quite dead yet, and I 
am not quite come to his burial" — which, in the 
circumstances described, would have been decidedly 
premature — ''only just what he says to Joseph 
when he is on his deathbed, and sets his hand on 
Manasseh s head. ... I paint two or three pictures 
every day, and I send you one. I meant it to be 
like Walter, but it is rather too big. ' 

Lockhart wrote to Sir Walter on the same day 
(December 19). His letter, on the political games 
of "Puss in the Corner," played by Goderichs, 
Huskissons, Peels, Hollands, and the like, is now, by 
the irony of fate, less interesting than little Johnnie's 
remarks on the death of Jacob. Lady Conyngham 
was the real fountain of honour and of patronage. 
•• No wonder the King likes the system : he has 
more power now than ever Charles I. had. And 
the Duke of Clarence is giving the navy a new uni- 
form." Sir Walter's reply shows him much pleased 
at possessing such rare and valuable information ; 
much cheered, too, by the news of Johnnie, and the 
acquisition of the " Waverley " copyrights. 

Lockhart's Quarterly work went on in good 
times or bad. To No. LXXHI. (January 1828) he 
contributed three articles ; the best is on Tooke's 


Translation of Lucian. Concerning the Samosatene 
humourist, that astonishingly modern type of man, 
illuminating a long dead age, which, in all but name, 
is modem, there is probably no adequate book, or 
even essay, in our language. Lockhart's paper is 
too brief to supply the vacant place, yet is excellent 
in quality and vivacity. The old Platonist Nigrinus 
in Lucian, describes and satirises Roman life, out 
of which he has dropped, and he praises Athens, 
where he had studied long ago. "One feels, in 
reading the passage, in every line of which we 
recogfnise the sadness wherewith disappointed age 
looks back to the season of youth and hope, as if we 
were listening to some hoary unbeneficed Oxonian 
unburthening his heart in a garret of St. James's." 
Lucian's picture of heathen belief and superstition in 
the second century after Christ is drawn with espe- 
cial skill. But Lockhart's space was too scant for 
his subject. He also wrote on a number of forgotten 
books of belles lettres^ and, with deep sympathy, on 
the posthumous "Narrative of a Journey through the 
Upper Provinces of India," by Bishop Heber. 

With such a theme as Lucian, Lockhart could 
do himself justice ; but then the wise world cares 
very little for such a theme. For partisan attacks 
on contemporaries the world has, or then had, a 
readier ear, and Leigh Hunt provided Lockhart 
with one of these opportunities, which he would 
have done well to neglect. Satire may have been 
his foible ; as a rule it was not hxs forte. 



Scott wrote to him : — 

"Edinburgh, 5/* February 1828. 

"My dear Lockhart, — I send you enclosed a 
letter from Horace Smith,^ which I received this 
morning. I knew him only from seeing him once at 
breakfast, but what he wishes seems only to be justice 
to him. I am by no means sure that Leigh Hunt 
was completely in bona fdes in his panegyric, which 
I have not seen ; but Mr. Smith seems sensible it is 
over-coloured, for the purpose of including him in 
the group of Liberals. You will do in it what you 
please; only I am sure you will give currency to 
his disclamation of Atheism.^ I am speaking in the 
idea that you are taking Leigh Hunt in hand, which 
he richly deserves ; only remember the lash is ad- 
ministered with most cutting severity when the exe- 
cutioner keeps his temper. Hunt has behaved like 
a hyena to Byron, whom he has dug up to gim and 
howl over him in the same breath. I have not 
seen Moore s lines, but I hear they are clever. 

** The world (bookselling world) seem mad about 
'Forget-me-nots' and Christmas boxes. Here 
has been Heath the artist offering me ;^8oo per 
annum to take charge of such a concern, which I 
declined, of course. Perhaps it might be turned 
your way if you liked it. I would support as well 
as I could, and the labour would be no great thing. 
The book is the * Keepsake,' I think, a book 

1 Mr. John Scott's second in 182 1. 
' Lockhart took the hint. 


singularly beautiful in respect of the prints ; the 
letterpress is sorry enough. Mr. Heath is well 
enough for his profession ; a Mr. Reynolds who was 
with him, is a son of the dramatist, and a forward 


chip of the old block. I gave him, at his particular 
request, a note of introduction to you, which I think 
it is right to do. I rather think they want to frame 
some proposal to you. Certainly there could be 
litde difficulty in gpiving such a thing a superiority 
in point of merit. I pointed out to Mr. Heath, that 
having already the superiority in point of art, I saw 
no great object could be obtained by being at great 
expense to obtain as great a superiority in literature, 
because two candles do not give twice as much 
light as one, though they cost double price. But he 
seemed to think he could increase his income. • 

" I see you have got a critic in the Athenaum ; 
pray don't take the least notice of so trumpery 
a fellow. There is a custom among the South 
American Indians to choose their chief by the 
length of time during which he is able to sustain a 
temporary interment in an owl's nest. Literary 
respect and eminence is won by similar powers of 

"Charles has received his appointment in the 
Foreign Office, and will be up on Friday night, and 
I hope you and Sophia will find him a quiet inmate. 

" I have heard with pleasure of the christening. 
Whether we shall come up or not is in the womb of 
fate. Certainly, were it not for Sophia and you and 


the dear babies, all other circumstances would make 
me wish to stay where I am, making money, instead 
of going where I must spend it All things are 
clearing up here very well. 

''Love to Sophia and babies, especially the 
Ciceronian John, who understands what folks say 
to him." 

Leigh Hunt, in his "Lord Byron and Some of 
his Contemporaries," had gone out of his way to 
insult Sir Walter, and to make the most baseless 
insinuations against him. Scott probably never 
mentioned Leigh Hunt s name publicly in his life, 
and he refers to the insults neither in his corre- 
spondence nor in his Journal. Lockhart was of 
a mood less mild. Leigh Hunt, characteristically, 
yrrote at least twice as much about one contem- 
porary of Byron— namely, Leigh Hunt— as he did 
about the author of " Childe Harold." In later life 
he ''burned his faggot," and confessed his dissatis- 
faction with an indefensible book, to which (if that 
be any excuse) his poverty rather than his will 
consented " Had I been rich enough," he said in 
his original preface, "and could have repaid the 
handsome conduct of Mr. Colburn with its proper 
interest, my first impulse on finishing the work 
would have been to put it into the fire." Habemus 
reum canfitentem! "It is the miserable book of a 
miserable man," said the reviewer, and indeed the 
author was in no sort to be congratulated. To 
Lockhart s remarks Leigh Hunt replied with per- 


sonalities, and by observing that his book is dis- 
liked, not at all for its real demerits, but because 
"it is full of a sincerity and speculation equally 
hateful to the rottenness in the state of Denmark." 
He added to all that he had already said against 
Byron, a sentence which is best left in its proper 
place — the Preface to the Second Edition of " Lord 
Byron and his Contemporaries." 

Lockhart, meanwhile, was engaged on better work 
than the defence of Byron or the attack on Leigh 
Hunt. He finished his " Life of Bums," for "Con- 
stables Miscellany." Scott writes, March 4, 1828, 
after acknowledging Moore's dedication of his " Life 
of Byron " : — 

" I saw some sheets of your Burns, which I have ^ 
no doubt will supersede all former lives. I con- 
ceive his over-estimation of the genius of such men 
as Lapraik to have been excited, so far as it was 
real, by the similarity of taste betwixt himself and 
these rhymers, however inferior the latter might be 
in powers, and partly perhaps to have been of the 
nature of the caresses which a celebrated beauty is 
often seen to bestow upon girls far inferior in beauty 
to herself, and whom 'she loves the better therefore.' 

" Love to Sophia. I hope the moustaches" (Major 
Scott s) "rise in Walters good graces. This will 
accompany a new edition of the Tales, greatly im- 
proved, for Mr. Littlejohn s kind acceptance. 

" Greatly do I enjoy the prospect of meeting the 


whole kit of you over wine and walnuts once more. 
It has not happened, I think, since your marriage. 

" I swear by the Duke s fortune in politics and war, 
and take no small credit to myself for having been 
at the Rising in the North Countrye — the great 
Northern Rebellion, as I heard some Whigs term 
it.^ God tend the King, preserve his health, and I 
think all will go well. — Yours affectionately, 

"Walter Scott. 

" I think curious light might be thrown on Bums's 
life from some of his fragments of songs, which he 
threw off like sparkles from a flint when anything 
struck him. Thus, when he was finishing his house 
at EUisland, he set off with the line of a happy and 
contented man — 

' I ha'e a house o' my ain,' 

feeling all the manly consequence as a householder 
and a husband which a settlement in life, which 
might have been expected to be permanent, inspired 
him with." 

Lockhart's "Burns" (dedicated to Hogg and Allan 
Cunningham) was his first essay in a field peculiarly 
his own, that of Biography. The immense difficulty 
of writing on the great Scottish poet is, no doubt, 
best known to Scotchmen. To avoid mere fulsome 
rhetoric; to keep within due limits the patriotic 

^ A meeting at Sunderland in October 1827. '' Life,^ ix. 164. 


Muse ; to shun engouement and the Bacchic dithy- 
ramb on one side, and the temptation to moralise 
on the other; to beware of right-hand political 
bias, and of left-hand literary fastidiousness — these 
are only a few of the duties of the biographer 
of Burns. Taste, tact, tolerance in its best sense, 
sympathy national and personal, are all required. 
The slips and stumbles of writers on the darling of 
the Scottish people recur to the memory as one 
pens these lines. Of all Burns's biographers, 
Lockhart is he who " divides us least." The most 
learned, probably, of modern Bumsians, Mr. Scott 
Douglas, says, in a preface to a recent edition of 
Lockhart's book, "On all hands the performance 
is admitted to be a masterly one of its class ; kind, 
yet impartial ; animated with a refined spirit of 
criticism ; and, on the whole, a graceful treatment 
of the subject."^ 

There have been, of course, fresh discoveries in 
the details of the poet's biography since Lockhart 
wrote ; these Mr. Scott Douglas has added in notes, 
and he has corrected some chronological errors. 
But on the whole story of Highland Mary, Lockhart, 
obviously from delicacy, was reticent, and he did 
by no means explore the penetralia of " this very 
inviting theme," as Mr. Scott Douglas calls it. 
While Mrs. Burns lived, while the kinsfolk of 

^ Mr. Scott Douglas edited the book, '* revised and corrected, with 
new Annotations and Appendices," London, 1892. These remarks 
were written before the appearance of Messrs. Henley and Hender- 
son's edition of Bums. 


Highland Mary lived, close scrutiny was undesir- 
able : now, everything has been scrutinised, but not 
by Lockhart New Lives of Burns follow fast on 
each other, but Lockhart s is never likely to be 

On April 3, Scott set forth with Miss Anne 
Scott, on a visit to London. There had been good 
news of Hugh Littlejohn in February. " I do not 
know what to do with Johnnie," Mrs. Lockhart 
wrote ; '* he has gone quite mad about knights, and 
bravery, and war, and, when he gets into a passion, 
talks about dirking the offender: he has been in 
terrible disgrace for wounding poor Watty with a 
pair of scissors : in short, you must write an antidote 
to your book, which he studies constantly. We 
had a party of little girls for his birthday, and for 
a week before we prepared wooden dirks, that he 
might arm them to make something like a field of 
battle. He certainly is much stronger this winter." 

Alas, Sir Walter found the child greatly fallen off 
in health when he arrived in London, or rather, not 
long after his arrival. 

" I fear, I fear, but we must hope the best," Scott 
wrote on April 22, when Mrs. Lockhart carried 
Johnnie to Brighton. Sir Walter and Lockhart 
dined at Rogers' with Coleridge, who prosed about 
the Samothracian Mysteries ; and, to Mr. Morritt's 
horror, attacked the unity of Homer. Sir Walter, 
who did not take a part in the Homeric controversy, 
*' was never so bethumped with words." It was not 


till 1833 that Coleridge became acquainted with 
Mrs. Lockhart and her children. " I feel that it 
has done my heart good," he writes, "and that in 
my remembrance of Mrs. Lockhart I shall have 
one more affection to be glad of. God bless her, 
and you, and yours." This was years after Cole- 
ridge " rose with the aspect of a benignant patriarch, 
and threw his wine-glass through the window at 
a Highgate revel," where Lockhart and Theodore 
Hook were guests ; Coleridge declaring Hook to 
be **as true a genius as Dante." ^ 

There was a gloom over Scott's London visit. 
All the Lockharts were obliged to follow Johnnie to 
Brighton. Scott himself went thither, and obviously 
despaired of the child's recovery. In London he 
put Lockhart into communication with the Duke of 
Wellingfton, mainly for the political guidance of the 
Quarterly. From Edinburgh, whither he returned 
at the end of May, Scott wrote thus : — 

"Shandwick Place, 21st June 1828. 

**My dear Lockhart, — I received your letter 
yesterday, and observe with deep sorrow how little 
you have to say on the subject which must be most 
at both our hearts. But God's will must be done. 
I pass to other matters. 

"Your way to do with the Premier is to set 
your article in proof, following out the hints I 

* Lockbart's "Theodore Hook," 1853, p. 24. 


gave you, and send it with such queries as occur, 
as briefly stated as is consistent with busy 
plans, and intelligible. This will give him least 
trouble. You will remember that he considered 
that the basis of a pacific system was laid in the 
alliance at Paris to which the King of France after- 
wards acceded, and he considered the Holy Alliance 
as an hasty arrangement made in the enthusiastic 
feelings of the moment, to which Britain never 
acceded, and which could scarce be considered as 
the deliberate purpose of the powers who did engage 
in it You will look of course with a diplomatic eye 
at the treatises themselves." 

Later references to this topic occur, but, on July 
4, Scott's epistle to Lockhart was more concerned 
with the Biography of Burns : — 

"Edinburgh, ^thjuly 1828. 

" My dear Lockhart, — On the subject of Burns, 
I think it fair to a very good man to say, that Lord 
Sidmouth entertained the purpose of attending to 
his promotion. This I learned from George Ellis, 
to whom Lord Sidmouth spoke on the subject as 
they happened to meet on a morning ride. I have 
also understood it from the old statesman himself. 
It was a piece of justice which Ellis rendered a 
Minister to whom (as being himself an intimate 
friend of Canning) he was not at the period very 


" I think it a curious point of Burns's character 
which should not be suppressed, that he copied 
over the very same letters, or great part of them, 
and sent them to different individuals.'' 

In this letter Sir Walter expresses an opinion, to 
which he was always wedded, " that no schoolmaster 
whatsoever has existed, without his having some 
private reserve of extreme absurdity." This was 
written d propos of a scholastic quandary into which 
"Taffey Williams" had picked his way, thereby 
causing a good deal of trouble to Lockhart and 

On July 9, Lockhart replied, conveying very bad 
news of his sick child. There had been a consul- 
tation of physicians. " They bid us not despair." 
Southey, "who lives much with the lawn-sleeved," 
had been breakfasting with Lockhart The weary 
affair of Taffey Williams (who had been off with 
one scholastic appointment before being on with 
another) desolates the correspondence between 
Lockhart and Scott. The former laboured stoutly 
for his old Balliol friend, who ultimately remained 
as head master of the Edinburgh Academy, 
where he was, as Scott's letters show, most highly 
esteemed and admired, even by the boys. In the 
warmth of their affection they called him " Punch 
Williams." Lockhart was also consulting Scott 
about one of these series of cheap books, like 
"Constable's Miscellany," which Mr. Murray was 


publishing. But Sir Walter was indisposed to 
write a brief biography of anybody. Lockhart 
had no political news, except that "the Diike of 
Clarence is giving infinite botheration." Scott, on 
his part, consented to review Sir Humphrey Davy s 
" Salmonia," if he might have Tom Purdie as a col- 
laborator! Sir Walter was never a great salmon 
fisher, being more inclined to trout. 

In October 1828, a correspondence passed be- 
tween Scott and Lockhart, which curiously illustrates 
Sir Walters attitude oi juste milieu in politics, and 
Lockhart s difficulties with Southey in the Quarterly 

Lockhart writes on October 23 : — 

"You will find Southey at the Catholic ques- 
tion, totis viribus^ in the Quarterly^ which may 
not please some of our friends. . . . Blanco White 
is setting up an opposition Review, and Southey 
would have left us had I not suffered him to un- 
burthen himself at this time — so, in fact, I had 
little choice." 

Now, Southey *s argument in this article is, that 
the Catholics cannot be emancipated till a Council 
pronounces, and the Pope ratifies, a condemnation 
of whatsoever is " un-Christian and pernicious " in 
the doctrines of the Church — in fact, till the Church 
is reformed on Southey's principles. "Better the 
condition of the Irish poor, educate the people, 
execute justice and maintain peace, and Catholic 
Emancipation will then become as vain and feeble 


a cry in Ireland as Parliamentary Reform has 
become in England."^ 

O pectora caeca ! 

Sir Walter answered thus : — 

**Abbotsford, 26M October 1828. 

"My dear John, — I cannot repress the strong 
desire I have to express my regret at some parts of 
your kind letter, just received. I shall lament most 
truly ^, purple article at this moment, when a strong, 
plain, moderate statement, not railing at Catholics 
and their religion, but reprobating the conduct of 
the Irish Catholics, and pointing out the necessary 
effects which that conduct must have on the Catholic 
question, would have a powerful effect, and might 
really serve king and country. Nothing the agita- 
tors desire so much as to render the broil general, 
as a quarrel between Catholic and Protestant ; 
nothing so essential to the Protestant cause as to 
confine it to its real issues. Southey, as much a 
fanatic as e'er a Catholic of them all, will, I fear, 
pass this most necessary landmark of debate. I 
like his person, admire his genius, and respect his 
immense erudition, but nan omnia possumus: in 
point of reasoning and political judgment he is a 
perfect Harpade — nothing better than a wild bull. 
The circumstances require the interference of vir 
pietate gravis^ and you bring in a Highland piper 

^ Quarterly Review^ October 1828, p. 5989 
VOL. II. c 


to blow a Highland charge, the more mischievous 
that it possesses much wild power of inflaming the 

"Your idea is, that you must give Southey his 
swing in this matter, or he will quit the Review. 
This is just a pilot saying, * If I do not give the 
helm to such a passenger he will quit the ship.' 

Let him quit and be d d. My own confidence 

is, you know, entirely in the Duke. As Bruce said 
to the Lord of the Isles at Bannockburn, * My 
faith is constant in thee.' Now a hurly-burly 
charge may derange his line of battle, and therein 
be of the most fatal consequence. For God's sake, 
avail yourself of the communication I opened while 
in town, and do not act without it. 

" Send this letter to the Duke of Wellington if you 
will. He will appreciate the motives that dictate it. 
If he approves of a calm, moderate, but firm state- 
ment, showing the unreasonable course pursued by 
the Catholics as the great impediment to their own 
wishes, write such an article yourself- — no one can 
make a more impressive appeal to common sense 
than you can. The circumstances of the times are 
— must be — an apology for disappointing Southey ; 
but nothing can be an apology for indulging him 
at the expense of aggravating public disturbance, 
which, for one, I see with great apprehension. It 
has not yet come our length. 

"If the Duke says nothing on the subject, you can 
slip your X)erwentwater greyhound if you like it. 


I write hastily but most anxiously. . . . — Always 
yours, my dear Lockhart, Walter Scott.** 

AH readers of the Waverley Novels must re- 
member that Scott's heroes are, or aim at being, 
JT^te milieu^ like Henry Morton in '*01d Mortality." 
Sir Walter had, and has, a name to be a violent 
Tory. In fact, he could be almost an opportunist ; 
and, above all, he had a Carlylean belief in his hero, 
the Duke. 

Lockhart replied on November 3 : — 

" I received your very kind letter about Southey 
several days after his anti-Catholic paper had been 
published, and consequently to no purpose, except 
that it filled me with many painful apprehensions. 
I believe you may now assure yourself that no harm 
is done. ... I fear the Duke has still darker 
questions to solve" ^ 

On Nov. 20, Sir Walter answered : he had not 
even yet received his copy of the Quarterly. His 
advice, " as Mr. Worldly Wiseman," was, " Keep in 
relations with the only man in Britain who can 
save this poor country. ... As you have been so 
docile a little boy of late, you must take this hint 

" Pray who writes * Pelham ' } I read it only 
yesterday and found it very interesting : the light is 

> The nature of these questions is such that, even alter the lapse of 
two generations, it would be unjustifiable to publish .Lockhart's com- 


easy and gentleman-like, the dark very grand and 
sombrous. There are great improbabilities, but 
what can a poor devil do ? There is, I am sorry 
to say, a slang tone of morality which is immoral, 
and of policy void of everything like sound wisdom. 
I am sorry if these should be the serious opinions 
of so powerful an author." 

As a result of Southey s being permitted to sound 
his Protestant pibroch, he wrote to Mrs. Hughes : 
" I am in the best understanding with Lockhart, of 
whom I am disposed 'to think as Sir Walter told me 
I should. I should become intimate if we were 
thrown in each others way." So Mrs. Hughes 
wrote to Scott, adding : " I am always delighted to 
have Mr. Lockhart well understood, for few people 
better deserve the study. I flatter myself I am 
one of those who read him fluently." Now, Mrs. 
Hughes was not subtle, but a kind, good, motherly 

Lockhart, replying, again entered into la haute 
politique. His information was derived from Sir 
William Knighton, the Kings secretary. From 
another source he learned that "the Duke has 
40,000 troops so posted, and steamboats to suit, 
that in half a day they could all be in Ireland, and 
this has been so arranged that the newspapers have 
no suspicion, or at least none but a very vague 

To Sir Walter's query about '*Pelham," Lock- 
hart replied: — 


" * Pelham ' is writ by a Mr. Bulwer, a Norfolk 
squire, and horrid puppy. I have not read the 
book, from disliking the author, but shall do so 
since you approve it." 

Long afterwards Bulwer, now **E. B. Lytton." 
wrote : — 

" Dear Mr. Lockhart, — Will you kindly meet me 
in waiving all ceremonials — and forgive an act of 
petulance in my youth, which I have often regretted ; 
and in token thereof will you do me the honour 
to dine with mt on Thursday, June 2 : half-past 
seven .^ Believe in the truth and respect with 
which I am faithfully yours, 

**E. B. Lytton."^ 

The " act of petulance " is here unrecorded ; in 
fact, Lytton behaved coldly to Lockhart (whom he 
suspected of reviewing him) at a dinner given by 
Sir Roderick Murchison. Chantrey kept the peace. 

At this time Lockhart was suggesting to Scott 
the idea of a " Scottish Plutarch," which was never 
achieved. The ex- King of Holland had written, as 
Lockhart told Sir Walter, a pamphlet against him 
and his " Life of Napoleon." Sir Walter s com- 
ments are characteristic. 

" I have the ex- King Louis's diatribe. He is a 
little unreasonably sorry, but I don't wonder at it. 
All men cannot be so cool as the equal-minded 

^ No date of year. 


slater who fell from the top of James's Court. Some 
one, seeing a man sitting on a dunghill which 
happily intervened to break the fall, and not having 
witnessed (it may be well supposed) the nature of 
his descent, asked him * What o'clock it was ? ' — ^to 
which he replied, • He supposed about three, for 
as he was passing the seventh story he observed 
them setting the table for dinner.' Now, Nick Frog, 
having been filliped with a three-man beetle, has 
scarce had time in his transit to make such accurate 
observations ; and for my part I would freely forgive 
him all that he has said of me (though he complains 
as much when I excuse his brother from the accu- 
sations as when I inculpate him myself), provided he 
could give me, in reality, the advantage of having 
seen Italy in 1814, which he says I did. 

" Talking of travelling, I hope you mean to come 
down at Christmas, otherwise our disappointment 
will be very great You do not mention your pur- 
pose, but I hope it is not altered." 

Still later Sir Walter writes : — 

"Edinburgh, ii/A December 1828. 

*'My dear Lockhart, — I have been every day 
anxiously expecting to hear from or see you. Your 
bed here is ready, and your presence anxiously 
hoped for. On the 20th we go to Abbotsford, so 
you may consider whether you had rather come 
there, and pass a few days of January in town when 
the Session recalls me, or come hither at once. All 


your old friends long to see you, and inquiries are 
frequent as to the where or when. I expect the 
Morritts at Christmas^ but I hope you will not tether 
your motions by theirs. The sooner you come, and 
the longer you can stay, so much the better for us. 
I only wish Sophia and the bairns could come with 
you ; but for this we must wait for summer, which 
will come if the almanac keeps its word. I have 
nothing to add but that we are well, happy, and 
prosperous. The ' Tales ' have been most successful. 
An edition of 10,000 has been sold, and another is 
in the press: no bad thing for grandpapa, who, 
though, like Dogberry, *a fellow who hath had 
losses/ is like to prove like the said Dogberry, ' a 
rich fellow enough. Go to ! * 

" I still wish you much to see the Duke before 
you ccHne down. I would have you be the man you 
ought to be with these great folks, and that can 
only be by taking upon you a little more than the 
modesty of your nature will readily allow you to do. 
Men are always rated as they rate themselves, and 
if you let them suppose that either the publisher or 
any of the contributors are the moving source of the 
great engine which you command, your personal 
services will be cddly estimated. They are all, I 
believe, convinced of your consequence to the cause, 
and you need not let them forget that it is to your- 
self they owe them. — Always yours, with affectionate 
love to dear Johnnie, Walter, little miss, not for- 
getting mama." 


An undated letter contains more of Scott's advice, 
and remarks on Burns. 

"The opening of your intercourse with Peel is 
excellent, and you must not be too modest in not 
improving it as proper opportunities offer. I am 
far more fearful of your neglecting these than any- 
thing else. You may do service without advocating 
particular measures, but keeping to the sound tone 
of politics in general. I am anxious for your inter- 
view with the Duke. He is brief, sententious, and 
fond of plain and distinct answers. Leave nothing 
which you do not comprehend, and speak distinct 
and loud. Remember he hears imperfectly. 

" I am sure Sir William will be true. Pray send 
him the * Life of Burns.' It has done you infinite 
credit. I could give you very good authority where 
you and I seem to differ,^ but you have chosen the 
wiser and better view, and Burns had a right to 
have his frailties spared, especially post tantum 
temporis. All people applaud it. A new edition 
will immediately be wanted. I can tell you some 
good and accurate facts respecting him. 

•* The ' Fair Maid ' has had great acceptation here, 
and gives me encouragement to think I may work 
out my temporal salvation, which I shall scarce 
think accomplished till I do not owe ;^ioo in the 
world. In the meantime all goes on well. 

**Anne and I are well and happy, save when 
we think, which is very often, of poor Johnnie. 

* Lockhart " gently scanned " the last years of Bums at Dumfries. 


But what can I say save that we are in God's 

"Pray continue to write when anything occurs. 
You know how ignorant we are here." ^ 

These letters illustrate the relations between Sir 
Walter and his son-in-law. It is possible that 
Lockhart did not often overcome his diffidence as 
to interviews with the Duke of Wellington. Scott 
justly noted in Lockhart a disinclination to make, 
as it were, the most of himself, and to be profoundly 
impressed by the importance of "getting on in the 
world." These defects he never overcame. 

Part of January 1829, Lockhart passed with Sir 
Walter at Abbotsford and in Edinburgh. They 
also visited Milton Lockhart, where Lockhart intro- 
duced Scott to Mr. Greenshields, a native of the 
place, and a sculptor then credited with some un- 
trained genius. Lockhart, with Scott, was anxious 
to get him opportunities of work and of artistic 
education, as indeed Lockhart was always eager to 
aid struggling merit 

" I could increase the interest," he says, " with 
which both Sir James Stuart and Sir Walter had 
examined Greenshields' work, by bearing testimony 
to the purity and modesty of his character and 
manners." In a similar spirit Lockhart did his 
best for certain ingenious though half- trained 
writers who were recommended to him by Southey, 
when he became Editor of the Quarterly Review. A 

* The rest of the letter is cut away. 


tendency to make unpleasant allusions to the social 
rank of opponents was to be regretted occasionally in 
Lockhart's polemics. On the other hand, his '* Life 
of Burns," and his conduct whenever he had an 
opportunity to befriend men of less fortunate social 
standing, supply a pleasant practical contrast to 
what he said in his wrath. This contrast was part 
of his complex nature, of which the less excellent 
was public, while the better, the actual and active 
goodwill, was concealed. 

About the day at Milton Lockhart, Scott remarks 
in \i\% Journal, *' I walked very ill — with more pains, 
in fact, than I ever remember to have felt — and, 
even leaning on John Lockhart, could scarce get 
on."^ He leaned more and more on the younger 
man as life drew nearer to its close. 

At the end of January 1829, Lockhart left Sir 
Walter, and returned to work in London. 

' Journal, ii. 221. 


LONDON, 1828-1833 

Catholic Emancipation. — Lockhart a moderate Tory. — No despot 
as Editor. — His Salary raised. — His literary schemes. — Life of 
Bonaparte. — Letter to Wilson. — ^The Family Library. — Letter from 
De Quinccy. — Proposes an " integrated Gibbon." — Letters to 
Scott — " Peel utterly undone." — Scott on Peel. — An honest num. 
— Criticism by Hugh Littlejohn. — His want of sympathy with 
Civilisation. — The Duke's duel — Lockhart asked to be a ** reptile 
journalist" — Scott on the gentlemen of the Press. — •'Rather 
sen g^n." — Distrust of Croker. — Scott's illness. — Last days at 
Abbotsfbrd. — Guests at Abbotsford. — Visit to the graves of the 
Douglasses. — Lockhart as Biographer. — Scott visits Italy. — His 
latest days. — Death of Hugh Littlejohn. — Letter to Dr. Lockhart. 

In the year 1828, when the claims of the Catholics 
for emancipation were pressings and (in spite of 
Southey s drastic proposals in the Quarterly) were 
about to be granted, Lockhart did not show any 
feverish partisanship. He was indeed, as Scott 
advised him to proclaim himself, ** a moderate Tory." 
In 18 1 7 he confessed to a friend his detestation 
of Croker's and Southey *s politics. Now he had 
to endure and accept them. His editorial posi- 
tion was never despotic. In Albemarle Street he 
was the most constitutional of monarchs ; and this 
was the easier to him, as his interests and facul- 
ties were mainly literary, not political. "Alas, 

we are all getting old," he wrote to Mr. Murray 



in 1828, *'and it is so difficult to whip up any 
interest about any subject in jaded bosoms." 
His age was thirty-four, but the year 1826, and 
domestic misfortune, and life begun very young, 
had aged him already, and, with Milman, he " was 
excessively anxious to see new hands and new 
blood " in the Quarterly} Mr. Murray spurred the 
flagging energies of his elderly editor by raising his 
salary to ;^i300 a year, but ;^i3,cxx) could not have 
made Lockhart, at least in his constitutional editor- 
ship, a keen political partisan. He hoped, on the 
literary side of his office, for a Life of Peterborough, 
and a Life of Red John of the Battles, the Argyll 
of Malplaquet and Sheriffmuir, from Sir Walter, 
who liked the themes, but never wrote the books. 
Nor did Lockhart extract a Naval History of Great 
Britain from Professor Wilson : with many other 
works contemplated by Wilson, this remained in 
the limbo of books unwritten, like the famous 
treatise, ** Sur rincommodit6 des Commodes," and 
a large library of other instructive volumes. Lock- 
hart himself had undertaken, for Mr. Murray's 
Family Library, a short '* Life of Bonaparte," a 
piece of hack-work, mainly abridged from Scott's 
large work. It was published in 1830, and was 
excellent in its kind, but, of course, is superseded 
by the abundance of later Napoleonic literature.* 


^ " Memoir of John Murray,** ii. 269. 

* Lockhart had some scruples about abridging Scott's '* Napoleon." 
Scott said, " They are a great deal over-delicate,'' and speaks of the aid 


On the matters of the Family Library, a letter of 
Lockhart s to Wilson, and one of De Quincey's to 
Lockhart, may here be inserted : — 

"Professor Wilson, 

6 Gloucester Place, Edinburgh. 

'*My dear Wilson, — I have a serious piece of 
business, or I would not bother a letter-hater with 
an epistle Murray is going to start a series of 
publications, half way between a Miscellany (like 
Constable's) and an Encyclopaedia. There are to 
be two vols. i2mo, beautifully illustrated, every 
month: one being historical, biographical, or 
literary ; the other scientific in some way or other. 
I have agreed to superintend the literary series, 
and am to have in return one-third of the property. 
These are circumstances which I have not told to 
anybody but Scott and yourself. But I have been 
at work all summer in making arrangements, and I 
think there are volumes not a few likely to turn 
out well on the stocks. . . . 

" Now, if this concern turns out well, it will be a 
litde fortune for me : I am not sanguine, but I do 
think it is likely to be at least worth something; 
and I therefore expect with perfect confidence that 
you will do what you can to assist me. • . . 

" I think these are services which you would 
tmder similar circumstances expect me to render 

which Lockhart had g^ven him. " By all means do what the Emperor " 
(Mr. Murray) '* asks. He is what Emperor Napoleon was not, much 
a gentleman. . . ." {^ Life," ix. 269.) 


without much hesitation. . . . — Your affectionate 
friend, J. G. Lockhart. 

"24 Sussex Place, Regent's Park, 
London, Nov. 4, 1828. 

** * Strictly anonymous,' if you please. ..." 

De Quincey writes at a later date : — 

" Grasmere, near Ambleside, 
March 10, 1830. 

'* My dear Sir, — I feel greatly indebted to you 
for your obliging and very encouraging answer to 
my application. . . . 

" First, with regard to the Lakes, I am ashamed 
to say that I want much of the commonest know- 
ledge called for in so miscellaneous a subject. I 
am not an Ornithologist, nor an Ichthyologist 
(unless a dissertation on Potted Char would avail 
me, for that I could obtain) ; I am no Botanist, 
no Mineralogist: as a Naturalist, in short, I am 
shamefully ignorant. And, in this age of accuracy 
in that department, I doubt whether anybody less 
than a Humboldt or a Davy would satisfy the 
miscellaneous demands of this subject. By the 
way, I do iiot remember to have seen any scientific 
theme treated with so much grace and attractions 
of popularity, combined with so much original ob- 
servation, as those of Forest Trees and the Salmon 
Fisheries, &c., by Sir Walter Scott; and had I 


been within a thousand degrees so extensive an 
observer, or even extensive in the same degree 
as I myself am accurate, I would not have shrunk 
from the subject merely because I was not a regular 
school-built Naturalist But my hatred of all science, 
excepting mathematics and its dependencies, is ex- 
quisite; and my ignorance, in consequence, such 
as cannot be disguised. Further, is not the subject 
threadbare? In all that part of it which relates 
to the picturesque, I fear that I have been fore- 
stalled by Wordsworth. Finally, I should clash 
inevitably with both Wordsworth and with Wilson. 
Wilson's book is yet, I believe, unpuUished ; nor 
do I remember to have heard him say in what 
way he had treated the subject ; but, I presume, 
with great variety— both from the size of his work 
(as then projected), not less than three volumes, 
and from the extraordinary activity of his mind, 
whenever he does not wilfully throw it asleep under 
the sentimental, which, to my thinking, is his evil 
genius. . . • 

" Now, generally as to the want of materials for 
works of any research wheresoever there are no 
great libraries, what you say is feelingly known 
to me from long and rueful experience. How 
Southey manages in that respect, even with his 
private advantages of a tolerably well -mounted 
library, and his extensive connections, I never 
could divine. For myself, as well on this account 
as for the benefit of my children with a view 


to ordinary accomplishments, either London or 
my old residence, Bath, is the mark I aim at 
within a year or so. Meantime would not such a 
work as this which follows be useful to the Family 
Library — ^a digest, at most in three, at least in two 
volumes, of the 'Corpus Historiae Byzantinae;' 
that is, a continuous narrative (woven out of the 
Byzantine Historians) of the fortunes of the Lower 
Empire from Constantine to its destruction ? There 
has been, you know, of late an expurgated Gibbon ; 
and, I believe, it has found favour with the public : 
but an interpolated Gibbon, or perhaps, more accu- 
rately speaking, an integrated Gibbon, I imagine 
to be more of a desideratum.^ . . • 

** I commend the project earnestly to your indulgent 
consideration. A readable — ^ popular book, I am 
satisfied that I could make it. And the accurate 
abstracts which I could manage to interweave, of 
dissertations upon the Byzantine Aulic ritual, and 
concerning works that, generally speaking, do not 
let themselves be read (to borrow a phrase from our 
German friends), might contribute to give it a 
permanent value, be the same little or much. 

** Extremum (I speak of the epistolary bores I am 
inflicting on you — in that sense) Extremum hunc 
concede laborem. — And believe me, ever yours, 

** Thomas De Quincey. 

" My letters have to travel to Ambleside in the 

* De Quincey's idea was executed by Dean Miknan. 


pockets of country louts ; for we have no post-office 
here. Excuse them, therefore, if they have come 
into your hands soiled." 

Lockhart's letters to Sir Walter, on his return to 
town, are mainly concerned, as Scott's favourite 
quotation runs — 

" ^^th things that are long enough ago, * 
And with Dickie Macphalion thaf s slain." 

Peel was, on Feb. 9, 1829, the Macphalion of the 

"As for Peel, he is utterly undone as an inde- 
pendent power in the country, and I hear Whig, 
Radical, and Tory speak of him uniformly with the 
same pity." 

Peel lived to run away on later occasions. Here 
is Sir Walter's opinion : — 

"As for Peel, I own I think him playing an 
honest part. He has sacrificed the situation of 
leader of a party and every chance of elevated 
ambition, and exposed himself to much obloquy, 
loss of immediate consequence, loss of personal 
friendship; and for what has he sacrificed this.^ 
Not surely, opulent as he is, for the mere income 
of his place — not for ambition, for the fall for 
the time is evident On my soul, I give him 
credit for making the concessions from complete 

" I certainly see remote danger in the concessions, 



but they are remote, and there is a chance of their 
being evaded, whereas I see little less than ruin in 
declaring for a break up. . . ." 

In these excited days Master Hugh Littlejohn 
arose as a critic, and sent, through Mrs. Hughes, 
the following censure on •* The Tales of a Grand- 
father," with which every child will agree : — 

" He very much dislikes the chapter on Civilisa- 
tion, and it is his desire that you will never say 
anything more about it, for he dislikes it extremely." 

** Up wi' the bonny blue bonnet," was Hugh 
Littlejohn's motto, and the very name of Civilisation 
was hateful to this amateur of dirks.^ 

Lockhart had less domestic, though equally un- 
civilised, intelligence to send on March 25. The 
Duke of Wellington had fought a duel, luckily 
bloodless, with Lord Winchilsea. The Duke's 
lack oi halfpence, and detention at a toll-bar ; the 
popular suggestion of the lookers-on that the 
belligerents should use their fists ; the Duke's rapid 
ride to Windsor after the affair ; the King's annoy- 
ance, are all vividly narrated, but the letter has 
already been published in a note to Sir Walter's 
Journal} In the same way Lockhart's letter of 
March 30, on Croker's attempt to connect him with 
**the Reptile Press,*' has been anticipated.* The 

^ Mrs. Hughes told Sir Walter that the parish records of Cumnor 
showed an unbroken line of Lamboumes, the ^mily of Mike Lamboume 
in '* Kenilworth," all, down to the time of writing, '^ most decided 

' ii. 258. ' Ibid., ii. 262. 


Duke, according to Croker, wanted to buy a news- 
paper, **and could I do anything for it? I said I 
was as well inclined to serve the Duke as he could 
be, but it must be in other fashion." Croker, in 
brief, wished Lockhart to be, as he himself had been, 
the go-between of a paid paper and the Treasury. 
•* I will not, even to serve the Duke, mix myself up 
with newspapers. That work it is which has 
damned Croker. ... I don't admire, after all that 
has come and gone, being applied to through the 
medium of friend Crokey." He goes on (this part 
of the letter is unpublished) : " As for Croker's hints 
about the advantages of being constantly among 
the rulers of the land, why, I do not envy being 
constantly before them in that capacity. Moreover, 
the great rulers I should see would be, I take it, 
mostly the Plantas, Croker, et hoc genus. Their 
illustrious society does not much flatter me." 

Sir Walter's answer illustrates that view of an 
enlightened Press which was commonly taken in 
his time. 

"Abbotspord, yd April 1829. 

" My dear Lockhart, — Nothing could meet my 
ideas and wishes so perfectly as your conduct on 

the late proposal. It seems to me that C r, 

having intrigued himself out of the Duke's favour, 
has now a mind to play the necessary person and 
intrigue himself back again. Your connection with 
any newspaper would be disgrace and degradation. 


I would rather sell gin to the poor people and 
poison them that way. Besides, no gentleman can 
ever do that sort of work but by halves. He must, 
while he retains a rag of a shirt to cover his naked- 
ness, be inferior to the bronzed, mother- naked, 
through -going gentleman of the Press. I owe 
Croker regard for former favours, and as far as I 
can help him in his literary undertaking ^ I will ; 
but for confidence, I have it no longer to give, and 
therefore, as dealing with a customer who has 
passed bad money, I will always look at both sides 
of every shilling he offers. I am surprised at his 
project or the Duke's of rallying the Tories again 
to one interest I doubt he will find them too 
much broken, dispersed, and disunited. Do you 
remember Merlin's prophecy — 

' At Arthut^s best the clarion sounds, 
With rapid clangour, hurried far ; 

Each distant dell die note rebounds, 
But when return the sons of war? 

Offspring of stem necessity, 

Dull peace, the valley yields to thee, 
And owns thy melancholy sway.' 

" Thus I have some doubt that the ancient Tories 
are too much scattered to be rallied even by King 
Arthur's horn. If, however, national danger shall 
arise, which is not unlikely, they will rally round 
him as the flock does round the dogs when alarmed 
by the wolf. 

» His " Boswcll's Johnson." 


"We are much relieved by Johnnie's amended 
health. I shall hope, if he gets tolerably well over 
this spring, that the tendency of the complaint will 
wear itself out. 

"When the hurly-burly s done, I hope that we 
shall have the Stuart papers, which would be a 
capital thing, or something else. I trust they do not 
intend, like Beau Tibbs, after talking of Ortolan 
and Burgundy, to fob us off with a slice of ox 
cheek passing hot, and a bottle of the smart small 
beer his Grace was so fond of. 

"A thousand loves to Sophia and the children, and 
to the Morritts when you see him. 

** I have quarrelled with * Anne of Geierstein ' for 
the present ; besides, it would be insanity to bring 
out anything till * the battle's fought and won.' " 

Sir Walter was never pleased with his ** Anne of 
Geierstein, damn her," as he frankly observed. 
** Anne " was, practically, the last of his works of 
imagination, for ** Count Robert of Paris " followed 
a stroke of apoplexy. At this time he was review- 
ing Tytler's •* History of Scotland," and Lockhart, 
with proper caution, asks, " Pray are you sure of the 
story of the Attacotti ? " — Scots, ex hypothesis whom 
St. Jerome accused of cannibalism. 

** I recollect that Gibbon's statement of that 
anecdote called forth a controversy, and rather think 
the result was against our grandpapas' cannibalism. 
Does Jerome say he saw them eat the unclean 


thing, or only that he saw them, and was told of 
their eating? I suppose they were savages ex- 
hibited in a show-booth or waggon — but you speak 
as if Jerome had seen a tribe'' 

Sir Walter answers, " I have quoted the tpstssima 
verba of St. Jerome. I have no doubt a trick was 
put on him " — a patriotic conclusion. 

Lockhart tried to keep Sir Walter in good heart 
about " Anne of Geierstein," and ideas were inter- 
changed frequently about the Stuart papers. It 
was hoped that Lockhart, Dr. Gooch, and Sir 
Walter would be appointed to edit that great mass 
of manuscripts belonging to the exiled royal family, 
which, after a perfect Odyssey of romantic ad- 
ventures, were now in the possession of George IV. 
To these the following letter of Sir Walter refers : — 

LPostmark,/«/y 8, 1829.] 

" My dear Lockhart, — I have a regular official 
letter from Lord Aberdeen, intimating that the King 
has named Dodo Gooch, yourself, and me to suc- 
ceed the late Commission in the duty of arranging 
and reporting the Stuart papers. ... I hope before 
you come down you will make yourself in some 
degree master of the general state in which the 
papers are, that we may converse about the mea- 
sures to be taken. The Invisible ^ has proved true 
of promise, but I have heard nothing from him 

^ Sir William Knighton. 


'* I can send you no news of Sophia and the 
children. Johnnie made out his journey to Abbots- 
ford pretty well, and by a letter from Anne this 
morning, I learn he is in his usual state of health. 
I never saw so engaging a child as Walter. I 
understand he runs about the woods like a guinea- 
fowl, and is lost twice or thrice a day. I hope 
to see them all on Saturday, when I will be at 
Abbotsford, setting out so soon as the Court rises. 
I should be glad to have a few lines from you about 
the Stuart Commission with which we are invested. 
I hope they propose to remunerate our trouble, 
meaning yourSy by some means or other. . . . — Yours 
ever, W. Scott." 

It is a matter for regret that the task of editing 
these documents was never assig^ned to Lockhart 
Many extracts from the letters of King James, 
Prince Charles, and the Jacobite leaders, were later 
published by Mr. Browne, in his ** History of the 
Highland Clans." One volume, of the King's and 
Bishop Atterburys Letters, about 17 20-1 730, was 
edited by Dr. Glover. But the enormous mass of 
the Stuart papers lie, excellently arranged, yet 
uncalendared, in the Royal Library at Windsor. 
The work that Lockhart was born to do, as it were, 
was never entrusted to his hands. In November 
1829, however, he had actually **put hand" to it, as 
he says, in St James's Palace ; but his labours were 
interrupted. Croker, as we shall see, had reported 


on the MSS. on the expense of publication, and so 
forth, as if he had been a bookseller's reader. So 
the papers remain as they were, and the history 
of diplomacy is a loser. 

The correspondence, on Lockhart's side, is scanty 
in the later part of 1829. Mrs. Lockhart had 
written to him in London from Abbotsford, on 
November i, announcing Tom Purdies sudden 
death : " I never saw papa so affected ; he won't go 
out, and says for the first time in his life he wishes 
the day over. He has sent for Mr. Laidlaw, whom 
we expect to-day, and hopes to make some arrange- 
ment with him to return to Kaeside ; but even with 
that I hardly see how papa is to get over it, for 
Tom was everything to him. Poor Di, the dog, 
is in the most dreadful state of distress now they 
have put the body in the coffin, and they think 
the creature will die. The funeral takes place on 
Tuesday, and papa lays the head in the grave." 

Mrs. Lockhart herself was at this time suffering 
so much from rheumatism that she could not walk, 
but had to be carried by a servant named Ludlow. 
"The nurse gave me," says Mrs. Lockhart, "the 
extraordinary intelligence that all his former mis- 
tresses had died, the last of rheumatism, and he had 
carried her for some years." 

Lockhart, writing to Sir Walter, said : " I cannot 
get Tom Purdie out of my head for ten minutes. I 
am sure there are not half-a-dozen people, beyond 
immediate connections, in the world, whose death 


would have given me so much pain. What, then, 
must it be with you I Poor fellow, I think the woods 
will never look the same again. . . . 

** Everybody says that Peel is anxious to take the 
first opportunity of going to the House of Lords. • • . 
The King is dreaming of 'dressing the Guards, and 
afterwards all the infantry, in blue. This is the Duke 
of Cumberland's Prussian nonsense.^ Chantrey gave 
us a laughable description, the other night, of his 
Majesty's forenoon council — himself about statues, 
and Wardrop about the stuffing of the camelopard, 
on one side of the bed ; the Duke of Cumberland 
and a tailor on the other: the King in a white 
cotton night-cap and a rather dirty flannel jacket, 
propped up with pillows, and sipping his choco- 
late — ^amidst this divan. The Duke of Wellington 
is announced I His Majesty gets on forthwith a 
black velvet cap with a gold tassel, and a grand 
blue silk dauillette, and walks out of the bedroom 
to receive him in the character of George the 
Fourth. After half-an-hour (he had bade them all 
remain) he came back, and tumbled into bed again 
among them, to resume the blue breeks. But this 
is all treason." 

Among the scanty materials for tracing Lockhart's 
uneventful days, Sir Walter's Journal fails us from 
July 20, 1829, to May 25, 1830. The Lockhart 
children had been with their grandfather, and this 

* Hence, perhaps, Mr. Weller's obscure ejaculation, " My Proosian 


was the crowning pleasure of poor Johnnie's year ; 
but Scott noticed the sad change in the child. It is 
plain, from the Journal in the summer of 1829, 
that his own energies were waning. On November 
23, Mr. Cadell wrote to Sir Walter, making a very 
wise suggestion, that he should finish the notes and 
introductions to the whole of the Magnum Opus^ in 
place of attempting a new work of fiction. ** This 
done, my life on it, you will get all you want, and 
spontaneously." Scott had only reached ** Ivanhoe " 
in his annotations, and he had a good deal of 
material, in the way of historical anecdote, which 
had not been used. Lockhart, as his Biography of 
Scott shows, had great confidence in Mr. Cadell, 
and might, indeed, well be grateful to him were it 
but for this letter. It was calculated, based as it 
was on calculati'^ns of a strictly ** business" char- 
acter, to set Sir Walters mind entirely at rest as 
r^ards finance, and the scheme suggested was not 
to him labokious. Doubtless Mr. Cadell observed 
the waning powers, which the very disuse of the 
Journal indicates. But there was to be **no rest 
for Sir Walter but in the woollen." His mind had 
taken a ply which was only strengthened by the 
approach of cerebral disease. He was actually 
dreaming his old dream, the purchase of Faldonside, 
interesting to him as the estate of Andrew Ker, the 
most ruffianly of Rizzio's murderers, and the second 
husband of John Knox s second wife. Again, he 
was working at his drama, **The Ayrshire Tragedy:" 


his activity could not be abated. These causes for 
grave anxiety were accompanied by a severe illness 
of Mrs. Lockhart*s, and culminated when, on Feb. 
^Si 1830, Sir Walter was stricken with apoplexy, in 
the presence of Miss Anne Scott and Miss Violet 

On Feb. 23, 1830, Lockhart wrote to Sir Walter, 
thankful for a physician's report of his "recovery 
from his brief malady," and inviting him to take a 
holiday in London. Either the reports had made 
as little as might be of the attack, or it was thought 
wise not to display anxiety. Lockhart referred to 
the Shakespeare, projected and begun in 1825, 
which Mr. Cadell was not enthusiastic about, while 
Mr. Murray was ready to take it up. Scott him- 
self was already anxious to be at work again, and 
Lockhart thought that a volume for Mr. Murray's 
" Family Library " would be most welcome. " I am 
every day more anxious to see this property estab- 
lished on a sure footing, because every day shows 
me more clearly the impossibility of the Quarterly 
Review being, in these days of mutation, the 
stepping-stone to any permanent benefits in my 
case, unless I chose to sacrifice its interests to mine, 
which it is needless to say I never could do. . . . 
Ministers . . . consider literary allies as worse 
than useless, unless they be prepared to shift at 
every breath, like the Courier, which, by-the-bye, 
such shifting has utterly ruined. . . . Would it 
be amusement to you to write a little tome on 


Witchcraft? Pitcairn's 'Trials' put this in my 
head, as the story might surely be told in a more 
interesting manner. I wonder who was Agnes 
Simpson's poet." (Agnes was one of the witches 
tried.) "Her charm — 

AU the souls that ever ye be^ 
In Goddis name I conjure ye^ 

seems to me very grandly done. You have a 
whole library De Re Magica at Abbotsford, and 
with David Hume's Commentaries, and Law's 
' Memorials,' I think the task would not be a 
hard one." 

This suggestion led to the ** Letters on Demon- 
ology and Witchcraft." " There is in it a cloudiness 
both of words and arrangement," says Lockhart in 
the " Life." 

Scott's illness, as appears from a letter written to 
him by Mr. Charles Scott, was, in fact, to be spoken 
of in the family as **a stomach attack," from which 
he had ** recovered" in less than a week. Indeed, 
by the beginning of March, Sir Walter was col- 
lecting materials, and was aided by Mr. Pitcairn ; ^ 
and by March 30 he was inquiring for Byzantine 
historians. '* Count Robert of Paris" must have 
been already in his mind. On his mind, too, were 
jars between James Ballantyne, as printer, and 

^ Mr. Pitcairn, speaking of Christian Shaw of Bargarran, the 
bewitched girl who later founded the Renfrew thread industry, says 
"the imposture was discovered." I am entirely unacquainted with 
any evidence in favour of this detection. 


Mr. Cadell, as publisher, of the Magnum Opus, the 
annotated Waverley Novels. For reasons which 
will be conspicuous later, these squabbles had their 
own importance in Lockhart's history. Mr. Cadell 
found Ballantyne (who was much unhinged by the 
loss of his wife) vague, unbusiness-like, neglectful, 
and '* feckless," as the Scotch say, to a distressing 
d^free. He writes a long letter about Ballantyne's 
failings as a printer and manager, on April 12, 1830. 
" Mr. Cowan and I do everything we can to keep 
him right," and many odd details are given as to 
James's lack of energy. Even Scott writes, " My 
pity begins to give way to anger." Now Mr. Cadell 
¥ras the chief source of Lockhart's comments on the 
Ballantynes as men of business, in his " Life of 
Scott." It is plain that Mr. Cadell did not wait till 
1838 to express his extreme dissatisfaction, a dis- 
satisfaction which he perhaps communicated to 
Lockhart, though there is evidence that Lockhart 
attempted to discount any "personal bias." 

On May 17, Lockhart wrote to Sir Walter a 
letter full of the political gossip so interesting at the 
moment, and now so vacant. The King s death was 
expected almost daily : ''he expresses his earnest 
desire to be released." The air was full of rumours, 
for the health of the prospective William IV. was 
far from good, and on his decease there would 
be a long minority. Meanwhile the Tories were 
all at odds, the Whigs strong and hopeful, and 
the era of ** concessions " had b^^n. Of himself 


Lockhart writes, " You will be surprised to hear that 
I have begun at last to make a little money," and 
he mentions a sum at which a popular modern 
novelist would smile, though a successful man of 
letters in any other field but fiction would despair 
of attaining the amount Probably these "golden 
joys " mainly accrued from Lockhart's share in Mr. 
Murray's "Family Library." He consulted Scott 
about entering Parliament, attracted by the con- 
tagious excitement which arises from living in 
political society. But, like Hal of the Wynd, he 
would " fight for his own hand " — not as an item in 
a Tory aggregate. Sir Walter answered, approving 
— that is, if Lockhart were not making too sanguine 
an estimate of his finances on the strength of one 
successful year, and if he could sit as "a member 
entirely unfettered, and left to act according to 
the weal of the public, or what you conceive 
such." But he must speak if he enters Parliament. 
"When I have heard you speak, you seemed 
always sufficiently up to the occasion both in words 
and matter, but too indifferent in the manner in 
which you pressed your argument. ... If you are 
not considered as gravely interested in what you 
say, and conscious of its importance, your audience 
will not be so." * 

Sir Walter, who read men very clearly, had 
indeed taken Lockhart's measure. There was in 
his character much of the quality which Montaigne 

^ This letter is published in a note in Scott^s /ournal, ii. 229. 


commends, a kind of aloofness above his own 
fortunes, his own efforts, a habitual sense of non est 
tanti, which is an insuperable bar to success in 
public life. This shows itself in his neglect of his 
own poetry, and in the self-repression of his critical 
essays. If a man has a really just estimate of his 
own powers, his own place in the world, and if he 
lets that be seen, the world will make a great dis- 
count from his low self-valuation, and will under- 
rate him. The " sad lucidity of soul " in Lockhart, 
combined with his shyness, was always at war with 
such ambitions as he entertained, and, in no very 
long time, he ceased to entertain any ambition. 

Soon afterwards the Lockharts went to Scotland 
and abode at Chiefswood ; Sir Walter's journals 
speak of their visit and the better hopes about 
Johnnie. But in all the correspondence of Mrs. 
Lockhart when she and her husband were separated 
for a time, it is easy to read that the child had 
never a chance of even a moderately long and 
healthy life. His pains, his coughs, his fevered 
nights, are again and again the melancholy burden 
of her letters, and Lockhart's intense anxiety de- 
manded letters almost everyday. "I cannot pro- 
mise you a light heart, but I bring a warm one," 
he writes on one occasion, when about to rejoin her. 
On June 21, Lockhart wrote from Chiefswood to 
Sir Walter in Edinburgh, about the King's sup- 
posed recovery. On the 27th, as Sir Walter was 
walking over the field of battle at Gladsmuir, the 


"Prince's Park," and " Cope's Loan," the bells tolled 
for the death of the last of the Georges. 

During the remainder of the summer and autumn 
the Lockharts remained at Chiefswood, and Will 
Laidlaw was installed at Kaeside. " However 
languid, Sir Walter's spirits revived at seeing the 
children, and the greatest pleasure he had was in 
pacing Douce Davie through the green lanes among 
his woods, with them clustered about him on ponies 
and donkeys, while Laidlaw, the ladies, and myself 
walked by, and obeyed his directions about pruning 
and marking trees." 

But Sir Walter, to Lockhart's regret, would toil, 
as of old, at his desk, and James Ballantyne, the 
most uncompromising of critics, no longer excited 
him by praise* "Why," one is inclined to ask, 
" why, with Lockhart at his side, did Scott turn to 
Ballantyne for criticism?" The truth probably is 
that in Ballantyne, comparatively uneducated, and 
ignorant of things which one supposes everybody 
to know, Scott thought that he had a measure of 
the ordinary taste, and a judge who would never 
veil his actual opinion, nor "seek for a glossy 

About this time, on September 6, I find Mr. 
Cadell making a formal offer for the book which he 
ingeniously suggested, the "Reliquiae Trotcosienses," 
anecdotes about the ** gabions," or historical curio- 
sities of Abbotsford, including the Library. I have 
seen the manuscript of this fragment, and the earlier 


pages, which Sir Walter tried to write with his 
own hand^ give melancholy assurance of his tem- 
porary incapacity for any literary task. But he 
abandoned the "Reliquiae," ambitious of higher 
work, and took up " Count Robert of Paris," which, 
as has been said, he obviously contemplated soon 
after his attack in February. The Journal, too, 
was abandoned from September 5 to December 20. 
Lockhart mentions a fit of apoplexy in November, 
and it seems a reasonable inference, from the 
manuscript of the " Reliquiae," that there had been 
a simikr illness in September, or that Scott did 
not really take the " Reliquiae " in hand till after his 
November illness. By November 2, Lockhart was 
in town again, and he asked Scott for a review 
of Pitcaim*s "Criminal Trials." This was to be 
the last of Sir Walter s writings in the Quarterly. 
Half a year before this date, in February, Scott had 
said to him, " I would be driven mad with idleness." 
On November 10 he sent the review of Pitcairn, 
written in a week. 

In January Lockhart invited Sir Walter to 
London. "Your coming would be the source 
of unspeakable comfort and delight to one and 
all of the establishment" He added a little 

"Moore is undergoing a pleasant course of 

r^men under Leigh Hunt's care. The Cockney 

revenges himself for Moore's abuse of his vulgarity 

in the second volume of Byron's 'Life,' by pub- 
voL. n. E 


lishing in a daily paper of his — modesdy yclept 
the Toiler — bushel on bushel of Tommy's early 
letters to himself, in which encomiums are lavished 
on the man and his writings, such as it is im* 
possible to read without convulsions of laughter. 
This was in the days of libelling the Regent, when 
they were sworn confederates. By-the-bye, there 
is one shabby thing: Moore, writing from Lord 
Moira's seat in the country, says nothing can ever 
efface his sense of gratitude ; but he must confess 
that his patron deserves, on public grounds, to be 
well basted in such a paper as the Examiner, which 
Tommy calls the paragon of all papers," &c., &c. 

Through the distracted spring of 183 1, Lockhart, 
who attended the debates on Reform, kept sending 
bulletins to Sir Walter. These, though they con- 
tain the reflections of an acute observer, add little 
to what is already known. Laidlaw warned Lock- 
hart that politics and fear of change were the worst 
things on which he could write about to Scott, in 
his shattered health. Lockhart wished Scott to 
come to London for medical advice, and the 
society of his family ; Mrs. Lockhart and the chil- 
dren would visit Abbotsford in spring. "Croker 
has had the whooping-cough," writes Lockhart on 
February 28, " but will be in the House to-morrow 
and speak : he had better have written, for he has 
neither manner nor character to win or command 
attention in the House." Croker, however, as- 
tonished his party by his harangue on the Bill as 

-CROKBY" 6y 

affecting Scotland. In these years, at least, his 
relations with Lockhart were decidedly those of 
alliance, in the Quarterly, rather than of friend- 
ship. Neither Lockhart nor Sir Walter then trusted 
Croker. From Croker, in any case, Lockhart got 
much of the political gossip with which he enter- 
tained or depressed Sir Walter. On all sides he 
^* witnessed a deep and bitter fierceness, such as 
never met my observation before." 

On February 22, Lockhart announced a visit 
of his family to Abbotsford in May : he would 
follow as soon as possible, and trusted that Scott 
would come to him in October, as he dreaded 
a winter at Abbotsford, far from the very best 
medical advice. 

"We were at Mrs. Baring s on Saturday evening," 
Lockhart writes. ** The Duke came in, having just 
heard the news of these Paris rows, and told Sir J. 
Shelley war was ready now. Old Talleyrand was 
there, looking as if dug out of a mummy pit. . . . 
The story of the Citizen King having remarked, on 
rising from his dinner table, ' The weight of a crown 
is not a nothing,' and his son Nemours ejaculating 
thereon, * Particularly when it is not one's own ' — is, 
I hear, quite true. ... If it be true that Lafayette 
and Soult are now forming a Cabinet, no doubt a 
Republic will be the next thing, and so on, God 
knows through how many changes, to Henri V.'* — 
who made il gran rifiuto. 

On March i , Lockhart was " disgusted with the 



juvenile namby-pamby style of Lord John Russell's 
method of announcing 'the scheme of Reform.*" 
Joseph Hume said, in his high brazen note, "I'm 
not that ill-satisfied with the scheme." On March 
2, " there was no good speaking, except young 
Macaulay's on the Whig side." Out of doors, ** the 
defensive party is doing absolutely nothing." This 
is the burden of his letters; but a characteristic 
anecdote of an author is given. 

'^ Sotheby has published his trashy ' Iliad ' in 
two mortal tomes* He came in, two or three 
days ago, when Phillpots, Mackintosh, Sharpe, 
and some others were all sitting round the fire 
at the Athenaeum, talking over the debate of the 
night before. 'Well,' said Phillpots, *Well, Mr. 
Sotheby, what do you say to all this.^' 'Why,' 
he responded, 'you are very good to be so much 
interested. Murray says, considering the excite- 
ment about other things, the sale is really not 
amiss.' " 

On April 1 6, Lockhart announces the death-blow 
to all work on the Stuart papers. " Croker, by his 
mean suggestions in one of the Reports of the 
original Commission (which I never saw until the 
second had been issued), seems to have done every- 
thing to throw cold water on the affair— entering 
into calculations as to what booksellers would g^ve 
the Crown, &c., &c., estimating the proper remu- 
neration for editorship — in a word, furnishing 
any Government with sufficient pretext for that 


shabbiness to which all Governments are naturally 

" The gay world holds on, Whig and Tory alike, 
in one stream of seeming carelessness and volup- 
tuous levity. That persons with little but their 
brains and hands should be unable to look on 
without such feelings, while so many hollow, blown- 
up boobies — with so much to lose, and nothing to 
gain— continue staring about them with faces as 
meaningless and vacant as of old, may well seem 

Lockhart seems to have been in a democratic 
mood, without asking the pretty obvious democratic 
question, '* What is the use of maintaining blown-up 
boobies ? " 

On April 22, Lockhart had heard of Sir Walter's 
severe apoplectic attack of April 16. He sent down 
Mrs. Lockhart and the children, and followed him- 
self in May. About this time, in a temporary ab- 
sence of Lockhart s from home, his wife wrote : 
"Watts love of gardening has carried him into 
a strange mistake. For a fortnight past, Mary 
missed many articles of his clothes, and yesterday 
Bogie (?) found five pair of his socks buried in the 
garden, and, on Watt being examined, he confessed 

^ Booksellers would give the Crown very little for these historical 
documents. But the Historical Manuscripts Commission might 
perhaps be serviceable, if it were but to the extent of publishing a 
Calendar of Papers which curiously illustrate the diplomacy of the 
last century, and throw a little light (hitherto not made public) on the 
long mystery of the incognito of Prince Charles (1749-1766). 


having planted the stockings that they might grow 
up into a great tree, with fifteen pair of stoekiiigs 
hanging on it." 

A sentence follows which might have made 
Rogers blush, if he really said that " I always 
thought Lockhart hated Scott, and now I know it " 
^-on the publication of the *' Life." 

Mrsw Lockhart writes : " I used to think it was 
both selfish and wrong, my marrying ; but when I 
hear papa talk of you, and see the comfort you are 
to him, dear Lockhart, I feel I can never be grateful 
enough to you."^ 

From this date, Lockhart s letters to Scott are 
not included in the volumes of Sir Walter's corre- 
spondence. From this point, too (May lo, 1831), 
Lockhart tells the tale of his own life as far as it 
was blended with that of the great man now 
mortally smitten.* The narrative could only be 
spoiled by abridgment. The pages in which he 
describes Scott's daily sorrows ; his struggles with 
"Count Robert of Paris," condemned by Cadell 
and Ballantyne ; the sad matter of the disturbances 

^ But few quotations from Mrs. Lockhart's many letters have 
been made here, because they are almost always occupied with 
domestic matters, and especially with the health of Johnnie. They 
are all, like Lockhart's letters to his wife, proofs of the most complete 
trust and affection on either side, in this happiest of marriages, as 
for as love can make life happy, in despite of many grave anxieties 
and sorrows. The beautiful lines in which Homer describes a 
perfect wedlock, constantly recur to the reader's mind ("Odyssey," 
vi. 180-185). 

« " Life,". X. 66-106. 


at Hawick and Jedburgh ; the beginning of " Castle 
Dangerous " ; the pilgrimage past Yair, Ashestiel, 
Traquair (haunted ground), to the tombs of the 
Douglasses ; the warning given by Borthwickbrae's 
sudden death after meeting Sir Walter at Milton 
Lockhart ; — these pages surpass all other achieve- 
ments of biography. The restrained regret, the 
silent affection, the sorrow stoically yet sweetly 
home, remind us, indeed, of lines in the "Agricola" 
of Tacitus. But that masterpiece did not, and 
could not, exhibit the perfection of romance, the 
high and passionate strain of this chapter of 
Lockhart 's, which has no rival except in the most 
exalted poetry. Indeed, the piece is an epitome of 
all Scott's life. We see him here as the humour- 
ist ; as "the Shirra"; for the last time at Milton 
Lockhart as the boon companion ; as the antiquary ; 
above all, as the poet who " with half his heart 
inhabits other worlds," and lives in other times. 
And for this once, he is beheld by human eye 
" as his companions in the meridian vigour of 
his life never saw him," when "the softer and 
gentler emotions trembled to the surface " of his 

" It was a darkish, cloudy day, with some occa- 
sional mutterings of distant thunder," when, fresh 
from the visit to the dust of the Douglasses, Sir 
Walter again repeated the lines that, long ago, he 
had chanted, in tormeniis. in deathly agony, when 
he thought of Lockhart : — 


" My wound is deep, I fain would sleep, 
Take thou the vanguard of the three, 
And hide me beneath the bracken bush 
That grows on yonder lily lee." 

For twelve years the younger man had faithfully 
stood by his chief; nor, in all the documents that 
exist, is there one trace of a shadow on their affec- 
tion. Indeed, it seems as if, in that darkly-guessed- 
at Wisdom which governs our world, Lockhart had 
been born to love Scott, and, beyond even that 
regard which Scott's works awaken in every gentle 
heart, to make him by all men yet more beloved. 
Lockhart has given to us a friend, the object of his 
own intense and undemonstrative devotion ; and we, 
who find that even his death before our day cannot 
sever from our living affection the man whom, " not 
having seen, we love," owe this great debt to 
Lockhart, and, for very gratitude, must forgive all 
that in him which is less noble than himself — quia 
ntultum amavit. 

The last of the old Abbotsford summers has been 
described by Lockhart Again they dined in that 
haunted hall, where Scott saw the apparition of 
Byron which resolved itself into an illusion. Once 
more they feasted below the trees at Chiefswood, 
and rode with the children to fish for perch in 
Cauldshiels loch, and to watch **the sun upon the 
Weirdlaw hill." Turner came, and had to be im- 
plored not to dress Lowlanders in the kilt when he 
sketched Smailholme Tower. Mr. Adolphus, too, 


was a guestt and explained to the author of the 
"Demonolog^" that he could accept "a modest 
ghost story" — what he could not accept was the 
"explanations" of these narratives. Mr. Cadell 
accompanied the great painter. With much tact 
he kept "Count Robert" in type, but did not 
throw off an edition till Sir Walter had gone abroad. 
In fact, the novel was more deeply marked by the 
author's malady than it is in the published version, 
and Lockhart overcame his reluctance to alter some 
lines from the master's hand.^ As Lockhart has 
thought it right and just to say, Sir Walter had 
begun to entertain the intermittent delusion that 
his task was done, and that his debts were paid. 
He now went to his last coursing match, and took 
delight in the horsemanship of his eldest son. On 
Sept 1 6, Wordsworth announced that he was on 
the road. His eyes were weak, and he writes that 
a child cried as he entered Carlisle, "There's a 
man wi' a veil, and a lass driving." Sir Adam 
Fergusson introduced Colonel Glencaim Burns, the 
son of the great poet ; and, with Wordsworth, 
Scott visited Newark, for that last time of all. In 
Lockhart's company Scott reached London, on Sep- 
tember 28, in the midst of the Reform riots. On 
October 29, Sir Walter set sail. It was not till 

^ Mr. Cadell's letters of criticism to Sir Walter are written with 
equal frankness and delicacy. A debatable point in the structure of 
the novel was at issue. The point is settled in Mr. Cadell's sense : 
Scott's plan was humorous but ^ realistic." 


June 13 that Lockhart saw him again, a dying 
man ; ''he recognised us with many marks of ten- 
derness." On July 7, he went, attended by the 
Lockharts, from London by steamer ; on the nth 
he drove from Edinburgh to Abbotsford. He 
woke to fresh life as he recognised the old spots, 
Gala Water, Buckholm, Torwoodlee. 

Another, who watched Sir Walter on that day, 
was to make the same journey, and, dying, was to 
lean from the carriage and gaze on these same dear 
scenes of youth and happiness. It is his pen that 
records Scott's last hours, with a tenderness and 
a delicate self-control unsurpassed in literature, so 
that, however often we may have studied the immortal 
pages, we read them with dim eyes. Strangely, 
indeed, were Scott's final experiences to be echoed 
in those of Lockhart. The very words which Sir 
Walter spoke **in the last extreme of feebleness," 
namely, '' Lockhart, I may have but a minute to 
speak to you. My dear, be a good man, be virtuous, 
be religious, be a good man ; " these words were to 
reverberate in almost the last letter of Lockhart to 
his beloved daughter. 

During Sir Walter's absence, another sorrow, 
long looked for, had befallen those whom he loved. 
On December 15, 1831, Lockhart wrote to his 
father : — 

"It has this day pleased Almighty God to release 
our poor boy from his long sufferings. His end was 
not painful ; and as hope had for years been dead 


within us» we have, besides a natural pang, no feeling 
so strong as that of thankfulness to the Merciful 
Dispenser of all things. Sophia will feel relieved 
by-and-by — ^she is calm already. . . . God bless you 
alL My dearest mother will not expect a longer 

Thus, after extreme endurance, the inheritor of so 
much genius and sorrow had gone to his rest. A 
figure as of one of Charles Lamb's Dream-Children 
haunts the little beck at Chiefswood, and on that 
haugh at Abbotsford, where Lockhart read the 
manuscript of the ** Fortunes of Nigel," fancy may 
see Hugh Littlejohn ''throwing stones into the 
bum," for so he called the Tweed. While children 
study the "Tales of a Grandfather," he does not 
want friends in this world to remember and envy 
the boy who had Sir Walter to tell him stories. 


LONDON, 1832-1836 

Social relations in London. — Benjamin Disraeli. — ''A tenth- rate 
novelist.** — Friends. — Birth of Charlotte. — Scottish holidays. — 
Anne Scott's death. — Death of Lockharfs mother. — Lockhart and 
Maginn. — Letter to Mrs. Maginn. — Guests and hosts. — Death of 
Mr. Blackwood. — Lockhart on literature and rank. — Letter to Hay- 
ward. — Portrait of Lockhart — His review of Tennyson. — Editing 
Scott's works. — Relations with Milman. — Letters. — Jtffrey in the 
House.— Scott's debts.— Southey and "The Doctor." — A mysti* 
fication. — The British Association. — Bad times. — Southey on 
Scott's death.— "Birds of prey."— Troubles with Hogg.— Wrath 
of Wilson. — ^Attack on Scott. — Extraordinary proposal by Hogg. 
— Hogg's " domestic manners." — Correspondence as to " Life of 
Scott" — Mrs. Lockhart to CadelL — Cadell's praise of Lockhart. — 
Lockhart on his own work. — Letter to Laidlaw. — Criticisms of 
Scott's "Life." — Mr. Carlyle. — Remarks on the Biography of 
Scott — Wrath of Fenimore Cooper. — Americans and Scott 

It has seemed desirable to finish the story of Lock- 
hart's relations with Scott, before sketching his 
London life, and describing his connection with one, 
at least, of his most important allies in the Quarterly. 
The letters to that friend, Milman, were partly 
written in Scott's last days. The society which 
Lockhart frequented in town may easily be guessed 
from a series of diaries, mere jottings, kept by 
himself and Mrs. Lockhart. In 1826, as new-comers 

to London, we find the Lockharts entertaining, 


"DIZZY" 77 

among others, Mr. Christie, Mr. Wright, and Mr. 
Disraeli, probably the elder Disraeli. The younger 
had vanished from the Representative ^ and was at 
odds with Mr. Murray. Lockhart speaks, later, 
without approval (to put it mildly) of his personal 
assault on **Crokey" as Rigby, in ** Coningsby." 
The old Blackwoodsman thought it too personal, 
without palliating Croker's relations with the Marquis 
of Steyne. Lockhart and young Disraeli must 
have become unfriendly. Mr. Disraeli, wishing to 
revile Mr. Morier's novel, "Zohrab," in the Edin- 
burgh^ told Mr. Macvey Napier that it had been 
praised in the Quarterly because the Quarterly was 
edited by a "tenth-rate novelist." ^ Writing to Lady 
Blessington, he described Lockhart's style as ex- 
quisitely bad, and notable for confused jumbles of 
commonplace metaphors — a childish criticism which 
only enmity could inspire. 

Dinners with Christie, Lord Dudley, Sir Hum- 
phrey Davy, Lord Stafford, Lord Gifford, Terry, 
Gait, Croker, Palgrave, Moore, Murray, are very 
frequent in Lockhart's diaries ; Mr. Christie s name 
comes on every page; there are visits to Lord 
Montague's, and parties at Lydia White's. Mr. 
Benjamin Disraeli, after all, occasionally appears. 
On January i, 1828, is the important note, "At 
half-past three a.m., Charlotte bom," the future 
Mrs. Hope Scott, who, alone of the family, left 
a child to continue the house of Sir Walter in 

^ Unpublished Correspondence of Macvey Napier, in British Museum. 


the female line. There follow parties at Peel's, the 
Duke of Northumberland's, Lady Louisa Stuart's, 
Lady GifFord's ; the Richardsons of Kirklands, Mr. 
Morritt, the Hughes's, the Dumergues are often 
mentioned ; Maginn, Mrs. Maginn, and Theodore 
Hook occur, though rarely. Sotheby, Southey, 
Crabbe, are occasionally the guests of Lockhart, 
with Chantrey, Sir James Mackintosh, the Alder- 
sons, Thomas Campbell, Mr. Gleig, Barrow, Lord 
Mahon, Basil Hall, Washington Irving, and Campbell 
of Blythswood. The Scotch holidays are usually a 
blank in the diaries, but dinners at Gattonside, the 
Pavilion, Torwoodlee, Bemersyde, occur, and visits 
from Mr. Blackwood and Hogg are noted (1830). 
Wilson, too, came to Chiefs wood, and Mr. Christie 
and Professor Sedgwick; Brewster also, and Will 
Laidlaw. In 1832 the Ettrick Shepherd loomed on 
the town, and was feasted ; Lady Salisbury became 
a friend, and the Maginns met Mrs. Jobson ; the 
names of The Macleod, Lady Shaw Stewart, Mrs. 
Opie, the Milmans, the Duke of Buccleuch, Sir 
Samuel Shepherd, occur, and then Sir Walter came 
home for the last time, and the diary is a blank till 
his death on September 2 1 is briefly recorded. 

No diary for 1833 seems to be extant, but, on 
July 20, Lockhart is obliged to inform his brother 
William of another death in this ill-fated family : 
** I need not write about poor Anne Scott's death ; 
. . . you may conceive how various circumstances 
have combined to make the blow really a shocking 


one to Sophia. She, too, ere things began to look 
seriously bad, had the luck to fall and sprain her 
old rheumatic knee very severely." "She had 
never before been so stunned and shattered/' he 
adds, in a letter to Miss Violet Lockhart, ''for 
Johnnie's death and her father's were long expected. 
This was so sudden." 

Even in the freshness of this calamity, the loss 
of her who is drawn as Alice Lee in "Woodstock," 
the comfort and stay of Sir Walter's age and 
widowhood, Lockhart is under fresh and too well- 
founded apprehensions about "my dear mother." 
On January 9, 1834, arrived news of the death 
of that beloved parent Lockhart attended her 
funeral, in the crypt of Glasgow Cathedral, on the 
14th of the month. 

A little later, on March 24, we find him writing 
to Mrs. Maginn. . In the extraordinary licence 
which evil tongues have taken with the memory 
of Lockhart, some have even accused him of un- 
kindness to Maginn. Of his relations with " bright, 
broken Maginn," not many traces are left. The 
archives of the first series of Frasers Magazine^ 
mainly conducted by Maginn, with that wonderful 
staff which included Thackeray, Carlyle, Gait, 
Coleridge, Harrison Ainsworth, and many another 
name of various note, are no longer accessible, 
and no key but that of conjecture is left as to 
Lockhart's contributions ; but of his unwearied 
kindness to Maginn, traces do survive. 


** Dear Mrs. Maginn " (he writes), •* I have been 
with Mr. Clarke, and am very happy to find that it 
is not necessary, in order to attain our immediate 
object — the Doctor s liberation — that I should put 
into the solicitor's hands a further sum of jCso, 
which had been provided with a view to that result 
I am therefore enabled to leave the ;^50 at your 
own disposal, and I don't doubt it will be agreeable 
to you to have it in reserve in case of any little 
difficulty arising before Dr. M. has got settled down 
once more into a regular course of life and industry. 

'' I don't doubt that most industrious his life will 
be, when he has once recovered from his recent 
sufferings in mind and in body. But you must 
not let him overwork himself at the first, and 
perhaps this ;^50 may help you in your efforts to 
keep him easy, as well as steady. — Ever sincerely 
yours, J. G. Lockhart." 

Nine years later, Lockhart secured a provision 
for Mrs. Maginn. 

Life goes on, though the ranks of friends are 
thinned. We find Lockhart meeting D'Orsay at 
Lady Blessington s ; Mr. Cadell and J. W. M. 
Turner come to dine ; Mr. Blackwood and his 
son are guests, as is Captain Burns, the son of 
the poet. Now and then we have a note of books 
read — "The Corpus Poetarum Latinorum," "Virgil's 
Georgics," " Life of Virgil apucl Heyne," but this 


is during a tour to Scotland in 1834. Lockhart 
there dines at Lord Gifford's, with Jeffrey and 
his ladies, forgetful of old feuds ; with Thomas 
Thomson, and with his very old friend, John Cay. 
'* Professor Wilson dines on the poddly^ ^ 

Then come the notes : — 

"Sept 13. — Blackwood in bed. Dying. Quite 
clear — says he has got the turn, and asks me to 
smoke a cigar ! 

" Sept 14. — Blackwood again. 

" Sept 16. — Blackwood dies. Walk with Wilson. 

" Sept 19. — Milton Lockhart. Write a few para- 
graphs about Blackwood for his magazine, before 

A melancholy walk that with Wilson must have 
been ; but Lockhart seldom recorded his emotions 
in diaries, nor often elsewhere. 

The notes on this Scotch journey, whence the 
Lockharts returned by way of hospitable Rokeby, 
have diverted us from a view of the company which 
they kept in London. Lockhart " was never in 
any sense the lion of a season,'' writes Mr. Gleig, 
"or of two seasons or of more. He kept his place 
to the last" New friends or acquaintances he made, 
but, to the end, the name of Mr. Christie occurs 
most frequently in his records of engagements. 
Mr. Christie, Mr. Traill, Mr. Cay (when in London), 
the Aldersons, the James Wilsons, the Dumergues, 

^ A poddly is a small fish of the lythe sort How could Christopher 
dine " on the poddly " ? 



Croker, Mr. Murray, Lady Salisbury, Lord Mahon» 
any Borderers in town, Dr. Fergusson, Coleridge, the 
Shepherds, the Murchisons, the Milmans, the Miss 
Alexanders ; the kindest of women, Mrs. Hughes 
— these were his most intimate associates. For 
diversion he had Theodore Hook, whom he pitted 
against " Lord Peter," in a kind of drawn battle of 
wits, described by Mr, Jerdan ; and at one time he 
had Mag^nn, and dinners with the staff of Fraset^s 
Magazine. Later came Carlyle, not edified by the 
Fescennina licentia of one of these banquets, and 
apt to think Lockhart ''dandiacal," though he 
changed his opinion. 

"The great," as Dr. Johnson calls them, were 
not unknown nor unfriendly, as the Marchioness 
of Stafford, the Duchess of St. Albans, Lord 
Montague, Lord Mahon, and others. Lockhart 
wrote, on Thomas Campbell's aversion to general 
society : — 

** There was no reason why he should not have 
set his rest on old equal friendships — no man but 
a fool ever does not ; there was no reason why he 
should not have been kind and attentive to persons 
vastly his inferiors who had any sort of claim upon 
him — no man with a heart like his could have been 
otherwise. But he might have done and been all 
this, and yet enjoyed in moderation — and, as a 
student and artist, profited largely by enjoying — ^the 
calm contemplation of that grand spectacle denomi- 
nated *the upper world.' It is infinitely the best 



of theatres, the acting incomparably the first, the 
actresses the prettiest." ^ 

There cannot be a more sensible view of the 
relations between men of letters and the great de 
par U monde, though among these, too, nothing 
prevents a man of letters from having friends, as 
Lord Mahon was a friend of Lockhart's. Besides, 
Lockhart's lineage was as good as that of any one 
he was likely to meet. He was a gentleman by 
birth, "and the king can be no more." In none of 
his letters is there the faintest indication of that 
curious uneasiness as regards persons of rank, which 
Thackeray did not pretend to conceal. Mrs, Gordon 
has a rather unkind remark on Lockhart, as if he 
neglected old friends for grand new acquaintances, 

*' The gay coteries of London society injured his 
interest in the old friends who had worked hand in 
hand with him in Edinburgh." ° Lockhart still wrote 
on occasion for Blackwood, especially when Wilson 
needed a rest. His letters (not many, Wilson was 
"a letter-hater") and Wilson's show no falling off 
in the old affection. But Thackeray himself has 
said something about the sentiment which finds ex- 
pression in Mrs. Gordon's remark. "No charge," 
says Mr. Gleig. "could be more ungenerous or 
unjust than that Lockhart forgot, amid the blan- 
dishments of fashionable life, the claims of old friend- 
ships, or even of ties less sacred." 

' Quarterly Rcvirur, Ixxxv. p. 64. 
' "Christopher North," i. a6i. 


" Unjust '* and ** ungenerous " are hard words; the 
biographer of Christopher North was only, as Scott 
says of Lady Charlotte Bury, "a little miffed." 

On this topic, the relations of men of letters with 
** society," I insert, though out of due chronological 
course, a letter of Lockhart s to Mr. Abraham Hay- 
ward. Hay ward pursued society " in quite a legiti- 
mate, if not a very refined way — indeed, with a 
persistent hardihood," says Mr. Locker Lampson in 
•* My Confidences." From what follows, it seems 
that he had irritated Lockhart by maintaining that 
" *the great' are prejudiced against literary people." 

^^ March 3, 1845. 

** Dear Hayward, — I believe there was about as 
much cause for an apology from me to you as from 
you to me — at least we both lost our temper, and it 
signifies little which soonest or most. I was ex- 
tremely unwell all yesterday, and therefore hope 
you will forget all my part of the mischief, as I do 
yours — with sincere thanks for your prompt and 
kind note. 

*' Since I am writing, let me say distinctly that I 
used the word gentleman^ in reference to a most 
amiable man, in its heraldic sense only ; though my 
acquaintance with him is very slight, I believe he is 
most entirely a gentleman in every other and better 
sense of the term ; and I am sure you never dreamt 
that I meant, in reference to his wife, to insinuate 
that she was not, by every personal circumstance. 



entitled to the position which, however, in my per- 
haps erroneous opinion, she owes to the literary 
merit generally acknowledged by the world. I was, 
I own. vexed, under Mrs. N.'s rcx)f, and in the 
presence of Mrs. H. and Sir A. Gordon, to hear a 
literary man echo the complaint of something like 
a prejudice against literary men being entertained 
among the higher circles of English society. I don't 
believe any such feeling lingers among them. It is, 
I daresay, very true that people of consequence in 
their own province, who find themselves of no con- 
sequence here, regard with some spleen the ready 
access which science or literature affords to the fine 
houses of which they themselves hardly ever see 
more than the outside. But 1 think, on reflection, 
you will also allow that if these rural dignitaries 
wished to strengthen their own complaint, they 
might with perfect justice say that science and 
literature are flattered by the aristocracy — the 
real aristocracy — in a degree remarkably contrasted 
with their social treatment of the great professions 
themselves. If you find, in fact, that a clergyman, 
a physician, a surgeon, has made his way into the 
fashionable circles here, you will find that this has 
been so because of his having earned an extra pro- 
fessional reputation. How many now of the eminent 
doctors and divines in this town can be said to move 
in the sort of society you consider as the iking' f 
Does any lawyer mix in it, unless he has made 
himself distinguished either in politics or in letters? 


" I have pretty well done with the beau-motide^ 
and have no pleasure at all in it, though I am not 
so foolish or so improvident (being a father) as to 
desire to drop wholly out of it. You are younger, 
and will, I hope, long be much gayer than I am. 
But I was thinking most of Kinglake, who has just 
begun to see the interior of life in the West End — 
who enters the scene with something like radical 
feelings — and whom I should like to form his 
own opinion on matters of this class, without a pre- 
liminary impression that we Tories of his order do 
seriously at heart attribute to our worldly superiors 
a species of prejudice which, I do believe, has no 
existence whatever — quite the reverse. — Ever yours, 
very truly, J. G. Lockhart." 

Lockhart s personal aspect at this time is f>or- 
trayed in the gallery of Fraserians, by Maclise. 
He is dressed (Sir Walter would have disliked 
the costume) in a kind of long dressing-gown ; he 
has a cigar in his mouth, and a manuscript in his 
hand. His profile and head are of classical beauty, 
his figure is manly and finely proportioned. An- 
other profile, in a group of "The Fraserians," is 
no less distinguished. 

On the fly-leaf of a diary of 1817, mainly blank, 
I notice a much less flattering sketch of the same 
profile, severe, sardonic, and actually older-looking 
— it is from Lockhart s own unsparing hand. He 
was not vain : if Maclise s pencil be faithful, no 


man, not even Byron, had more reason for personal 

Before offering a collection of Lockhart's letters 
to Milman, on Quarterly matters, we must not evade 
confession of his famous misdeed, the ireintement 
of young Mr. Tennyson's " Poems " of 1833. The 
biographer must admit that though his admiration 
of the greatest English poet since Keats, Shelley, 
Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Scott, is apt to go 
further than " this side idolatry ; " though he — as 
a matter of private opinion — ranks Lord Tennyson 
at least the peer of the highest; though Lord 
Tennyson's early verses are, above all, his favour- 
ites, yet he cannot read Lockhart's review without 
laughing. Laughter is not b^otten by the review 
of Keats (whoever wrote it), or by the assaults on 
Leigh Hunt : these rouse a very different emotion. 
But "that noble lady, or gentleman who is not 
freely merry " over the Tennysonian criticism, ** is 
not my friend." 

In "The Palace of Art" Mr. Tennyson had this 
sufikriently paralysing verse : — 

" Isaiah with fierce Ezekiel, 

Swarth Moses by the Coptic sea, 
Plato, Petrarca, Livy, and Raphael, 
And eastern Confutzee." 

Lockhart makes the following strictures : — 
*• We can hardly suspect the very original mind 
of Mr. Tennyson to have harboured any recoUec- 


tions of that celebrated Doric idyll 'The Groves 
of Blarney,* but certainly there is a strong resem- 
blance between Mr. Tennyson's list of pictures and 
the Blarney collection of statues : — 

' Statues growing that noble place in, 
All heathen goddesses most rare, 
Homer, Plutarch, and Nebuchadnezzar, 
All standing naked in the open air.' " 

Lockhart, in a letter to Scott, speaks of Chantrey 
arranging statues **that noble place in*' — namely, 
Windsor Castle : he liked the Doric idyll. He omits 
the singular taste displayed by Mr. Tennyson's soul 
when ** she lit white streams of dazzling gas " (so 
bad for pictures) in **The Palace of Art." Yet 
Lockhart hated the globes of dazzling gas at 
Abbotsford. For the rest the curious may turn 
to the old Quarterly Review. 

The illustrious poet, unlike any other poet known 
to history, altered the passages which gave such 
advantages to criticism. But while he showed 
wisdom, he did not display much humour. It is 
known that, in a very manly and generous letter 
to Christopher North (who had mingled praise 
with blame), he expressed his inability to see any 
merit in the Quarterly article. Yet merit the 
article has : the persiflage is good : some versifiers 
could have laughed over their own discomfiture, 
perhaps we should not ask so much detachment 
of mind from a poet. 


Yet, how could the author of " I Ride from Land 
to Land," and "When Youthful Faith is Fled"— 
how could ke^ as Mr. Saintsbury asks, overlook the 
merit of " Mariana in the South," of the " Lotus 
Eaters," and of "The Lady of Shalott," and 
" CEnone," even in their crude, early forms ? Mr. 
Saintsbury speaks of Lockhart's objection "to 
romantic poetry." Yet Lockhart appreciated " Kubla 
Khan," "Christabel," and the "Ancient Mariner," 
the very corner-stones of romantic poetry. H is blind- 
ness is inexplicable. Probably, he was in a wicked 
mood ; his sense of humour was captivated by certain 
passages exquisitely ludicrous ; in " Mariana " and 
" Eleanore " he found only, what we all find with 
delight, "a dreamy tissue"; and he delivered him- 
self to the spirit of mockery. Let it be remembered 
that Dr. Johnson, Scott's favourite poet, analysed 
"Lycidas," and the "Odes" of Gray, with just as* 
little sympathy as Lockhart showed for the " Lady 
of Shalott." In later years, Lockhart braved the 
wrath of " Crokey," that Tennyson might be fairly 
reviewed in the Quarterly. 

One regrets Lockhart's review of Mr. Tennyson 
a little : he might have — ^and he should have — re- 
cognised, and made plain, the ways for a great 
genius. He did not do that, but he amused ; and 
he wrote like a scholar — ^witness his quotation from 
*'the learned continuator of Dionysius," who re- 
treated in despair from the African names which 
the young English poet made musical. To have 


a critic, however unfavourable, who knows Greek, 
is now a very unusual luxury. Lockhart's doctor's 
degree, given to him by Oxford in June 1834, was 
a recognition of his scholarly merits. 

During these years (i 833-1 836), Lockhart, in 
addition to his labours on the Quarterly^ was re- 
vising and editing all Sir Walter s works, poetry 
and prose. His letters to Mr. Cadell are mainly 
occupied with technical details about printing and 
publishing. The payment of the debts of Scott 
was Lockhart s aim and reward. On June 16, 1835, 
he remarks, " To omit the Miss Austen " (the review 
of that great novelist by Scott) "would be unjust 
to Sir Walters character — his kind notice made 
her fame." He goes on, speaking of his prepara- 
tions for the "Life" : " I now sit among a multitude 
of Collectaneana, hopping and peering, for hours 
sometimes, before I can settle the plan of the day's 
operations. Perhaps I may promise a volume of 
my own reminiscences of our intercourse and fire- 
side talk. I never thought of being a Bos well, but 
I have a fair memory, and to me he no doubt 
spoke more freely and fully on various affairs than 
to any other who now survives. . . . The letters 
to the Major and myself are, in their different ways, 
the most valuable he ever wrote, being by far the 
simplest, honestest, and wisest. So I say from 
general recollection, never yet having gone over 
them with a view to practical purposes — I mean 
book-making purposes." 


We now offer a sample of Lockhart, not as a 
critic, but as an editor. His correspondence with 
Milman, the most distinguished of his regular lite- 
rary contributors at this date, may be left, with very 
few elucidatory notes, to speak for itself. In 1826, 
Lockhart had read the manuscript of Milman's 
" Anne . Boleyn " for the publisher, and had de- 
clared it to be, with the exception of '* half-a-dozen 
passages of stately and noble versification, feeble 
in the extreme. ... If he would learn to write 
prose as well as he does verse, he might make a 
figure worth speaking of."^ The criticism was a 
prediction. Milman became one of Lockhart's 
closest friends, and to him, as to Carlyle, he was 
able, once or twice, to act on the spirit of his motto, 
carda serrata pando, to lay bare his heart.' We find 
one early undated business note, ending with this 
sera pof rhyme : — 

*• In Fancy's days, Hope's fervid gaze 

O'er Life's fresh circuit ran ; 
And Faith, like Hope, found ample scope 

Within this world of man. 
But now my creed, from nonsense freed, 

In three short items lies — 

That nothing's new, and nothing's true, 

And nothing signifies." 

— Album Gracum, 

The next note is of spring 1830, judging by 

1 "Life of John Murray," ii. 244. 

« (Chronologically the first letters should have been given earlier, 
but It seemed best to present them in unbroken sequence.) 


Milman's reply : he had proposed an essay on 
Indian poetry, meaning to turn it into Latin, for 
his lectures as Professor of Poetry at Oxford. He 
had begun his ** History of the Jews," suggested by 
Lockhart in 1828, for Mr. Murray, and was thinking 
of his work on " Early Christianity." Dr. Dionysius 
Lardner, so much celebrated by Thackeray, was 
anxious to secure the book about the Christians. 
Lockhart therefore writes : — 

"The Rev. H. H. MiLMAN, 
St Mary's, Reading. 

"ATHENiEUM, Tuesday. 

" My dear Milman, — I fully expected to have 
had slips of your iEgyptiaca by this time — but am 
disappointed one post more. The Indian poetry 
will, I am sure (and I hope soon), form the subject 
of a not less delightful paper. 

** I have just read to Murray what you say about 
Christianity and Dr. Lardner. He is confined with 
something in his foot — he denies gout — and is in 
great pain ; but asked me to say that he is most 
ready to engage for Christianity, no matter how many 
volumes — that he will moreover pledge himself to 
accept as many books as you like to write for the 
* Family Library,' as long as that work goes on, and 
to pay for them at the highest rate which any such 
work can offer — in short, that he hopes you will not 
lend your aid to Dr. Lardner, as Scott and Southey 
have both done through sheer misapprehension, and 


as neither of them, accordingly, will do again. If 
you could give the 'Family Library' three vols, 
per annum — tant mieux for that concern. — Ever 
truly yours, J. G. Lockhart." 

The following note briefly touches on a con- 
troversy as to Milman's orthodoxy : — 

" My dear Milman, — I perceive your * Jews * are 
now fast approaching the close. It is a splendid 
book, but some wise folks shake the head at some 
passages touching miracles. A few syllables would 
have disarmed them, and will no doubt do so in the 
next edition. Meantime I have been suggesting to 
Murray that your most efficient method might be 
to write a History of Christianity in the same form, 
and I sincerely hope you will smile on this proposal. 

'* But the Qtmrterly is much in need of your aid, 
and that must be my chief concern. I don't mean 
that we are falling off ; on the contrary, Murray says 
the Review has now regained all it had lost at one 
period. But we are in danger of becoming a little 
too business-like, and want grievously the grace 
from time to time of a pen like yours discoursing 
eloquent music. — Yours very sincerely, 

"J. G. Lockhart." 

The book by Henry Coleridge, referred to in the 
following letter, is his volume on Homer, in *' Intro- 
duction to the Study of the Greek Classical Poets." 


Thiersch, Kreuser, Lange, and Volcker were among 
the Germans criticised.^ Milman's is an excellent 
essay, and, after a deluge of German " ingenuities " 
about Homer — ingeniously and inconsistently ab- 
surd as a rule — may still b^ read with pleasure and 
instruction. These were happy days, when a man 
received ;^ioo for a Quarterly article on Homer! 
Lockhart writes : — 

"The Rev. H. H. Milman, 
St Mary's, Reading. 

" Chiefswood, near Melrosb, 
July 8, 183a 

" My dear Milman, — Owing to some mistake at 
Albemarle Street, I did not receive your letter of the 
25th of June until last night — ^which I much regfret, 
as time is beginning to be precious for the next 
Quarterly. I also have read Hebers 'Life,' and 
with great disappointment. The subject had in 
truth been exhausted before Mrs. Heber took it up. 
But although under these circumstances I can hardly 
think a * Memoir ' of the Bishop would be the thing 
for the Quarterly Review^ I feel strongly that the 
book might furnish you with materials whereon to 
construct a most interesting general article. It is a 
proud thing for the Church that it always contains 
men of the same class with Heber — gentlemen 
— almost universal scholars — sincere patriots and 
philanthropists and Christians. There is no other 

* Quarterly Review^ January 1831. 


Church — certainly no other Protestant one — of which 
all this could be said. Here is one point ... I 
admire Henry Coleridge's book very much indeed, 
and should be delighted to receive the proposed 
article on him and the nameless Germans you allude 
to. Let me have Heber and Coleridge — which you 
please first But do let me have one of them, or 
something, at all events, from you forthwith, for I 
never was so poorly off for materials of the right 
cut ; and please, if you write to me again, address 
me here at once. 

**My wife desires her best remembrances. We 
have had very wretched weather, considering the 
time of year; but still there have been fine days 
some, and fine half days not a few ; and finding our- 
selves after some summers' absence re-established in 
our old favourite cottage Juxta Tuedam, we have 
been thinking of anything but complaint. I hope 
Mrs. Milman is quite recovered, and all your pretty 
children in full bloom. — Ever truly yours, 


"Anything more as to the Indian poetry, and, 
may I add, as to the Christian scheme, Q.F.F.Q.S.* 
Sir W. Scott has not yet been released from Edin- 
burgh, but will be here next week." 

In the next note, Lockhart refers to the editorial 
custom of altering contributions. This will be dis- 

^ Quod felix feustumque sit. 


cussed later. He did review Moore's " Byron," as 
we have already seen, finding no fresher contributor 
on that old theme : — 

*' Chiefswood, Sept. vi. 

"My dear Milman, — I was tempted to put in 
some allusion to Mrs. Heber s change of name, but 
withstood it, not doubting she has already begun to 
taste of her punishment. 

"Your paper on Homer will be most valuable 
and acceptable, and I shall expect it for next 
number, unless you should, on maturer thoughts, 
accede to my old proposition touching Moore's 

* Byron.' Just such a review as that of Heber's 

* Life ' would be the thing. If you don't undertake 
it (in which case the second volume would be sent 
instantly), I must try myself; but I have written 
often about Byron, and feel barren. You, without 
effort, could throw off some sixteen pages of good 
sense and fresh feeling, and stick in sixteen more 
of capital extracts from Moore's second volume, — 
and behold it is done. Byron is dead and buried, 
and your feelings, as a contemporary poet, should 
interfere little with this affair. I would ask Scott, 
but he has already said his say in the Qtiarterly 

" Gait's * Life of Byron ' is rather a murder, and 
the crime is perpetrated with a coarse weapon. — 
Sincerely yours, 



We now have an excursion into politics. 

"Last night Jeffrey made a very unfortunate 
d^but — where he was good, he was far too meta- 
physical for the House, going into first principles, 
which they always vote above ; and, on the whole, 
his matter was poor and his manner feeble — so 
much so, that I could not have recognised my 
once voluble and sarcastic ally. Croker {Quar- 
terly versus Edinburgh!) was capital and most 
powerful. I never saw so much horror excited as 
by his slashing dissection of Lord John Russell ; 
and the House, at first cold and reluctant, became, 
as he went on, intoxicated with glee. He had 
some real eloquent declamation too, and his delivery 
was manly and authoritative, wherever it was not 
diabolical and vindictive. — Yours truly, 


^ London, Saiurdi^y 

At the end of a letter on business, comes a char- 
acteristic anecdote : — 

" Th€ Rev. H. MiLMAN." 

O^ith Pope's *" Essay on Man," and Wilkinson's " Materia Hiero- 

• • • • . . ' 

** A friend of mine witnessed a set-to t'other day 
between two blackguards in Covent Garden's sweet 
purlieus, and they saluted each other, in place of 



the olden endearments, with * you blasted borough- 
monger/ and 'you damned bishop.' 

" Set your house in order. — Ever yours, 

" J. G. L. 

*^ Monday^ Nov. 14, 1831." 

Here is brief reference to Johnnie's death. The 
scheme of a poetical collection seems to have col- 
lapsed : — 

" London, December 30, 1831. 

" My dear Milman, — . . . Thanks for your kind 
note. In addition to that long expected, but still 
painful blow, my little girl of three years has fallen 
downstairs and broken an arm, poor thing ; but she 
is doing well ; and when something re-established, if 
you don't come up to town I think I shall invade 
you on my first excursus. I want to talk with you 
about various matters. Meantime, have you any 
stray leaves of verse ^ original or translations, you 
could entrust to my hand in case of a thing being 
suddenly begun which we spoke of as proper to be 
attempted? There appears to be an embryo getting 
into some signs of life. — Yours ever very truly, 

"J. G. LoCKHART." 

The edition of Milman is referred to here. 
. • . . • • 

** I think Murray will make you an offer about an 
Edition of Gibbon one of these days ; ^ at least, I 

^ The Gibbon here alluded to, unlike the verses, was a happy and 
most successful enterprise. 


heard him ordering calculations to be made about 
printing such a book, &c. As to the F. L., he 
still persists in keeping total silence to me^ 

Biography was always Lockhart's favourite theme: 
his liking for it is manifest here : — 

" The Rev. H. Milman, 

" London, ///(v i» 1832. 

" My dear Milman, — What think you of an idea 
that has come into my head? It is to have an 
extra number of the Quarterly Review this autumn 
entirely biographical. We have just lost Cuvier, 
Goethe, Mackintosh, Crabbe, and Bentham. Would 
you, if you approve the notion, make one of the 
articles — and would ' Goethe * please your hand ? If 
so, the materials are abundant, and by interweaving 
original translations you could make a most charming 
paper. I think of asking Herschell to do Cuvier — 
Croker, Mackintosh, and of assaulting Crabbe myself. 
But I want before going further to ascertain your 
opinion of the scheme, and whether I might rely 
on your co-operation. (Should there be prints.^) 
Sir Walter Scott continues to linger on in a hope- 
less stupor — how much longer he might do so none 
can guess, but I suspect the end will be hastened 
by a fresh attack. — Ever yours, 

*'J. G. Lock HART." 

Domestic troubles caused by the ignorant gossip 


of journalists after Scott's death, are here ex- 
posed : — 

*• My wife and her sister are now well and quiet 
— I and my brothers-in-law are harassed beyond 
imagination about the money affairs of Sir W. Scott. 
The newspaper paragraphs here, though well meant, 
have done us in the meantime at least a world of 
mischief. They have inflamed the hopes of the 
creditors, and, I fear, taken away all chance of their 
acceding to the proposals we tendered for a general 
settlement of the affair. And all, or almost all, this 
difficulty comes of the ofSciousness of friends here 
who could not wait one week till some of the family 
could be communicated with. 

" The Quarterly Review has been sadly neglected, 
and I must work hard at it now. Do let me have 
your strenuous quill at my need. — Ever yours, 

'*J. G. LoCKHART." 

Thanks to the enterprise and goodwill of Mr. 
Cadell, who advanced ;^30,ooo on the security of 
Scott's copyrights and literary remains, a settlement 
with Sir Walter's creditors was concluded on Feb- 
ruary 2, 1833. The **Life" of Scott did much 
towards clearing the debt. 

Early in 1834 arose a little question of literary 
interest Who wrote "The Doctor"? Lockhart 
says to Milman (February 19). *' I have a letter 
from Southey about *The Doctor,' — he wholly 


denies it, and suspects Frere; but Henry Coleridge 
tells me he knows the author. Can he be, after all, 
Hartley Coleridge or De Quincey? They both 
have lived much with the elder Lakers, and may 
either of them have been Boswellising as to stories 
as well as opinions. I could have sworn Southey 
wrote the bit about Lord Lauderdale and the 
Chimney Sweeps — and now believe he stoke it. — 
Ever yours, J. G. L." 

Milman replied : — " * The Doctor ' must be 
Southey's. He told me the story of Thistlewood 
which appears there, totidem verbis, when we met 
at dinner at Murray's. I confess that the gleams 
of genuine Southey ism appear to me faint, as far 
as his nobler qualities go ; much of the art is his, 
and style." 

Southey himself had written to Lockhart (Feb- 
ruary 3): — "*The Doctor' has been sent to me, 
with my name in rubric letters on the back of the 
title-page, and with the author s compliments, but 
with no indication who that author is ; nor has the 
channel through which it came enabled me to guess 
at the source. Some guesses that seemed likely 
enough were met by greater unlikelihoods ; but 
when I heard Frere named as the supposed author, 
1 wondered that I had not thought of him at first. I 
know not in what other person we could find the wit, 
the humour, the knowledge, and the consummate 
mastery of style," which were really Southey 's own! 


All this was fairly cool in Southey, who, of course, 
was himself the author. He amused himself, later, 
by fixing on Theodore Hook as the writer, and by 
sending to him all letters on "The Doctor" that 
reached his own hands. " I have to thank you 
for a copy of *The Doctor,'" he wrote to Hook 
on January 24, 1832. Lockhart, in his essay on 
Hook, remarks that Southey had, in a letter, quite 
unprovoked, to himself, "seemed to deny most 
explicitly the least concern in the anonymous pro- 
duction. It is probable that if we could lay our 
hands on it at this moment a loophole could be 
detected; but in our notice of *The Doctor' we 
assumed that our original conjecture had been 

The letter survived, and has just been quoted. 
It is a strange affair. Southey played off a hoax 
much in Hogg's vein — or rather, several hoaxes. 
Coleridge had assured Lockhart that the book was 
Southey 's. But Southey, in his letter to Lockhart, 
does not say explicitly, "/ did not write * The 
Doctor.'" The kind of amusement which the 
worthy man sucked from his mystification is not 
very obvious, but he certainly praised "The 
Doctor" in a manner which he usually kept for 
his own productions. There soon follows, in a 
note to Milman, an early reference to Lockhart's 
work on " Scott's Life " : — 

"Now don't cut the Quarterly Review. If you 
do, this next year or so we go to pot, for my hands 


are much employed on another concern for that 
time, and really without you we can't do at all." 

From Edinburgh, where Mr. Blackwood, as we 
saw, was dying in 1834, Lockhart wrote : — 

^September 12, 1834. 

" My dear Milman, — I received your letter here 
yesterday, having come hither to see the savants " 
(the British Association) ** in their glory. I squeezed 
in in the evening, and found Buckland amusing, 
with puns and conundrums about the ichthyosauri, 
an assembly of nearly 2cxx> Christians, male, female, 
young and old — horrid humbug, but the newspapers 
will give you enough of it. I shall be at Rokeby, 
in Yorkshire, in another week, and, as there is a 
good library there, shall begin and think again of 
business. As the Murrays are both out of town, 
I need not write about anything to Albemarle 
Street; but I wish you would find the exact title 
of a book called something like 'Origines Biblicae,' 
lately published by a Mr. Beke, of London, which 
I heard much spoken of by a clever man I met a 
week or two ago. Mr. Beke, it seems, has dis- 
covered that the Mityraem" (Mithraim .'^) "of the 
Pentateuch is not Egypt, but Arabia Petraea, and 
my friend appeared to think he had established 
many points of his argument. I can't believe that 
the universal tradition could have been wholly 
wrong on such a matter; but pray, look at the 
book and consider it along with Arundel, who is, 



I fear, a weak brother. Please ask * Mr. Dundas 
or Mr. Day ' at Murray's to forward you these 
or any other books ; and, N.B.y though I ask you 
to consider Beke with Arundel, I should like two 
shortish articles better than one long one. 

" I have heard nothing of the last Quarterly 
Review, except from yourself and Murray, whose 
intelligence is that he has rarely sold so many 
copies of a Number, and that pleases him. I 
thought and think the Number a bad one, all but 
your own article, and that on B^rard. It is the 
radical vice of a certain acute mind ^ that it really 
is cursed nil admirari, and therefore I must try, 
as far as possible, to keep it at work in such affairs 
as French politics and French memoirs. 

"My wife unites with me in earnestly hoping that 
Mrs. Milman may soon shake off the relics of her 
disorder. — Ever sincerely yours, 

**J. G. LoCKHART." 

On the last day of 1834, Lockhart wrote a letter 
of political gossip, asking for an article on ecclesias- 
tical affairs. He ends thus : — 

"Meanwhile here are Coleridge's * Ana' full of 
all sorts of ultra Toryism, to be quoted. He says, 
* Mark the use Shakespeare always makes of a 
villain when he gets hold of one — he makes him 
speak all the grand wickednesses that have been 

* Crokcr? 


coming into his own head since he had such 
another opportunity/ Now old Samuel Taylor 
Coleridge shall be my villain for once. All this 
treason pray suppress, except to your fair dame, 
if she cares for such matters ; and do write your 
article quam primum, for you see time is likely to 
press, and especially if I am obliged to run down 
to Scotland for these elections. 

** I told Croker ten days ago that Peel ought to 
give you one of his first good things, and I know 
that Croker wrote to him to that effect — but the 
answer has not been communicated to the sotis^ 
signi, J. G. LocKHART." 

Here comes an unhappy gap in the corre- 
spondence, which is either missing, or devoid of 
interest, till the year, the most unhappy, or one 
of the most unhappy, in Lockhart's life, 1837. 
Southey's letters in 1831 are much occupied with a 
topic noticed in his published articles, a temporary 
diminution in the rate of payment for his articles. 
The times were bad (owing to Reform) ; Lockhart 
writes gloomily thereon to one of his brothers; 
and he himself (September 16, 1831) expressed his 
readiness to have his own rate of payment lowered.* 
Croker, at the same time, took the same position. 
Southey appears not to have received due notice 
of a change most unwelcome to a man who "drew 
his revenue from his inkstand." On March 15, 

* •• Life of John Murray,*' ii. 371. 


1832, he says, "Mr. Murray overpays me largely," 
so times may have improved for the Quarterly. 
Southey was anxious that Scott should see Landor 
in Florence, as the thing "most worth seeing in 
Italy." Of Sir Walter s death Southey writes with 
deep feeling (September 16, 1832) : " My heart has 
often ached at thinking of you and Mrs. Lockhart. 
The tragedy, I hope, has now closed. You have 
indeed been tried in the burning fiery furnace; 
God grant you present support and relief, and peace 
and happiness hereafter." In March 1833, Southey 
sent Lockhart some of Sir Walter's letters : he had 
looked over his correspondence in 1826. "This 
is a task in which the person who performs it saves 
his representatives from much trouble, at the ex- 
pense of much pain to himself." 

There is a short way with letters ! 

" The birds of prey are already at work," Southey 
says, referring to magazine articles on Scott.^ He 
had refused an invitation to write a dirge on his 
own terms. He replied that "the death of an old 
friend was not an affair which he could treat in this 
way, nor upon such considerations." 

Here, again, the correspondence ends, till, in 
1838, Southey congratulates Lockhart on having 
produced ''the most complete biography that has 
yet appeared of a great man." As a rule, Southey s 
letters to Lockhart are of very slight interest 

* An unauthorised "Life of Scott," by George Allan, appeared 
in 1834. 


The task of collecting material for the great 
biography was heavy, and involved much corre- 
spondence. By far the most extraordinary letter on 
the subject of his " Life of Scott " which Lockhart 
received, was written by James Hogg, the Ettrick 
Shepherd. Now, some friends of the Shepherd, 
among them his daughter, Mrs. Garden, in her 
** Memorials," and Professor Veitch, in the same 
"work, have blamed Lockhart s behaviour to Hogg, 
and especially his comments on Hogg in the " Life 
of Scott" I do not think that either the Shepherd, 
or the faithful to his memory, have many serious 
^[rievances against Lockhart ; and if " dear friends 
snay meet once more," 

" Beyond the sphere of Time, 
And Sin, and Fate's controul, 
Serene in changeless prime 
Of body and of soul," 

^^ere, assuredly, all unkind temper and rancour is 
long ago forgotten and forgiven. 

That the Shepherd, in early Blackwood days, had 
something to forgive the author, whoever he was, 
^3f a certain review, is undeniable. But he did 
forgive it We have seen how Lockhart brought 

Hogg to Abbotsford, not to Lady Scott's delight ; 
^uid to Hogg and Allan Cunningham Lockhart 
ciedicated his ** Life of Bums '* ; while he, of course, 
entertained and befriended the Shepherd in London. 

In some Reminiscences, at the beginning of his 


**Altrive Tales" (London, 1832), Hogg sketched 
the portrait of Lockhart as a very young man, with 
his six black servants, his hoaxes and his carica- 
tures. "A warm and disinterested friend he has 
been to me," says the Shepherd.^ At the close 
of his "Confessions of a Justified Sinner," Hogg 
introduces Lockhart, and puts into his mouth 
comments on the Shepherd's own love of literary 

That, in early BlackwoodSy Hoggs name was 
occasionally attached to what he did not write, is 
certain ; to a sonnet on Mr. Blackwood, for example, 
and, I believe, to a letter on the Edinburgh Review* s 
censures of his "Jacobite Relics." This letter 
contains a curious expression of kindness to Keats, 
reports of whose illness had reached Edinburgh. 
It reads like a shame- faced apology. Whatever 
harm there was in all this, the Shepherd, himself a 
hoaxer, had long condoned. We have seen that 
Scott and Lockhart were busily trying to procure 
for Hogg a pension from the Royal Society of 
Literature. In 1831,* Lockhart wrote about Hogg 
(we have already referred to this matter), " His 
acquirements are now such that the Royal Society of 
Literature, in patronising him, might be justly said 
to honour a laborious and successful student, as 
well as a masculine and fertile genius." Then, to 
disarm objections which he may have encountered 

* p. cxxxix. 

' Q^arterly Review^ vol. xliv. pp. 8 1 , 82. 


in pleading Hogg's cause, Lockhart adds, ** A more 
worthy, modest, sober, and loyal man does not 
exist in his Majesty's dominions than this dis- 
tinguished poet, whom some of his waggish friends 
have taken up the absurd fancy of exhibiting in 
print as a sort of boozing buffoon ; and who is now, 
instead of revelling in the licence of tavern suppers 
and party politics, bearing up, as he may, against 
severe and unmerited misfortunes, in as dreary a 
solitude as ever nursed the melancholy of a poetic 

The plea is over-stated. Modesty was not Hogg's 
forte, nor was melancholy his foible. Probably, 
when Lockhart wrote, the Shepherd was happy 
enough at the Roaring Game, or was shooting 
wild duck.^ The Shepherd of the Nodes, as de- 
scribed by Wilson, was, in fact, apt to be miscon- 
strued by stupid people as a "boozing buffoon" — 
and the officials of the Royal Society of Literature 
were not clever people. 

Wilson was very angry ; he called Lockhart's 
remarks "a feeble fumble of falsehood," **a matter- 
of-fact lie by a Cockney in his dotage," and so forth. 
Such was the point and polish of his repartee.* 
In June 1830, Wilson had beg^n the trouble by 
attacking Sir Walter — " There's Sir Walter wi' his 
everlasting anecdotes, nine out o' ten meaning nae- 
thing, and the tenth itsel' as auld as the Eildon 
Hills;" this, with other insolent reflections on 

* January 1831. ' "Noctcs," March 1831. 


Scott's old age, Wilson had put into the mouth 
of Hogg. But Lockhart s observation was merely 
meant to satisfy the people who had in their gift 
the pensions of the Literary Society. Probably, 
too, he was not well pleased by the assaults on 
Sir Walter, which were assigned to the Shepherd. 
So Wilson fell back on the lie direct, and the cry 
of " Cockney ! " Lockhart forgave the offences with 
perfect magnanimity. 

As to Hogg himself, on December 14, 1831, he 
wrote to Lockhart, asking for a preface to his 
Tales, and proposing to "have half a mutchkin" 
with one of the writers in the Quarterly. Later, 
in an undated note, he acknowledges Lockhart s 
literary advice as that of "a true friend." Signs 
there are of a quarrel with Blackwood ; in whose 
magazine he declares that he can never again 
consent to appear. This note was written from 
Huntley Burn (Sir Adam Ferguson's), after the 
Shepherd's visit to London. About that visit 
Lockhart writes thus to Will Laidlaw ; there is 
no trace of "virulence" here: — 

'^ March 1832. 

•* My dear Laidlaw, — We have letters last night 
from Naples. Sir Walter writes this time a much 
better hand than the last, but I grieve to say he 
seldom writes about anything but new books he 
is or is to be about ! I fear he will find Cadell little 
disposed for new undertakings at this time. 


"The Hogg is the Lion of the season, and is 
playing his part with great good sense to all 
appearance. I hope and trust we shall be able 
to do something for his real good in the way of a 
subscription edition of the * Queen's Wake/ which 
Murray is starting, and which the Highland Society 
are, it is believed, likely to patronise. As for his 
plan of twelve volumes of novels and tales, of that 
/ never could have had any favourable opinion ; and, 
between ourselves, I believe it is in the hands of 
a publisher not likely to be solvent, even if there 
were anything to pay.^ At all events, the Shep- 
herd, if he retires soon, will have left a good 
impression of himself here — and laid in a stock 
of new observation to boot, and thus, if in no 
other way, I trust he will have benefited by his 
trip. I keep my budget of his sayings and doings, 
which is a rich one, till I can communicate it over 
a tumbler. 

"Whether I may be able to get away from town 
this year long enough to admit of my making a run to 
see the laird" (Scott, in Italy), "wherever he may 
chance to be, I can't yet say. If I cannot, we shall 
go down for a few weeks to Abbotsford, and place 
ourselves at the tender mercies of Mrs. Mackay. 

1 Mrs. Garden, in her Memorials of her father, thinks that Lockhart 
believed m the solvency of Cochrane, the publisher. There must 
have been a misconception on one side or the other. The publisher 
failed : Hogg was often unlucky. A letter of Mrs. Lockhart's, to Will 
Laidlaw, suggests that Lockhart may have changed his mind about 
Cochrane, as no better publisher was ready to take Hogg's work. 


" Love to the ladies, and, when you see him, to 
Colonel Ferguson. — Ever yours truly, 

"J. G. LoCKHART." 

Finally, after Scott's death, on October 4, 1832, 
Hogg writes from Altrive Lake, advising Lockhart, 
in composing the Life of Sir Walter, to take his 
(Hoggs) **name and forthright egotistical stile, 
. . . which will likewise do him some credit as a 
biographer." If Lockhart thinks it necessary, Hogg 
will copy the manuscript with his own hand. He 
ends, " May I copy a few pages of your * Life of 
Burns ' ? " 

In a similar vein, Hogg had long before proposed 
that Scott should transcribe and father Hogg's 
"Life of Hogg"!^ Lockhart's comment on that 
request is, " To say nothing about modesty, Hogg s 
notions of literary honesty were always exceedingly 
loose; but, at the same time, we must take into 
account his peculiar notions, or rather no notions, as 
to the proper limits of a joke." 

The malignant Lockhart could have given an- 
other and stranger example of Hogg's ideas about 
literary honesty and the limits of a joke, namely, 
those set forth in Hogg's letter of October 4, 1832. 
But Lockhart held his peace about that egregious 
and almost incredible proposal : so far did he carry 
his "virulence." 

For the rest, as Mr. Saintsbury has shown, the 

»" Life of Scott," il 171, 172. 


anecdotes about Hogg, in the " Life of Scott," 
exhibit the self-same Shepherd as the Shepherd of 
those memoirs which "I like to write about myself."^ 

Unluckily Scott was not long dead when Hogg put 
forth his ** Domestic Manners of Sir Walter Scott," 
in which the vain, random, egotistic gossip was 
accompanied by depreciatory notes from some edi- 
torial hand. ** The pamphlet," says Mn Saintsbury, 
" contains among other things, besides the grossest 
impertinences about Lady Scott's origin, at least 
one insinuation that Scott wrote Lockhart's books." 
The Shepherd meant no harm, I believe. If, as 
Lockhart says, "he did not follow his best bene- 
factor until he had insulted his dust," there was 
no conscious malice in his blundering comments. 
The book contains some golden sentences on Sir 
Walter. But the man who could make the pro- 
posal about a " Life of Scott," by Lockhart, but 
signed by Hogg, did not and could not see things 
as the rest of mankind see them. As Lockhart 
says, Hogg was **a true son of nature and genius, 
with a naturally kind and simple character." But 
the children of nature are capable of very amazing 
and very irritating behaviour.^ 

From Lockhart's correspondents on the subject 
of Scott's " Life," not many letters are preserved. 
The most important papers are those of Mr. Skene 

»«AltriveTalcs,»p. i. 

' Mr. Saintsbuiys criticism of Hogg, in relation to Scott and Lock* 
hart, will be found in his " Essays in English Literature," pp. 37-44. 
VOL. n. H 

114 LIFE OF J. G. LOCKHAxvx 

of Rubislaw, whose •* Reminiscences " would make 
a small volume of considerable interest Mrs. Scott 
of Harden (Lady Polwarth) mentions two anecdotes 
of Sir Walter s early childhood : " You don't know 
how ignorant these boys are," he said, when asked 
why he did not play with some other boys, instead 
of reading. Again, as he sprawled on the carpet, 
perusing, of all books, "Tristram Shandy," some 
one inquired, **Do you understand that book, 
Walter ? " " No," answered the young critic, " and 
I do not think that the author meant it to be 

The following letter, from Mrs. Lockhart to Mr. 
Cadell the publisher, describes Lockhart at work : — 

'*24 Sussex Place, March 4, 1836. 

"Dear Mr. Cadell, — Knowing how anxious 
you are for the * Life,* I cannot help writing you 
a few lines to tell you it is fairly begun, and Lock- 
hart working as hard at it as ever you could wish. 
He has been arranging it so long in his mind that, 
now fairly commenced, he will not be long about it ; 
and he has read to me, and continues to do so, what 
he writes, and I am much mistaken if anything in 
our time will come up to it in interest, style, or as 
a picture of manners just passing away. I cannot 
speak enough of the interest he has contrived to 
give to the genealogy, the least promising part, 
and you may believe the rest is not behind hand. 


. . . When once set to a thing, he neither sleeps 
nor takes the necessary exercise. ..." 

Among Lockhart's correspondents, Mr. Cadell, 
Scott's publisher, was the most active. He pursued 
all the old gentlemen who might remember Sir 
Walter's youth, such as Mr. Irving, a Mr. Ramsay, 
and an English acquaintance, one Jones ; ** nobody 
knows what became of him." This, probably, is the 
friend who predicted Scott's literary greatness as 
early as 1789.^ Mr. Clerk, "Will Clerk," was lazy in 
producing his recollections, and needed to be urged 
on by the Chief Commissioner, Mr. Adam of Blair 
Adam. Mr. Clerk found a few old letters ; and the 
energetic Cadell says: "You may suppose that I 
implored, and prayed, and begged of Clerk to howk 
(dig) and search, and rummage for more, but I see 
nothing does him so much good as a note from Mrs. 
Lockhart. . . . Mr. Clerk cannot find the love-letters 
he thought he had, and thinks he must have burned 
them." Sir Walter in these days (1793) "used 
unceasingly to quote and repeat Smollett." On 
January 8, 1836, Mr. Cadell exclaims, i propos of 
Lockhart's industry in composing the " Life " : " At 
no time did I ever hear you speak of yourself, 
certainly never in your own praise. I wonder if you 
ever think of yourself, and the filthy siller that you 
can make. I wonder, too, if it were possible to bribe 
you! If bribery in hand would be eschewed, the 


prospect of a lump of money at the completion of the 
job might be held out. ... I am sure if you were 
selfish and money-loving all this must cross you." 
This is indeed "testimony to character." 
On November 24, 1836, Mr. Cadell sent to Lock- 
hart the little sketch of his own life by John Ballan- 
tyne. " What a partner for the great minstrel ! " he 
exclaims. In a letter of September 8, 1837, Mr. 
Cadell makes the important remark that Constable s 
firm and the Ballantynes' should have stopped on 
December. 18, 1825, not on January 17, 1826. All 
the money raised by the firms between these dates 
was thrown away. " I told Sir Walter on the i8th 
December that the kettle would not clout, '^ and Mr. 
Cadell blames Constable, then his partner, for con- 
tinuing to struggle, or talk of struggling, for he did 
not at once go to London. This long letter is, un- 
luckily, imperfect; but Scott's Journal for December 
18, 1825, shows that he regarded Mr. Cadell as the 
bearer of good tidings. These financial affairs are 
excessively perplexing ; we shall be obliged to touch 
on them in the matter of the Ballantyne controversy ; 
and it will, at least, be plain that if Lockhart made 
errors, he worked on the best accessible authorities, 
and under the supervision of the person most likely 
to understand these problems, namely, Mr. Cadell. 
That gentleman, on September 23, 1837, sent to 
Lockhart a letter from Sir Walter to Lord Kinneder, 
found by Constable in the box containing the 
Waverley MSS. "It completely bears out your 


view of the * Beacon ' affair." ^ Mr. Cadell's letters 
were, throughout the composition of the " Life," 
most appreciative and encouraging. 

There is extant, fortunately, a letter of Lock- 
hart's to Will Laidlaw, written in January 1837, 
and describing his own attitude towards his work 
on the " Life." He says that he is, *' I think, 
wiser, at least more sober, neither richer nor more 
likely to be rich than I was in the days of Chiefs- 
wood and Kaeside — ^after all our best days, I at 
least believe. As to politics, I am a very tranquil 
and indifferent observer. Perhaps, however, much 
of this equanimity as to passing affairs has arisen 
from the call which has been made on me to live 
with the past, bestowing for so many months all 
the time I could command, and all the care I have 
had any real heart in, upon the MS. remains of 
our dear friend. I am glad that Cadell and the 
few others who have seen what I have done with 
these are pleased, but I assure you none of them 
can think more lightly of my own part in the 
matter than I do myself. My sole object is to do 
him justice, or rather to let him do himself justice, 
by so contriving it that he shall be, as far as possible 
from first to last, his own historiographer, and I have 
therefore willingly expended the time that would 
have sufficed for writing a dozen books on what 
will be no more than the compilation of one. 

" A stem sense of duty — that kind of sense of it 

1 " Life," vi. 426. 


which is combined with the feeling of his actual 
presence in a serene state of elevation above all 
petty terrestrial and temporary views — will induce 
me to touch the few darker points in his life and 
character as freely as the others which were so 
predominant ; and my chief anxiety on the appear- 
ance of the book will be, not to hear what is said 
by the world, but what is thought by you and the 
few others who can really compare the representa- 
tion as a whole with the facts of the case," 

Lockhart then asks Laidlaw to read, and advise 
with him on the proof-sheets, ending — 

"Out of these confused and painful scraps" (the 
very last letters) " I think I can contrive to put 
together a picture that will be highly touching, of 
a great mind shattered, but never degraded, and 
always to the very last noble, as his heart continued 
pure and warm as long as it could beat." ^ 

This letter is, in itself, a sufficient reply to some 
of the censures urged, at the time of publication, 
against Lockhart 's work. 

The first six volumes of the " Life of Scott " 
were published early in 1836. "The criticisms," 
as Lockhart observed when the work was con- 
cluded, *' were, of course, contradictory." The 
book was too cheap ; it was too dear ; it was too 

* I owe the copy to Mr. David Douglas, who inscribes it thus, ** From 
Maidment's collection, in the possession of Mr. Kermack." The 
letter is in answer to one of Mr. Laidlaw's from the North, with a 
present of ptarmigan. It has been printed in Dr. Carruthers' 
*' Abbotsford Notanda.** 


long ; it was too short ; it told too much ; it did 
not tell enough ; Sir Walter was too much glorified ; 
Sir Walter was traduced. Every author knows 
the discordant verdicts of contemporary criticism. 
On the whole, there was more agreement in the 
opinion that the book was too long, than in any 
other judgment. In his later abridged edition 
Lockhart declares that he would rather make it 
longfer than shorter; the interest of Scott's life 
lying in the details. He contemplated the publica- 
tion of selected letters, and Mr. Cadell urged him 
to write a book of " Reminiscences," while he him- 
self thought of a collection of Sir Walter's oral 
l^ends and anecdotes. None of these plans was 
carried into effect, to our great loss. 

Of all the contemporary reviewals,^ but one holds 
its ground, that of volumes i.-vi., contributed to the 
London and Westminster Review, by Mr. Carlyle, in 
I S3 7. Mr. Carlyle was then a distant acquaintance 
of Lockhart's ; they afterwards became friends, Mr. 
Carlyle finding in Lockhart " a thinking man." It 
was unfortunate that the reviewer had not the last 
melancholy and heroic volume before him, and it 
has often been conjectured that he resented Scott's 
unlucky oversight of his letter about Goethe. Mr. 
Carlyle, indeed, did not write in his most genial 
mood. He objected to the quantity of the work, 

^ There were minute, and to my mind prejudiced and unfair cen- 
sures in Taits Magazine, I have read, but do not mean to notice 


as if it were what Lockhart styled it, a mere " com- 
pilation," a collection of materials. Mr. Carlyle 
did not foresee his own immense Life of Frederick, 
called the Great. Indeed, Mr. Carlyle's remarks 
on voluminousness were always like those of Baby 
Charles denouncing dissimulation, and Steenie lec- 
turing on incontinence. However, he said that 
"sagacity, decision, candour, diligence, good man- 
ners, good sense, these qualities are throughout 
observable," and "the compilation is the work of a 
manful, clear-seeing, conclusive man. Lockhart's 
free-speaking has laid him open to censure, a cen- 
sure better than a good many praises." He has not 
left Scott " in the white beatified-ghost condition." 
As to the Ballantynes, of whom, alas, there is more 
to be said, Mr. Carlyle detected "nowhere the 
smallest trace of ill-will or unjust feeling." " Stand- 
ing full in the face of the public, Mr. Lockhart has 
set at naught, and been among the first to do it, 
a public piece of cant ; one of the commonest we 
have, and closely allied to many of the fellest sort, 
as smooth as it looks." Mr. Carlyle then demolishes 
the absurd theory, attributed to Rogers, "that Mr. 
Lockhart at heart has a dislike to Scott, and has 
done his best in an underhand treacherous manner 
to dishero him." On the other hand, if Lockhart 
has a defect, "it is that Scott is altogether lovely 
to him ; . . . that his very faults become beautiful, 
his vulgar worldlinesses are solid prudences, pro- 
prieties, and of his worth there is no measure." 


Here Mr. Carlyle was undeniably in error. 
Lockhart records Sir Walter's own remark that 
he had *'a thread of the attorney in him," in money 
matters. Lockhart's sentiments about Scott's com- 
mercial dealings, about his too close association with, 
to be frank, flatterers, and creatures, if devoted crea- 
tures, like the Ballantynes — are plainly expressed, 
and not merely to be read between the lines. 
Lockhart does not disguise (though he understands 
it so well that he forgives it) Sir Walter s respect 
for rank, a feeling so often misunderstood. Nor 
does he conceal Scott's financial recklessness. I 
am unaware of any other motes in the brilliance 
of Sir Walter's moral character. Lockhart tells 
(though Mr. Cadell and other friends "winced") 
the tale of Scott's severity to his unhappy brother 
Daniel — and of his repentance. He shows how 
fraternal feeling caused Scott to behave as he did 
behave to Lord Holland at a Friday Club dinner ; 
and he reports their reconciliation.^ Again the 
friends winced, but the truth prevailed. 

Not of all men is it well, perhaps, that biography 
should be written thus. Not thus unsparingly did 
Lockhart think it becoming to write about Robert 
Bums. But it is a thing to rejoice in, that the full 
story of one great man's life can be told as Lock- 
hart has told the story of Scott's life. We know 
the worst of Sir Walter ; we have the full portrait 
of a man ; the defects are blazoned by the intense 

^ '^Life," iiL 198, ix. 225, liL 239, x. 189. 


light of genius and goodness, and, thus displayed, 
how slight they are, how high is that noble nature 
above ours, if indeed it attains not to the rare per- 
fection of the saints ! Scott, assuredly, was not a 
saint, but a man living in the world, and, it is 
granted by his biographer, living too much for the 
world. But he lived for other men as few but the 
saints have lived, and his kindness, helpfulness, 
courage, temper, and moral excellence, his absolute, 
immaculate freedom from the literary sins of envy, 
jealousy, vanity, shine in Lockhart's pages as an 
eternal, if unapproachable, example. Only a good 
man could have so clearly observed, so affectionately 
adored, and so excellently recorded these virtues ; 
and, though Lockhart s assuredly was a very faulty, 
as well as a very complex and occasionally perverse 
character, that would be a judgment harsher than 
men should judge with, which finally denied to him 
the character of a good man. Our temptations 
strike us on the unguarded side, as the poor stag 
in the fable was smitten by an arrow from the 
sea. Against the very different faults of Lockhart 
and of Scott, pride might have seemed a shield, but 
its protection was unavailing. 

Of the literary merits of the " Life of Scott " it is 
not possible for one whose breviary, as it were, the 
book has been from boyhood, to speak with imparti- 
ality. To a Scot, and a Scot of the Border, the book 
has the charm of home, and is dear to us as his own 
grey hills were dear to Sir Walter. Necessarily. 


inevitably, the stranger cannot, or seldom can, share 
this sentiment. Mn Saintsbury, now in some de- 
gree a Scot by adoption, has, indeed, placed the 
book beside or above Boswell's. That is a length 
to which I cannot go ; for Boswells hero appears 
to myself to be of a character more universally 
human, a wiser man, a greater humourist, his 
biography a more valuable possession, than Sir 
Walter and Sir Walter s " Life." But it were 
childish to dispute about the relative merits of 
two chefs-d'oeuvre. Each work is perfect in its 
kind, and in relation to its subject. The self- 
repression of Lockhart, accompanied by his total 
lack of self-consciousness (so astonishing in so shy 
a man), when his own person has to figure on the 
scene, is as valuable as the very opposite quality in 

Later writers, Thackeray, Macaulay, Mr. Ruskin, 
Mr. Carlyle, Mr. Louis Stevenson, Mr. Pater, have 
given examples of styles more personal, infinitely 
more conspicuous, than Lockhart's ; to many, doubt- 
less to most readers, more taking. Lockhart has 
no mannerisms, no affectations, no privy jargon, no 
confidences with the reader ; but it may almost be 
said that he has no faults. His English is like the 
English of Swift, all the light is concentrated on 
the object. Without disparagement of the great or 
pleasing authors already named ; with every acknow- 
ledgment of the charming or the astonishing qualities 
of their various manners, we must also claim a place. 


and a high place, for the style of Lockhart. He 
wrote English. 

Concerning what may be reckoned the chief 
fault of Lockhart s " Life of Scott," more must be 
said in a later chapter. In whatever degree the 
Ballantynes were accessory to the financial ruin of 
Scott, Sir Walter, in choosing such instruments, was 
himself foremost in the fault, and this (as I under- 
stand Lockhart's account of the matter in the " Life") 
was Lockhart's own opinion. That all the anecdotes 
of the Ballantynes were strictly necessary to illustrate 
their characters, and the relations between Scott and 
them, I am far from being convinced ; and Constable, 
too, might have been much more gently handled. 
Strange pictures of human life, entertaining passages 
admired by Mr. Carlyle, would, indeed, have been 
lost if Lockhart had been of this opinion ; a portrait 
much less vivid of Sir Walter would have been pre- 
sented. The balance must be adjusted by the sense 
of each reader of the book. 

One other point in the ** Life " may be regretted. 
Lockhart published certain passages of Sir Walter s 
Journal which reflected on the manners of some 
Americans with whom he was acquainted. He had 
suffered a good deal from American tourists, and 
from volunteer correspondents, like the young lady 
who cost him ten pounds for postage on two copies 
of "The Cherokee Lovers," in manuscript. English 
tourists and epistolary bores were, of course, no less 
frequent trials. But Cooper the novelist did his best 


to secure some remuneration for Scott's novels as 
circulated in the States. Unluckily, Scott dropped 
a remark on Cooper's manner as contrasted with 
his genius, and this seems to have escaped the atten- 
tion of Lockhart, Morritt, and Milman, who read the 
vi\io\% Journal in print. Cooper was, not unnaturally, 
angry, and wrote a review in which, as Mr. Charles 
Sumner observed, he scathed " the vulgar minds of 
Scott and Lockhart."^ Sir Walter had American 
friends and guests whose letters attest the cordi- 
ality of their relations. This " rapacious " man (as 
Macaulay terms him) was much more anxious that 
the Americans should have cheap" Waverley" novels, 
than that he should be paid for them by the Ameri- 
cans. They are the most pious and frequent of 
pilgrims to his shrines, so let us hope that the 
tomahawk is buried. But Professor Lounsbury in 
his " Life of Cooper " (1895), is still palpitating with 
a cruel sense of wrong ! 

* In the Knickerbocker Magazine. 


"The Ballantyne Humbug." — False impressions. — Lockhart's real 
aim. — The flaw in Scott — Contradictions in his character. — Why 
Lockhart described the Ballantynes. — Mr. Cadell's evidence. — 
Lockhart's candour as to Scott — History of the brethren. — Kelsa 
— Scott's "air-drawn schemes." — Extravagance in business.— 
John Ballantyne " penniless." — James's claret — Bill and counter- 
bill. — Negligence. — Concealments. — Change of publishers. — 
Death of John Ballantyne. — Constable and the bills. — Reply of 
the Ballantynes. — Unbalanced books. — Cadell's evidence. — 
Hughes and Cadell. — Lockhart "could not understand." — "Be 
a good man." — Ballantyne pamphlet — What "might have been." 
— Unfortunate James. — His labours and sorrows. — ^Abbotsford. — 
Counter charges. — Attitude of the press. — False accusations. — 
Cadell's letter. — His new documents. — Opinion of the Chief 
Commissioner. — Legal advice. — Lockhart*s reply to the Ballan- 
tynes. — Defects of taste. — Their rebutter. — Lockhart's reception 
of it — General reflections. 

No part of the Biography caused so much outcry 
as the references to the Ballantynes and to Constable. 
The representatives of John, and James his brother, 
protested in a tract or pamphlet : their tone was the 
reverse of conciliatory. Their case was taken up by 
the part of the press politically opposed to Scott, 
and *' the isle was full of noises " such as often follow 
a successful biography. The example of Mr. 
Froude's **Carlyle" is comparatively recent and 
familiar. To the representatives of Ballantyne, 



Lockhart replied in "The Ballantyne Humbug 
Handled ": his tone was not more to be commended 
than the taste, in a certain circumstance, of his 
opponents. They answered at great length, and 
with many tables of figures, and they were left 
•'with the last word," except so far as the " Life of 
Scott," very slightly amended in the second and 
later editions, is the last and enduring word. 

This affair of the three pamphlets' cannot be 
omitted in a Biography of Lockhart, though the 
chapter which deals with it must inevitably be of 
little general interest. To myself it seems that the 
impressions which commonly exist in the minds of 
readers, as touching the matter of the Ballantynes, 
are these : — 

1. The Ballantynes were the cause of Scott's 
financial ruin. 

This is an absolutely erroneous idea, and is never 
upheld by Lockhart in his " Life of Scott." 

2. Lockhart maligned the Ballantynes by throw- 
ing on them the whole blame of Scott's ruin. 

This opinion, though industriously circulated in the 
newspapers of 1 838-1 839, is as false as the former. 

In this chapter I shall try to show what Lockhart's 
theory of the relations between Scott and the Bal- 
lantynes, as set forth in the "Life," really amounts 
to. I shall demonstrate that his "brief," so to 
speak, in a commercial question, of which a man 
of letters is not usually a competent judge, was 
prepared for him by an authority whom he had 


every reason to trust and respect. I shall show that 
if the quarrel was not settled in private between 
the parties concerned, Lockhart's advisers were 
responsible for the avoidance of this method ; and 
that if Lockhart's conclusions were wrong, the error 
lay with acute and experienced men of business.^ 

One or two preliminary observations must be 
made. It was, as I have said, by no means 
Lockhart's intention or aim to attribute Scott's ruin 
to the Ballantynes. Their representatives made 
this general charge against Lockhart. His "one 
great object is to rivet on the public mind the 
impression that all the involvements, embarrass- 
ments, and misfortunes of his father-in-law were, 
in great measure, if not altogether, attributable to 
his choice of improper or worthless instruments." 
Lockhart had no such object. With equal clearness 
of insight and delicacy of statement, he executed 
the painful task of tracing Sir Walter's misfortunes 
to Sir Walter s own errors of various kinds. The 
Ballantynes (undeniably ** improper instruments " 
for Scott) aided and accelerated, but did not cause, 
the downfall. Lockhart's intention and aim was to 
draw a thoroughly truthful picture of Sir Walter 
Scott. How entirely he succeeded, how boldly and 

^ Lockhart introduced into his Second Edition (the edition of 1839, 
in ten volumes) such alterations as he deemed that the truth required. 
It is therefore on the basis of this edition (compared with the first, 
and with the edition abridged by Lockhart himself in 1848) that his 
treatment of the Ballantynes shall here be discussed, with as much 
brevity as may be consistent with the innumerable minute details of 
the controversy. 

A FLAW 129 

fiilly, yet how delicately, as regards Scott, he told 
the truth, no one can know better than the present 
compiler, who has followed in his steps, and has 
handled many of the documents which he used. 
. Now it is a commonplace of modem speculations 
on genius to say that genius is never exempt from 
some moral or psychological flaw. To be sure, the 
nature of the most commonplace mortals is in the 
same perilous case ; but the light of genius makes 
the shadows show darker, the fissures deeper. In 
the case of Sir Walter the inevitable flaw occurred 
just where it was least to be expected. It lay not 
in exorbitant love of wine and women; not in 
indolent waste of power; not in vanity; not in 
jealousy ; not in the scsva indignatio of Swift ; not 
in the Morbus Ertiditorum and the melancholy of 
Johnson ; not in any of the besetting sins of literary 
mankind ; but in the conduct of these commercial 
afi^s from which men of letters usually turn away 
in distaste and conscious incompetence. 

Lockhart could not have concealed this flaw if 
he would. Sir Walter's hidden connection with 
business had been proclaimed from the house-top. 
Lockhart, therefore, had to examine the pathology, 
as it were, and all the complex and contradictory 
circumstances of a fault which he himself ''was 
not inclined to," and he had to give of these as 
lucid an account as he might. "Contradictory" 
we may well call the circumstances. In Sir Walter 
we have undeniably a man of the noblest generosity. 



While he was living the life of a mill-horse in the 
struggle to repay his creditors, he would steal the 
rare hours of his too-stinted leisure, and make of 
the work done then a free gift to persons with 
no claim on him but that of common misfortune. 
Yet he had early engaged in a secret commerce, 
and Lockhart, admitting that where there is 
secrecy there is usually wrong, is perfectly ex- 
plicit about Scott's methods of feeding the Ballan- 
tyne Press. 

Again, Scott was a proud man, and his assailants 
have called him (very unjustly in their sense) " the 
slave of rank." Yet he passed much of his time 
with cronies like the Ballantynes, whom he could 
not, and, indeed, certainly did not, regard or treat 
as his social equals. Here was another contradic- 
tion which galled Lockhart. As he observes in 
his reply to the first Ballantyne pamphlet (p. 4), 
"These gentlemen can hardly have failed to see 
why I introduced detailed descriptions of their 
comrades. The most curious problem in the life 
of Scott could receive no fair attempt at solution, 
unless the inquirer were made acquainted, in as 
far as the biographer could make him so, with 
the nature, and habits, and manners of Scott's 
agents." Therefore he drew his pictures of the 
manners and persons of agents whom Scott chose 
from a strange mixture of motives. His adver- 
saries, the authors of the first Ballantyne pamphlet, 
urge that it never occurred to Lockhart that his 


representations of James and John might seem in- 
consistent with the sagacity claimed for the great 
author who freely associated with them.^ But 
this practical contradiction in Scott's character, this 
boon companionship and commercial alliance with 
men in no way his peers, did strike Lockhart : 
herein lay the mystery and the bitterness of Sir 
Walter's devotion to the Ballantynes. Lockhart 
offers his theory of this unlucky engauement in 
the -Life,"* 

I have been permitted to read, but do not . think 
it necessary to cite, a private letter of 1838, in 
which Lockhart gives to a friend. Lord Meadow- 
bank, exactly the same explanation of Scott's con- 
nection with the Ballantynes, as, in the "Life,'* 
he gave to the public. The identical conclusions 
are stated with colloquial freedom. 

Scott, unhappily, lived in a mist about money, 
yet was, in some inscrutable way, a keen business 
man. As he said, he had "a thread of the 
attorney" in him. Scott was full of social punc- 
tilio, yet he unbent with Rigdumfunnidos and 
Aldiborontiphoscophomio. Here was the double- 
starred flaw in the ruby of Scott's nature ; and if 
the flaw was to be understood, with all that it im- 
plied of ** hallucination " (the word is Mr. Cadell's 
in a letter to Lockhart), with all that it meant of 
freakishness and whim, then Scott's associates, the 

> "Refutation,"?. 11. 

' First Edition, iv. 175 ; Second Edition, v. 355, 356. 



Ballantynes, must be described — ^and described they 
were — in imperishable pictures. But Lockhart re- 
peats,^ what is plain to any unprejudiced reader, 
that he *' casts no imputation on the moral rectitude 
of the elder Ballantyne," while he thinks John 
Ballantyne guilty of nothing worse than "giddiness 
of head and temper." His theory is that, while 
Sir Walter initiated ill-considered enterprises, his 
two associates or subordinates were not the men 
to check him ; but, from one or another foible or 
failing, and from want of commercial standing, were 
rather likely to accelerate his progress towards ruin^ 
John would be keeping facts back (as Scott often 
complains), or would be intriguing (as against Con- 
stable in 1 813-18 1 5); John was mischievous and 
reckless. James (except in matters of literary 
opinion) was too pliant, and too averse from arith- 
metic If these and other charges are over-stated, 
and if the portraits of the Ballantynes are carica- 
tured, be it remembered that Lockhart wrote under 
the eyes, with the often-repeated approval, and in 
the light of the information furnished by Mr. Cadell. 
Now, from 181 2 till the ruin of 1826, Mr. Cadell 
had been Constable's partner ; he married Con- 
stable's daughter, who died young, and no man 
knew all the persons concerned more iritimately 
than he did. He was a trained man of business, 
and of him, on the fatal December 18, 1825, Scott 
wrote: ** He showed feeling, deep feeling. ... I 

* " Life," viii. 91. 


love the virtues of rough and round men."^ Scott 
also calls Mn Cadell ''a faithful pilot," and he was, 
as shall be shown, Lockhart's pilot in what regarded 
the Ballantynes. Even in 1848 he is rich in new 
anecdotes of John's iniquities ! 

The dispute between Lockhart and the represen- 
tatives of the Ballantynes was, in essence, one of 
these hopeless controversies in which both parties 
are, to a considerable extent, practically saying the 
same thing. Thus the Ballantyne Trustees keep 
repeating, "Mr. Lockhart admits" this or that, 
whereas the so-called ''admission" is really the 
essence of Lockhart's case. Lockhart represents 
Sir Walter as originating the Printing Company, 
and also the Publishing Company, though he sus- 
pects John s influence here. Lockhart shows how 
Sir Walter was a thoroughly incompetent publisher, 
selecting, for reasons unconnected with trade, books 
that were bound to fail. Lockhart dwells on Scott's 
reckless purchases of land, even in his most 
pressing hours of early embarrassment. Lockhart 
insists on Sir Walter's habit of living in fantasy, 
and what can be a more ruinous characteristic 

^ The foUowing note is borrowed from George Allan's "Life of 
Scott," Edinburgh, 1834, p. 470 :— 

" He remarked to Captain Basil Hall, on the eve of his departure 
ibr the Continent, in the autumn of 1831 : * Ah, if I had been in our 
excellent friend Cadell's hands during all the course of my writing 
for the public, I should now, undoubtedly, have been worth a couple 
of hundred thousand pounds, instead of having to work myself to 
pieces to get out of debt' " Basil Hall tells the same story in one 
of his volumes of '* Miscellanies." 


in a man of business? Lockhart freely quotes 
(what he might, if uncandid, have suppressed) Sir 
Walter's remark, that to him James Ballantyne 
owed ''his difficulties as well as his advantages.** 
Thus Lockhart did not (as the partisans of the 
Ballantynes urge) hide Sir Walter's own share in 
his own ruin : did not throw all the blame on the 
brothers. But to them he gave such share of the 
blame as he thought due. If he erred, he erred in 
company with and on the suggestion of the man 
who, of all others, ought best to have known the 
facts, namely, Mr. Cadell. Meanwhile, the Ballan- 
tyne Trustees attack Lockhart as if all his extremely 
frank statements about Scott's share in his own 
ruin were reluctant, or heedlessly illogical admis- 
sions, made in a virulent campaign against James 
and John. This is the general effect of their first 
pamphlet, and this is what I mean when I describe 
the controversy as one in which, to a considerable 
extent, both parties are saying much the same 

For the understanding of the Ballantyne Con- 
troversy it is necessary, first, to have connected 
ideas as to what, in the ** Life," Lockhart wrote 
about John and James. James is first mentioned 
as the son of ** a respectable tradesman " in Kelso, 
and a schoolfellow of Scott at the Grammar School. 
An extract is next offered from deathbed memo- 
randa, written by James, at Lockhart's request.^ 

1 "Life," i. 157. 


Scott and James met, but were not very intimate, 
when Ballantyne was attending law classes in Edin* 
burght preparatory to becoming a solicitor.^ James 
became a Kelso writer in 1795, and, in 1796, not 
succeeding as a country writer, he set up a weekly 
Tory newspaper. In 1799, Ballantyne printed at 
Kelso for Scott twelve copies of his early verses, 
** Apology for Tales of Terror," and Scott suggested 
making a volume of Border Ballads.' 

On April 22, 1800, Scott wrote to Ballantyne, 
saying that there were chances for a good printer in 
Edinburgh, and hinting at ''pecuniary assistance" in 
trade. Lockhart '* suspects that even thus early the 
writer " (Scott) " contemplated the possibility at 
least of being himself very intimately connected with 
the result of these air -drawn schemes."' Thus 
Lockhart from the first represents the "air-drawn 
schemes " as Sir Walter's own, not as Ballantyne's. 
At the end of 1802, James Ballantyne, complying 
with Scott's hint, set up his presses in the precinct 
of Holyrood. He received (also in compliance 
with Scott's hint) **a liberal loan." Lockhart pre- 
sently describes James's talents, his eye for errors in 
proof-sheets, his moral character — " he was really an 
honest man ; " and, to Scott, was a useful critic — an 
extraordinary fact in literary history.* In 1805, 
when Ballantyne wanted a fresh loan, Scott an- 
nounced his willingness to advance money ''to 

* "Life," L 211. * Ibid., ii. 43. 

' Ibid., ii. 48. * Ibid, ii. 201. 


be admitted as a third sharer of my business.''^ 
Lockhart is '*in doubt whether" this association 
"ought, on the whole, to be considered with more 
of satisfaction or regret." The solitary cause for 
** satisfaction," apparently, is the spur given to Scott's 
energy by the misfortunes of his enterprise.* Lock- 
hart then speaks of Scott's own literary undertakings, 
but adds, "The alliance with Ballantyne soon infected 
him with the proverbial rashness of mere mercan- 
tile adventure." Lockhart shows how Scott's eager- 
ness to help other men of letters "hurried him and 
his friends into a multitude of arrangements," often 
all but disastrous. "It is an old saying that wherever 
there is a secret there must be something wrong; and 
dearly did he pay the penalty for the mystery in which 
he had chosen to involve this transaction." 

Here the mystery and the "wrong," in the san- 
guine enterprises, are all attributed, justly and ex- 
plicitly, to Scott, despite the apparent sense of the 
passage about the Ballantyne alliance " infecting 
him with rashness." It was not James Ballantyne, 
an unadventurous man, but "mercantile adventure" 
that produced this fatal result. " Ballantyne's habitual 
deference to his opinion induced him to advocate" 
Scott's suggestions for publishing books "with en- 
thusiastic zeal." This "habitual deference" made 
James a bad partner for Scott : that is a great portion 
of Lockhart's argument throughout, and the fact 

* Ballantyne's Memorandum ; " Life," ii. 23a 

* " Life," ii. 235-237. 


feally cannot be denied Scott suggesting books 
for publishers to print at his press, and James being 
his mouthpiece, "both came to take for their 
printing company a certain share of the pecuniary 
risk, by allowing the time and method of . . . pay- 
ment to be regulated according to the employer's 
convenience. Hence, by degrees, was woven a web 
of entanglement from which neither Ballantyne nor 
his adviser had any means of escape," " except in 
Scott's indomitable spirit." ^ 

Thus Lockhart displays Scott as the active person 
in the original weaving of the fatal web of credit : 
Ballantyne only acquiesces in ''habitual deference to 
his opinion." A correspondent cited in Mr. Murray's 
** Memoirs " * incidentally shows us a feast given on 
the enlargement of the printing works. " Every- 
thing good and abundant. White Hermitage the 
order of the day. What would your London printers 
say to this?" (July 14, 1807). Mr. Murray's letters 
in 1 809 prove that he regarded the business of the 
Ballantyne Press as wildly speculative.' The truth 
was that Scott, having now quarrelled with Constable, 
was setting up a Ballantyne publishing house, with 
John Ballantyne, of all people, as manager. To 
John, Lockhart was "inclined to trace" (perhaps 
erroneously) a share in Scott's alienation from 
Constable, **as well as most of my friend's subse- 
quent misadventures."* 

» "Life," ii. 235-237. « " Memoirs," i. 86. ' 

• Ibid., i. 170-175. * "Life," iiL 117. 


Lockhart now gives a sketch of John Ballantyne*s 
early career (on information from Mr. Cadell), 
which he modified in his Second Edition. John's 
own Memorandum^ confesses that, from the year 
i8o2rin KelsOy he *• neglected business," "neglected 
business every way," "shot and hunted," "got into 
difficulties" — finally (1805), " all consummated . . . 
my furniture, goods, &c., sold at Kelso, previous to 
my going to Edinburgh to become my brother^s 
clerk. • • • My effects at Kelso, with labour, paid 
my debts, and left me penniless'' " What a partner 
for the Great Minstrel ! " writes Mr. Cadell, when 
he sends the Memorandum to Lockhart (Nov. 
24, 1836). 

Whether John had been a tailor or not (though 
Will Laidlaw remembered him in that capacity) is a 
matter of no importance. But it was of importance 
to show that, in this negligent, sporting, penniless 
ex-tradesman (tailor or not), there was no proper 
associate for Scott, and no promising manager of 
his publishing company — "at ;^300 a year, and one 
fourth of the profits besides." Why did Scott select 
such an associate ? There is the mystery, of which 
Lockhart gave his solution. In a veracious Life of 
Sir Walter these personal facts about John Ballan- 
tyne had to be taken into account. John was also 
dexterous at accounts pretty much as Sisyphus, 
according to Homer, " was of all men most skilled 
in the use of the oath." John had been in Messrs. 

^ First Edition, v. ^^. Second Edition, vi. 330. 


Currie's bank. This was denied; but Lockharts 
authority was Mr. Cadell, writing on May 27, 1836. 
Lockhart then draws sketches of the brothers in 
their habitual aspect and manners — sketches which 
were described by his adversaries as malevolent 
caricatures. Mr. Cadell, on the other hand, writes 
(July 20, 1836): "I absolutely wept with joy at 
the Rembrandt portraits of John and James. I 
think I see the strut of James, and the wriggle of 
John, and dark was the day which brought the last 
into council'^ 

This remark either suggested or was suggested 
by Lockhart's observation, "They both loved and 
revered Scott, and I believe would have shed 
their hearts' blood in his service ; but they both, as 
men of affairs, deeply injured him ; and, above all 
the day that brought John into pecuniary connection 
with him wets the bicukest in his calendar. . . ."^ 
The Ballantynes, being the thirdsmen between 
Scott and Constable, were jealous of Constable, 
Lockhart thinks, and Constable of them, and this, 
he considers, was of ill effect on Sir Walters 

The publishing affairs of ''John Ballantyne and 
Co." were never successful. Lockhart has ex- 
plained, more than once, how Scott entered on 
enterprises interesting, if to any public, to a very 
small one; or dictated by desire to help poor 
authors. This system in itself meant ruin ; nor 

^ «*Lifc,"iii. lax. 


were John and James in a position to remonstrate; 
The actual capital in ready money (except such 
debts as James could recover from his old Kelso 
business) was Scott's. " My brother,*' says James 
in his memoranda, '' though an active and pushing, 
was not a cautious bookseller, and the large sums 
received never formed an addition to stock. In 
fact, they were all expended by the partners, who, 
being then young and sanguine men, not unwillingly 
adopted my brother's hasty results." 

If this admission by James Ballantyne does not 
mean that Scott and James accepted John's book- 
keeping and accounts at a venture, and that all 
three "spent the results," what does it mean.^ A 
curious example of the system, unknown to Lock- 
hart, occurs in a letter of James Ballantyne to 
Constable.^ James begs for money or bills. Two 
years earlier, not foreseeing the '* painful circum- 
stances" of 1 813, he had bought wine to the 
amount of ;^75 — from an ironmonger! '• About six 
months ago I gave him my bill, at six months, 
for the amount." James "renewed" when the bill 
fell due, giving his acceptance in exchange. The 
ironmonger failed, "so that both sums, amounting 
to ;^i50, are now due." 

This was the Ballantyne -Constable bill-and- 
counter-bill system, writ small! 

" Neither John nor others complained. Now . . . 
I feel insuperable objection to make this misfortune 

' July 17, 1 8 14, " Archibald Constable," iii. 44-46. 


known to the partners. It would engender gloom 
and dissatisfaction/' says poor James, and so on. 
James, being anxious ''not to touch the business 
funds," wants to borrow, by a bill at six months, 
from Constable. Spch were the ways of the 
partners ; but James, at least, was anxious not to 
"touch the business funds." 

By May 181 3, thanks to the causes described, 
and " the rash adoption of some injudicious specu- 
lations of Mr. Scott's," the moneyed partner deter- 
mined to dissolve the publishing concern. Constable 
rescued the partners, with the aid of the ;^4000 
guaranteed to Scott by the Duke of Buccleuch. 
In a kindly letter of Scott's to John Ballantyne, 
while complaining of "sudden, extensive, and »«- 
expected embarrassments," and a lack of "universal 
circumspection, and the courage to tell disagree- 
able truths," on John's part, he pronounces him 
an unrivalled "man of business" (May 18, 1813). 
Five days later he warns John against "shutting 
his eyes, or blinding those of his friends, upon the 
actual state of business." James has been " steadily 
attentive," but "one of you will need to be con- 
stantly in the printing-house henceforward." ^ So 
far, for about eight years, this elementary precaution 
had clearly been neglected. 

Perhaps a manager who shuts his own eyes, or 
blinds those of his friends, who permits "sudden 
and unexpected embarrassments " to be sprung on 

» "Life,** iv. 78-81. 


them, is not the very best kind of partner for a 
man like Scott. ** Our friend " (Scott) " was always 
in a dream about cash and bills. He deceived 
himself," writes Mr. Cadell (August 29, 1836). 
Lockhart says that Scott's warnings to John 
Ballantyne were "vain," but they (the brothers) 
"had some reason for displeasure (the more felt 
because they durst not, like him, express their 
feelings), when they found that scarcely had these 
" hard skirmishes terminated in the bargain of May 
18 " (with Constable), "before Scott was preparing 
fresh embarrassments for himself, by commencing a 
negotiation for a considerable addition to his pro- 
perty at Abbotsford. . . . Nor was he, I must add, 
more able to control some of his minor tastes." ^ 

This is frank enough, and not very consistent 
with the theory, that the Ballantynes are accused 
of ruining Scott. How much anxiety of the darkest 
kind John Ballantyne caused Sir Walter, by de- 
ferring to the last moment his announcements of 
debts to be paid ; how Scott had to keep request- 
ing him "to be a business-like correspondent"; 
how Ballantyne equivocated, how he did not write 
explicitly, how he never admitted the nearness of 
danger, " until it is almost unparriable," Scott him- 
self sets forth in letters to the culprit.* Sir Walter 
deplores his " strange concealments " ; he asks only 
for "a fair statement" * 

1 " Life," iv. 85, 86. « Ibid, iv. 89, 91. 

• July, August, 1 813. ^*Life," iv. 92, 93. 



Constable was consulted in their difficulties, and 
suggested an appeal to a friendly capitalist. Scott 
obtained a guarantee for ;^4000 from the Duke of 
Buccleuch ; yet even with this aid, and with 
Constable's assistance, matters went badly. At 
Christmas 1814 there was trouble, and Scott "de- 
termined to break up, as soon as possible, the 
concern which his own sanguine rashness, and the 
gross irregularities of his mercurial lieutenant, had 
so lamentably perplexed.'" Here, on Lockhart's 
side, is a fair division of blame ! 

In the pressure, "Guy Mannering" was sold to 
Messrs. Longmans ; and John Ballantyne, despite 
the debt of all partners to Constable, wished to 
offer the new edition of " Waverley" to a London 
publisher. Scott vetoed this " wretched expedient."* 
But Lockhart blames John Ballantyne for "prompt- 
ing and enforcing the idea of trying other publishers 
from time to time, instead of adhering to Constable, 
merely for the selfish purposes — first, of facilitating 
the immediate discount of bills ; secondly, of further 
perplexing Scott's affairs, the entire disentanglement 
of which would have been, as he fancied, prejudicial 
to his own personal importance."* 

As to John Ballantyne's conduct at this time 
(1813-1815), whatever its motive, Lockhart had Mr. 
Cadell's authority. " You will see by them " (a 
parcel of letters) " how Constable & Co. kept up 
the Ballantynes in 1813-1814-1815, and the misery 
' " Life.' V. 32. » IWd., V. 24, » Ibid.. V. 151. 


attending it. I wonder even now at the picaroon 
trick of going to other booksellers, when, every day 
almost, they were asking favours " (January 3, 1837). 
Meanwhile Scott, says Lockhart, was still buying 
land, and James's ** management of the pecuniary 
affairs of the printing-house had continued to be 
highly negligent and irregular." 

To end the financial history of John Ballantyne, 
he died in 1821, ignorant of the state of his affairs, 
and leaving to Scott ;^2000, which he did not 
possess.^ In his Memorandum he declares that the 
publishing business, when wound up in 181 7, left 
Scott fully paid, with a balance of ;^iooo. Lock- 
hart says that, on the other hand, in 181 7, John's 
name was '' on floating bills to the extent of at least 
;^ 1 0,000, representing /ar/ of the debt which had 
been accumulated on the bookselling house, and 
which, on its dissolution, was assumed by the print- 
ing company in the Canongate." * 

John Ballantyne was dead, but the financial 
confusion survived. Towards the close of his work 
Lockhart recapitulates the story of Scott's connec- 
tion with the Ballantynes ; repeating his assertion 
that James was **a perfectly upright man," while 
John suffered from "giddiness of head and temper." 
But James "was hardly a better manager than the 
picaroon."* He had never been a trained printer; 
taste he . had, but not the vigilant " eye of the 
master." Even when in the printing-house, his 

* " Life," vi. 332. > Ibid., vi. 332. * IbiA, viii. 91. 



work was rather literary than mechanical : he was 
"a literator. not a printer." The complication of 
"bills and counter-bills" left by John's management 
was not to be cleared by James. Lockhart sup- 
poses that Scott kept no "efficient watch" on the 
sheaves of accommodation paper, and never knew 
"any Christmas, for how many thousands, or rather 
tens of thousands, he was responsible as a printer 
in ike Canongale." Now as, by the admission of 
Mr. Hughes, one of James Ballantyne's trustees, 
the books of the firm had not yet been balanced in 
1837, it is not easy to see how Scott could have 
known the extent of his responsibilities.' Once 
more, "Owing to the original habitual irregularities 
of John Ballantyne, it had been adopted as the 
r^;ular plan between that person and Constable, 
that whenever the latter signed a bill for the purpose 
of the other's raising money among the bankers, 
there should, in case of his neglecting to take that 
bill up before it fell due, be deposited a counter-bill 
signed by Ballantyne, on which Constable might, if 
need were, raise a sum equivalent to that for which 
he bad pledged his credit. . . . The plan went on 
under James's management, just as John had begun 
it. Under his management also — such was the 
incredible looseness of it — the counter-bills, meant 
(Mily for being sent into the market in the event of 
}h!t primary bills being threatened with dishonour— 
these instruments of safeguard for Constable against 

' " Refutation," p. 48. 


contingent danger were allowed to lie uninquired 
about in Constable s desk, until they had swelled 
to a truly monstrous sheaf of stamps. Constable's 
hour of distress darkened about him, and he rushed 
with these to the money-changers. . . . And by 
this one circumstance it came to pass that, supposing 
Ballantyne & Co. to have, at the day of reckoning, 
obligations against them, in consequence of bill 
transactions with Constable, to the extent of ;^2 5,000^ 
they were legally responsible for j^scooo." 

In fact, they were in James Ballantyne's case, 
when, in place of a debt of ^^75 for wine to an 
ironmonger, he managed, by dint of bills and simUar 
accommodations, to owe j^iso! 

This point has been warmly contested. As the 
matter is complicated, I shall give the reply of the 
Ballantynes here. 

They say^ that one of Mr. James Ballantyne's 
trustees, Mr. Hughes, being engaged in the press 
which printed the " Life," saw Lockhart's remarks 
on these bills and counter-bills in the proof-sheets. 
He thereon wrote a note to Mr. Cadell, saying that 
the subject " surely ought to be brought under Mr. 
Lockhart's review." Sir Walter was (contrary to 
Lockhart's opinion) " cognisant of all these bills," 
which Ballantyne discussed with him once a month, 
and they always met the bills falling due " by bills 
of a certain amount drawn on Constable & Co. . . . 
James Ballantyne & Co. granted counter-bills on 

' "Refutation," p. 47. 


Constable & Co.» and of all these obligations Sir 
Walter kept a regular account in a book of his 

** The bills also, I am in a position to show, tvere 
exclusively for Sir Waltet^s accommodation, so that, 
as regards them, Mr. Ballantyne must have lost 
largely. The printing-house was thriving and had 
no need of them ; and I have not the slightest doubt, 
when the books are balanced up to the bankruptcy 
of 1825-1826, that Mr. Ballantyne will be found to 
have been Sir Walter's creditor to a considerable 
amount. '' 

Here let us again observe that, even in 1836 
or 1837, the books of the Ballantyne printing firm 
had not yet been balanced ! If this admission does 
not justify Lockhart's theory of James as an in- 
different manager, nothing can do so. 

Mr. Hughes goes on, in his note to Mr. Cadell, 
to discredit the story of Constable rushing to the 
money-changers with a "sheaf of counter-bills." 
** Counters were regularly drawn for the prima- 
ries, the difference of interest calculated, and the 
counters as regularly discounted." The authors of 
the pamphlet insist on this, and give a specimen, 
"which overthrows- completely Mr. Lockhart's 
theory of the bill transactions. . . . The bills 
were not in Constable's desk. . . . The state- 
ment is either a creature of imagination only, 
or of abused credulity." * 

^ A royal 8vo, bound in red morocco. * pp. 39, 40. 




Now, on all this matter Lockhart drew his 
information, not from fancy, but from Mr. Cadell, 
who, of course, was with Constable when the day of 
panic came, and ought to have known the facts. 

On January 3, 1837, before the " Life" was pub- 
lished, Mr. Cadell wrote from Edinburgh : — 

''John Ballantyne. — I felt diffident as to what I 
stated to you, when I was in town, as to the bill 
transactions resting on my unsupported authority. 
I have, since I returned, therefore, per favour of 
Constable s trustees, got a sight of a huge batch of 
letters. I send for your inspection some forty or 
fifty ; it will not take long to glance at them — a 
few bearing me out, and one or two to procure 
you a laugh after a hard day's work. ... I can- 
not at this distance call to mind the remedy for 
the slippery payments made for the bills for John's 
use, which I appear to have suggested in October 
1815.^ John suggested the double bills ! ! " 

This is all that I can find about the double bills 
in Mr. Cadell's correspondence. I discover no 
single hint of remonstrance from Mr. Cadell to 
Lockhart as regards this matter, no single note of 
dissent Criticism Mr. Cadell offers on a variety 
of other points not financial ; on this point (in 
existing letters) — none. He did not send Mr. 
Hughes's notes to Lockhart ; "he never communi- 

^ See letter of 29th October. 


cated them to me ; but had he done so, I certainly 
should have paid very little attention to their tenor, 
for this reason . . . namely, that the statement 
which this subaltern of the Ballantynes impugns 
was drawn up by me on the authority of Mr. Cadell 
himself the surviving partner of the house of 
Constable, and • . • one of the most acute men 
of business in existence/'^ 

Lockhart especially refers to a letter of Mr. 
Cadeirs of October 1836,* opening the topic in 
these words, " One thing Sir Walter never could 
have foreseen." The point was "that, according 
to Constable's partner, Scott could not have anti- 
cipated being called upon to discharge twice over 
the monies indicated by a certain large amount 
of bills drawn by James Ballantyne & Co."' 

To all this the Ballantyne Trustees reply by 
reports of conversations between Mr. Hughes and 
Mr. Cadell, in which Mr. Cadell accepted Mr. 
Hughes's view, and showed him proof-sheets an- 
notated accordingly for Lockhart's use. In another 
interview with Mr. Cadell, Mr. Hughes averred 

^ On this point, and on the non-communication of Mr. Hughes's 
letter to Lockhart, Mr. Bayley writes : '* I once thought it would have 
been better you had seen Hughes's letter, but now it is as well you 
did not, as you could not have taken his statement in opposition to 
Cadell's ; but it must be brought out that you never saw it ... I 
spoke to the old Chief Commissioner (Mr. Adam of Blair Adam) as 
to Cadell being the respondent,' as it was his information you went 
by, but we think you must yourself stand forth. 

' This letter is missing. 

• " Letter to Sir Adam Fergusson," p. 103. 



that Mr. Cadell agreed with him about the fact 
that Constable "had not one bill in his desk to 
take to the money-changers,*' in the panic. 
"Curiously enough, he had laboured to convince 
Lockhart of this, but could not get him to under- 
stand it." 

Now, Mr. Cadell had only to make a plain state* 
ment of fact. 

"Curiously enough," no trace of these labours to 
enlighten the dull intelligence of Lockhart remain 
in a correspondence which, though incomplete, 
everywhere shows Mr. Cadell supplying Lockhart 
with the facts about the Ballantynes, and nowhere 
shows him even hinting at any correction where 
they are concerned. "Curiously enough," Mr. 
Cadell never contradicts or qualifies Lockhart's 
assertion that the whole statement was made on 
his authority. Mr. Cadell, in fact, calls John 
Ballantyne "the origo malty' and, as I have already 
said, as late as 1848, keeps throwing in new stories 
illustrative of John's "picarooning" exploits, with 
an unpublished anecdote or two of James. One 
story, about the British Linen Company Bank, 
and some bills, is especially picaresque. Apart 
from questions of tone and style, then, it appears 
undeniable that Lockhart, in writing about the 
Ballantynes, worked throughout on the facts sup- 
plied, and in accordance with the advice given, 
by an adept in business, and an eye-witness of the 


To illustrate Lockhart's sentiments towards James 
Ballantyne before he had examined the pecuniary 
affairs, I quote a letter of his to Mr. Cadell (Jan. 22). 
It was written soon after James's death. 

*' I am obliged by your letter about poor James 
Ballantyne, and shall be pleased to hear that his 
&mily are left in tolerable circumstances. I hope 
that the business will be kept, in part at least, for 
the son, who seemed a very fine boy." Lockhart 
also contributed towards the support of John Hal- 
lantyne's widow. To Mr. Cadell, Lockhart writes 
(Oct. 3, 1833), "Would to God you had been near 
to Sir Walter from the beginning." 

He appreciated Mr. Cadells sterling qualities; 
he relied on his information, and, whatever error 
aiay have come into his uses of that information, he 
did well in trusting to his informant. About the 
first Ballantyne pamphlet he writes, "It gives me 
no concern, because, as you know, I have spoken 
nothing but the truth about James Ballantyne, and 
never bore him the least ill-will, God knows." 

We have condensed the pages which contain 
the gist of Lockhart's remarks, in the " Life," on 
the Ballantynes. He also cites freely and fully 
from Sir Walter^s commendations of James, whom 
he had " tried to enrich," whose " misfortunes and 
advantages," he said, alike came from him. Sir 
Walter and his old companion never recriminated 
on each other, says Lockhart; but circiunstances 
sqpart from money matters came between them at 


the close, in the twilight of two broken lives. That 
the Ballantynes were odd, incongruous associates 
for Sir Walter ; that his whole unlucky relations 
with them were the result (as we have said) of a 
flaw in his noble nature ; that had he dealt with 
men not his dependents and retainers, say with Mr. 
Cadell, it would have been better for him; that 
John " did something smack, a little g^ow to ; " that 
James did not balance his books yearly — Lockhart 
may be said to have demonstrated. So far these 
men's influence was ill for Scott ; and Lockhart 
has made it conspicuous in every page, that Scott's 
choice of such friends and such agents was his own 
fault. For the rest, some remarks might well have 
been spared ; but a whole aspect of Scott, and a 
strange and potent influence in Scott's history, 
would have been lost, had the portraits of the 
brethren as they lived been omitted. If the 
etching be deeply bitten, the acid, so to speak, 
had been gathering long. The Ballantynes were 
not, in obvious social ways, congenial to Lock- 
hart's taste; he believed that their society was 
rather unworthy of Sir Walter; and — supposing 
them to be accessories (not more) to Sir Walter's 
ruin — he owed their memory little good-will. His 
own life had been embittered for many years by 
the collapse of 1826, and his temper had not been 

*' The trustees and son " (a boy of sixteen) ** of 
the late Mr. James Ballantyne" published their 


" Refutation of the Mis-statements and Calumnies " 
of Lockhart, in August 1838. With a taste which 
may be left to the judgment of the reader, they 
headed their work with a motto from the *' Life," 
Sir Walter's dying words, ** Lockhart, my dear, 
be a good man • . . ! " They then decided that 
Lockhart had been a very bad man. His *' attempts 
to exculpate his father-in-law from blame" are 
blended with ^'caricature portraits and degrading 
anecdotes. . . ." He "panders to that depraved 
taste which gloats," and so forth: Mr. Carlyle's 
reply may suffice. It is needless to remark that 
Lockhart never, for one moment, tries "to excul- 
pate his father-in-law from blame." Far from 
endeavouring "to aggrandise the character of Sir 
Walter by depreciating that of the Ballantynes," 
Lockhart deliberately shows how Sir Walter 
lowered his own nature in the society of Rigdum- 
funnidos and the other. Lockhart's imputations 
on the Ballantynes are, it is urged, "equally 
at variance with the evidence which he has him- 
self produced, and with facts which, having access 
to them, he was bound to make himself master 
of* . • •" 

There follows a defence of John ; Lockhart drew 
thence a few emendations for " Les Enfances 
Jehan," as set forth in his Second Edition. For the 
rest, the facts about John Ballantyne, as extracted 
from Sir Walter's and Mr. Cadell's letters, may 
suffice. John was not a good manager of a pub- 


lishing establishment ; that fact is undeniable, even 
by Trustees I 

Dropping John, the Ballantynes develop their 
own case. Sir Walter "was greatly benefited by 
his connection with the Ballantynes." "His own 
large expenditure absorbed the whole profits of the 
printing establishment, and much more besides, 
involving the elder brother" (James) ** in ruin, at a 
period of his life when, from the nature and extent 
of his business, he might otherwise have possessed 
a comfortable, if not an affluent independence." 

This last allegation is an excursion into the 
chapter of "might have been." Had Sir Walter 
not taken up Ballantyne, he might have been 
"blessed with a sturdy partner." Had James not 
been taken up by Sir Walter, he might, or rather 
certainly would have, vegetated as a " stickit writer" 
at Kelso, publishing the Kelso Tory weekly, and 
supporting, out of his " comfortable, if not affluent 
independence," his old parents, and the "penniless" 
sporting tradesman, John. 

Mr. Morritt of Rokeby, writing to Lockhart after 
the publication of the Ballantyne pamphlet, says 
that these opinions prevail in canny Yorkshire. 
" This is plain common sense, and none of them 
cared much for the details, which I suppose nobody 
understands but the traders in bills. "^ 

^ Mr. Morritt had urged an objection against the description of the 
revels in St. John Street ; this I gather from Mr. Cadell's letters. 
Mr. Cadell took the opposite view. 


The ruin came, say the Ballantyne Trustees, from 
Scott's " extensive purchases of land before he had 
realised money to pay for it. and from his making a 
free use of the name of the Company (with the 
consent of his partner, of course) to meet the pay- 
ments." Certainly : Lockhart never conceals, nay 
he insists on, these ruinous purchases; but "the 
consent of the partner," the fact that the partner, 
for years, was Scott's salaried employee, and Scott's 
error in having such a pliable partner, are all part of 
Lockhart's case. Indeed, the Trustees keep quot- 
ing Lockhart's statements about this matter against 
him, whereas they are a proof of his fairness.^ The 
more candid Lockhart is. the more he is blamed for 
inconsistency ! 

The strong and essential part of the Trustees' 
case is that the accommodation bills, and other kites 
flown by the Company^ were for Sir Walter's pri- 
vate accommodation alone, not for the Company's 
uses. True ; but all the real bullion (beyond the 
Company's earnings) was also Sir Waller's own, pay- 
ment for his novels and poems. " Except the means 
necessary to carry the business on, and Mr. James 
BaJlantyne's personal and family expenses. Sir Walter 
drew from it all its earnings, and more than all," Mr. 
Ballantyne's profits " were floating in the business at 
the command of Sir Walter Scott. . . . He had cast 
his bread upon the waters, but it did not return to him 
after many days of labour and sorrow. He lost all." 
' " Refutation," pp. s6, 17. 


At one time, in 1816-1822, it is not apparent 
to me that James had anything at all to lose. He 
was merely a salaried servant "The labour and 
sorrow " of James, among the luxuries of his various 
abodes, his horses, his wines, and so forth, are 
not conspicuous. All these mortifications he owed 
to his connection with Scott, and, after the ruin, 
Scott resolutely declined, even to his own dis- 
advantage, to let any of his copious printing work 
be given to any press but that of Ballantyne. 
"Cadell rather wished to rush it" (**The Tales of 
a Grandfather") "out by employing three presses, 
but this I repressed. ... I will not have poor 
James driven off the plank to which we are all 
three clinging. ... I am happy enough to think 
that the plank is large enough to float us all."* 
Ballantyne, say his friends, "lived to repair his 
ruined fortune." If he did, he had Scott to thank 
for it. 

It is also alleged that James knew nothing of 
the disposition of Abbotsford at the marriage of 
Major Scott ; that he did (as against Lockhart's 
belief) "make serious efforts to master the for- 
midable balance of figures ; " that he reckoned 
Abbotsford among the assets, thinking "there 
was Abbotsford, which would secure everybody, 
and make up every deficiency." That Abbotsford, 
if sold, could "make up every deficiency," was a 
rather sanguine estimate. Here, as usual, we have 

* Journal^ ii. io6. Letter to Cadell, " Life," ix. 21a 


Lockhart frankly stating that Sir Walter felt that 
he had done wrong in placing any part of his 
property beyond the reach of his creditors, by 
entering on that marriage contract without a pre- 
vious most deliberate examination into the state 
of his responsibilities. If James knew not about 
the disposition of Abbotsford, his nescience weis, 
clearly, unknown to Lockhart. 

Lockhart's repeated attestation of James's honesty, 
and his own regret at the comments he has to 
make, is dismissed by his critics as "cant."' It 
is again alleged that Scott did know the amount 
of his liabilities — though how he could, without 
balance-sheets, is a mystery to myself. Moreover, 
the liabilities were personal in essence, not com- 
mercial. Scott's own view, that James " owes his 
difficulties as well as his advantages to me ; , . . 
I have been far from suffering by him," is cited, 
from the "Life," where Lockhart gave it every 
prominence. But Lockhart differed from Scott's 
opinion ; lie believed that Scott did suffer from 
having Ballantyne as a partner — a partner whom, 
by his own fault, he had chosen. 

The Trustees " notice Mr. Lockhart's extra- 
ordinary assertion that Sir Walter never drew 
anything from the printing-house business." They 
do not cite page and volume for this extraordinary 
assertion, which they ascribe "to ignorance," * and 
admit " in one sense to be true." ' They also 

' "Refutation," p. 33. * Ibid, p. 55. * Ibid, p. 17. 


bad spirit from the motto" (** Be a good man, my 
dear") "to the end. But for Sir Walter Scott, 
what could James Ballantyne have done for him- 
self? What could John? It was John's concern 
that laid the foundation of alL His trash about 
;^iooo over" — from the publishing business wound 
up in 1817 — "was, like his ;^20oo legacy, paid by 
Sir Walter to the tune of above £^00 ! • • » As 
to money made by James after 1826, who gave him 
the business to make it? Sir Walter Scott, who 
would not allow me to take a volume from him," 

On August 23, Mr. Cadell suggested that Lock- 
hart should make no reply to the Ballantynes, 
except "in the new edition" — advice which could 
not be followed, for practical reasons. As to the 
marriage contract about Abbotsford, he " has not a 
scintilla of doubt as to Ballantyne's knowledge " of 
it; and is ^'certain " that Constable also knew. Both 
men were concerned in raising ^^ 10,000 on Abbots- 
ford, in December 1825 — money hopelessly wasted. 

On August 26, Mr. Cadell sent to Lockhart (who 
was at Milton Lockhart, and remote from his books 
and documents) a copy of his letter of October 
1836, on the authority of which, and of documents 
sent by Mr. Cadell, Lockhart had written what he 
did write about the bills. "On reading what I said 
at the above date, and asking Bayley to come to me 
for the same purpose, we feel that you should give 
yourself not one moment's uneasiness." Mr. Cadell 
then makes statements, to the detriment of John and 


James, which, at this time of day, it seems needless 
to publish. He adds, '' I retain my conviction that, 
in 1825-26, Sir Walter did not know the gross 
amount of his engagements." He writes, but only 
with "almost" certainty, as to James's knowledge 
of the marriage-contract about Abbotsford. 

If Lockhart had, in Mr. Cadells opinion, made 
a gross b&uue about the bills, here was the oppor- 
tunity for reminding him of it. But Mr. Cadell 
obviously supports him, by reference to his own 
letter of October 1836. 

I am not concerned to prove that Lockhart s 
theory of the Ballantynes (especially in his reply 
to them) is correct. But as a man of letters, with 
no commercial training, obliged to write about com- 
plicated matters of finance, I do not think that 
Lockhart can reasonably be blamed for relying 
on the opinion of Mr. Cadell. He might, indeed, 
have distrusted Mr. Cadell's possible "personal 
bias," but how was he to make due allowance for 
that element in the affair ? That he did, mentally, 
make such allowance is a fact. That most telling and 
serious story about John Ballantyne and the British 
Linen Bank, Lockhart did not use in his defence ; 
possibly he found it to be erroneous, possibly he 
spared the memory of John. 

On Oct. 31, Mr. Cadell announces that "Mr. 
Bayley" (the family agent) **has been greatly de- 
lighted with the hasty perusal we have given to 
John Ballantynes 'states'; they more than bear 

VOL. H. L 


out my long statement of October 1836. James 
was first in business by himself. In 1804 Sir 
Walter joined. James put into the concern types 
and presses, along with £ 1 604 of debts ; Sir Walter 
all the money — all which money James spent. - - . 
In a word, as my letter two years ago said, James 
began all the evil." 

On Nov. 8, Mr. Cadell writes in high spirits. 
He has "concluded his remarks on the entire 
pamphlet, and got nearly through a corresponding 
series of notes on the ' Life ' in reference to the 
pamphlet. I had come to the same conclusion as 
the glorious letter of 1821 now before me, that Sir 
Walter was, ab initio, both James & Co. and John & 
Co. ; but all is now setded to 1822, finished, concluded, 
and indeed the pamphlet answered to that date. 

"James in debt in 1816. A pensionary to 1822. 
In 1822 in debt. . . ." 

Figures follow, then, " The conclusion, you may 
take my word for it, will be that in 1826 James had 
not one shilling— on the contrary, was deep in debt." 

The "glorious letter of 182 1 " (June 15) referred 
to by Mr. Cadell here, and often cited in the corre- 
spondence, was a "missive" from Sir Walter to 
James Ballantyne. It contained a statement of 
their relations, and proved that, between 1 8 1 6 and 
1 82 1, James was not a partner in " Ballantyne and 
Co." Sir Walter " was the Firm " ; James was a 
manager with a salary of ;^400 a year. The letter 
is in Lockhart's Reply to the Ballantyne pamphlet, 


pp. 66-7a The '* missive " was discovered after the 
publication of the first edition of Scott's " Life." 

For these and other reasons, Mr. Cadell was 
eager that Lockhart should write a "Reply," and 
backed his opinion by that of Mr. Bayley, Scott's 
legal agent He had sent "the 182 1 letter" to 
Black, the publisher of the Ballantyne pamphlet 
"He was in as great astonishment as I was in 
delight." Mr. Cadell, in a postscript, again urges 
Lockhart to reply in a pamphlet, and not to notice 
the matter in the new edition of the " Life." On 
November 10, Mr. Cadell writes that he has shown 
the letter of 182 1 to Mr. John Gibson and his co- 
trustee, "who concur in declaring it conclusive." 
"Where now is the call for any communication 
about the marriage - contract of January 1825? 
Ballantyne was, in fact, nobody in the concern. 
What of the money for Commissions" (Major 
Scott's) "and Building? Sir Walter was only 
drawing on his own funds." Mr. Cadell ends by 
suggesting that certain documents should be asked 
for, and that he should, perhaps, draw up a state- 
ment of figures. 

On November 16, Mr. Cadell writes about the 
difiiculty of getting the Ballantyne account-books 
for 1821-1826: " B. & Co. do not like to give 
them up, and oflfer to join for an accountant to go 
over them ! We need no accountant ! " 

This does not seem self-evident ! 

"On considering the whole question very maturely," 


says Mr. Cadell, " I see no call for any lengthened 
examination of figures!" On November 20, Mr. 
Cadell had not yet obtained the Ballantyne account- 
books. On November 29, Mr. Cadell is yet more 
jubilant. James was really spared too much in the 
** Life" ! The Ballantyne Trustees **are now funk- 
ing. Mr. Bay ley thinks there should be a consulta- 
tion with them. Mr. Cadell is " against any treaty or 
compromise, or communing on mutual ground." " I 
think you should act the Black Hussar on this 
occasion : neither give nor receive terms." 

On December 6, Mr. Cadell writes that he has 
got, and is examining, ''part of the Ballantyne 
books ; but much, very much is kept back. The 
Old Chief (Mr. Adam) is most violently against 
any treaty, after I read the letters to him. Oh, 
how he did hotch and laugh!" 

By the kindness of the Dowager Lady Adam, 
I am permitted to make use of the letters of the 
venerable Chief Commissioner, Sir Walter's great 
friend. He was now over eighty years of age, and 
blind, but the excellence of his heart, and the 
wonderful clearness of his statements, prove that 
his expressed distrust of his faculties was erroneous. 
This old friend of Sir Walters died in February 
1839; hence it is probable that he never saw or 
never expressed an opinion on Lockhart's reply to 
the Ballantynes. On December 10, he acknow- 
ledges, through an amanuensis, Lockhart's "most 
kind and most judicious observations." 


"In my conversation with Cadell and Bay ley 
on Saturday last, I was much pleased with the 
additional views and facts ; they strengthen the 
case; but Mr. Cadell says that Sir Walter's 
missive (1821), with James Ballantyne's reply, 
renders it triumphant without any more." 

On January 20, the Chief Commissioner sent a 
long letter on the point of an allegation about 
usurious interest received by Scott on loans to the 
firm, and cleared up that point. ** I have conceived, 
in travelling on with you, in every step, an increasing 
and sincere interest in those uncommon qualities of 
head and heart, and of honourable feeling, which 
you have disclosed to me" (December 20, 1838). 
There could be no higher or better evidence as to 
Lockhart's earnestness in this matter than that of 
Sir Walter's old friend. 

I may add the following memorandum made by 
the Chief Commissioner : — 

Memorandum ^ of a Conversation with Mr. Cadell 
and Mr. Bay ley ^ on the pamphlet entitled^ 
'* A Refutation,'' &c. 

"Edinburgh, 17th December, 1838. 

" I consider (and from that point I set out) that 
the missive of Sir Walter, dated 15th June 1821, 

^ This document is in the possession of Mr. Cadell's heirs, to whom 
I owe it 


and Ballantyne's reply, establish unanswerably, that 
the pamphlet of the Ballantynes is a false represen- 
tation throughout. It proceeds upon the assumption 
of making Sir Walter the debtor of Ballantyne, 
whereas it is quite clear, upon the deliberate admis- 
sion of Ballantyne, that he was indebted to Sir 
Walter, and it does not appear that there ever 
was a period when Sir Walter was indebted to 
him. • • ." 

Mr. Adam then examines the letters concern- 
ing James Ballantyne's financial position at the 
time of his marriage (February 6, 1816), to this 
result : — 

** It is established, by the deliberate written de- 
clarations and solemn acts of the parties, that Mr. 
Lockhart is perfectly correct in what he has asserted 
in the ' Life,' and that Mr. Cadell and Mr. Bayley 
were equally correct in the information with which 

they supplied him. 

• • . • • . 

"It is thus made to appear, by the most unerring 
evidence which human affairs afford, namely, the 
deliberate declarations of the parties in writing, and 
their acts in the most solemn contract which exists 
in the social intercourse of man, that the facts upon 
which the pamphlet is founded, and the calumnies 
contained in it, are unanswerably refuted, so that 
it is quite unnecessary to carry the matter further ; 
but as it might be satisfactory in some views to do 
so, the period between 1 809 and 1 8 1 6 and between 


1822 and 1826 may be looked into and the result 

"Who will now deny," writes Mr. Cadell, on 
January 30, 1840, "that Sir Walter was sole partner 
and sole prop of both concerns, and the sufferer, 
the real sufferer, by the extravagancies and misman- 
agement of both his allies? . . . Sir Walter Scott 
lost ;^20,ooo by these concerns ; pity it is he did 
not wipe it off from the produce of his wondrous 
writings, in place of allowing it to roll on in a huge 
sum, which was, in 1826, the means of overwhelming 

Here the letters of Mr. Cadell cease, that is, no 
more are apparently preserved, till we reach 1847. 

The reader now understands the nature and 
authority of Lockhart's "brief." From the incom- 
pleteness of the correspondence, I was uncertain as 
to whether the whole material in Mr. Cadell's and 
Lockhart's hands was submitted for counsel's opinion 
to an eminent advocate who is mentioned. 

I am now informed by Mr. Bay ley. Writer to the 
Signet, who has most kindly examined the books 
of his firm, that the documents submitted to the 
Chief Commissioner, with a brief by Mr. Cadell, 
"were on January 5, 1839, laid before Mr. Duncan 
M'Neill, advocate (afterwards Lord Colonsay), and 
that, as he was unable to undertake their conside- 
ration, they were sent to Mr. Patrick Robertson, 
advocate (afterwards Lord Robertson), and that he. 


in consultation with Mr. Cadell and my father, 
(Mr. Bayley), revised Lockhart*s proposed Reply 
to the Ballantyne pamphlet. Mr. Robertson gave 
no written opinion ; and the result of his being 
consulted was his revisal of Mr. Lockhart s Reply." ^ 

Perhaps it is now sufficiently clear that, both in 
the " Life of Scott," and, later, in his Reply to the 
first Ballantyne pamphlet, Lockhart did not write 
hastily, nor neglect due consultation with the best 
accessible authorities. To have established this 
fact suffices for my purpose. As late as 185 1, 
Lockhart wrote, '* The details of Scott's commercial 
perplexities remain in great measure inexplicable." * 
Therefore I do not attempt to judge, in matters of 
detail, between Lockhart and the representatives of 
the Ballantynes. It is enough to demonstrate that 
Lockhart did his best to be accurate. 

As a literary production his pamphlet may, un- 
deniably, be censured for its taste.' It is not the 
•'dignified reply" desired by Mr. Cadell. In his 
Journal^ Sir Walter Scott, amidst his distresses, 
exclaims, " I don't care ! " and avers that his temper 
is growing "savage," and that he ''stands at bay." 
Constant misfortune and endless tracasseries had 
evidently a similar effect on Lockhart's temper, at 
no time to be compared to Sir Walter s. The pro- 

* Letter of Mr. Bayley, Edinburgh, March 25, 1896. 

' Quarterly Review^ voL Ixxxviii. p. 199. "Life and Letters of 

• "The Ballantyne Humbug Handled." In a letter to Sir Adam 
Fergusson. Robert Cadell, Edinburgh, 1839. 



vocations of the Ballantyne pamphlet, above all the 
motto, must be allowed for, and Lockhart, of course, 
believed to the fullest extent in his "brief." The 
tone and taste of his Reply may thus be accounted 
for, though not vindicated. He swept away, with 
success, a cloud of petty imputations. For example, 
it was alleged that his friendly letters to James 
Ballantyne " must have been written at the very time 
when I was concocting my so-called 'calumnies.' 
I was not quite in such a hurry as to be ' concocting ' 
a book about a friend and parent before he was cold 
in his grave." It was several years later, when 
he had studied the affairs of the Ballantynes. that 
he changed his tone. This part of the Reply the 
Chief Commissioner had approved. 

Into the financial part of Lockhart's argument, 
and of the Ballantynes' answer in a second pamphlet, 
it is impossible for me to enter. I have made, 
and abandoned, the attempt to elucidate masses of 
figures, charges, and counter- charges. The late 
Mr. Dykes Campbell. I am informed, spent a year 
on these affairs, with no apparent result. As to 
what James Ballantyne calls "the discreditable 
incident" of October 1816, adding, "I was not 
aware of the terrible consequences arising from one 
acting partner's using the co-partnery signature for 
his personal purposes." I cannot see that the Trustees 
make a satisfactory explanation. * At the least 
they place James in the position of "an ignorant 
* " Ballantyne Humbug," p, 59. Reply, pp. 103-10$. 


accountant," as, by the Trustees showing, he frankly 
confessed himself to be.^ To accountants who are 
not ignorant the rest of this controversy must be 
left; Lockhart writes, "The whole import of my 
statement was, that, as a man of affairs, and as 
manager of the business, Ballantyne had injured 
Scott by his carelessness and inefficiency." Ballan- 
tyne's own letters confess ignorance, confess a 
beginning in business made "without capital." 
Lockhart may have been wholly wrong as to the 
extent of Scott s nescience about the bills, and 
on other points ; he had only his brief to go upon. 
It would, perhaps, have been wiser to meet the 
Ballantyne Trustees, and discuss quietly their view 
of the matter ; but Lockhart's advisers discounte- 
nanced this course. He says, ** I have all along 
considered myself as Sir Walter's literary executor, 
aiid abstained, in general, from giving either advice 
or opinion as to any steps proposed or adopted 
in reference to any money matters of one sort or 
another." * It might have been well if the biographer 
could have abstained from discussion of money 
matters, no less than did the executor ; but absten- 
tion was impossible. 

The idea that Mr. Cadell should be the " respon- 
dent " was discountenanced by the Chief Commis- 
sioner. Lockhart merely acted as the mouthpiece 
of Mr. Cadell, and Mr. Bayley, the exponent of 

^ Reply, p. 84. 

*-' "Ballantyne Humbug," p. 117. 


"THE DIRTY" 171 

their views of the question. If his finance is wrong, 
that is a warning to men of letters against dabbling 
in figures, "states," "calendars," "bills," "counter- 
bills," and the other mythology of commerce. 

As to what Lockhart thought of the second 
Ballantyne pamphlet, the reply to his own, I have 
no evidence beyond what is contained in this letter 
to Mr. Andrew Shortrede, son of the Mr. Robert 
Shortrede who accompanied Scott in his raids into 
Liddesdale long ago : — 

" Milton Lockhart, 
Sept, 18, 1839. 

"My dear Sir, — ... I have hardly yet had 
leisure to read the new Ballantyne pamphlet, but I 
see the manufacturers are at their old tricks, men- 
tioning the ;^i6oo odd of book debts due to James 
Ballantyne when the firm was formed in 1805, 
whereas it was twice over stated by me distinctly 
in my pamphlet. They accuse me of omitting 
various balances, &c., and yet imply that the book 
they are drawn from was found by them since my 
pamphlet appeared. They refer to their appendix 
for a most important array of figures, &c. — the 
details of James's expenditure — and behold the 
appendix hath not the document. But I am not 
sure that I shall think it worth while to meddle again 
with the Dirty and his associates.— Yours truly, 

"J. G. Lockhart." 

Here the discussion of an affair often made 


matter of reproach against Lockhart must end. 
I am content to give the sources of Lockhart's 
**foul and elaborate misrepresentation of the 
Ballantynes." ^ If John was a vir pietate gravis^ 
if James was a learned and sedulous accountant, 
then Lockhart "foully and elaborately misrepre- 
sented" the brothers. 

^ Miss Martineau, " Biographical Sketches,'' pp. 348, 349. 


LONDON, 1837-1843 

Illness of Mrs. Lockhart — Letter to Miss Edgeworth.— Mrs. Lockhart's 
death. — Letters to William and Violet Lockhart. — Burial-place. — 
Retreat to Milton Lockhart — The children described. — Letter to 
Laidlaw. — Letter to Wilson. — Grief of Lockhart — Wilson's de- 
spair. — His rapid recovery. — Letter to Miss Edgeworth. — Return 
to society. — Haydon on Life of Scott — Lockhart on his critics. — 
Myth of his marriage. — "The widow." — The Bowden Bard. — 
Talleyrand on Macaulay. — Death of Charles Scott — Letter to 
Milman. — " Demonstration.*' — Scientific gaieties. — Chalmers and 
the Contessina. — Letter on Quarterly gossip. — On politics. — 
Central America. — Copyright Bill. — Walter and Charlotte. — A 
Rhyme of Rose. — Louis Napoleon. — "The Jew scamp." — 
"Coningsby." — Advice to Walter. — Duchy of Lancaster. — 
Walter's follies. — Letters to Laidlaw. — Court gossip. — Lockhart 
at a balL — Visit to Italy. — Avemus, " a third-rate loch." — Letter 
to Christie. — Pompeii described. — Return to England. 

We have seen that Lockhart s work on the " Life 
of Scott" was interrupted by a great misfortune. 
His letters to his family, in the April of 1837, speak 
most anxiously about Mrs. Lockhart's health. 

The following note to Miss Edgeworth is con- 
cerned with his domestic sorrow and of his great 

work : — 

*' London, Aprii 12, 1837. 

"Dear Miss Edgeworth, — I am sure you will 
be very sorry, in the midst of your own distresses, 
to hear that my wife, so far from answering your 



kind letter, has not been for many weeks able to 
read one. She has gone through a six weeks' 
severe treatment for a liver complaint, and, though 
the doctors think she has now overcome the disease, 
the utter prostration of strength in which the cure 
has left her is most deplorable to witness. I had 
not heard till I read your letter of the grievous 
affliction you have sustained in the loss of Mrs. 
Fox. Indeed, for a long while I have been hardly 
in the world or in the way of hearing anything. 
I shall inform you of Sophia's progress by-and-by ; 
and meantime beg you to believe that your approba- 
tion of my book, should it be so fortunate as to 
receive it when completed, will afford me far greater 
satisfaction than I could draw from all the applauses 
of all the world that did not, like you, know 
and love Sir Walter Scott. — Ever, my dear Miss 
Edgeworth, yours most truly, 

"J. G. LoCKHART." 

Once Lockhart detected despair in the faces of 
the physicians ; then came brief intervals of hope. 
But a constitution never strong, and severely tried 
by earlier maladies and by a succession of sorrows, 
was unable to rally. On May 17, Mrs. Lockhart 
died. Long before, in ** Adam Blair," her husband 
had depicted the passionate grief of a man smitten 
by the sorest of all afflictions. This he had now 
to endure, and he bore it like a man of courage, 
fortified by the sense of duty. In later years he 


could speak, to an intimate friend, more freely of 
the blank in his life, the irremediable and undying 
regret. At the moment he wrote thus to his 
brother \ViUiam : — 

^^May 17, 1837. 

*'My dear William, — At three this morning 
my poor wife breathed her last. I pray you signify 
to Violet and Lawrence that her end was calm, 
and that throughout her long illness her sweetness 
of temper had never given way. Both Sophia's 
brothers are with me — but this is a terrible blow, 
and will derange all my hopes and plans of life. I 
shall very probably ask you to come up by-and-by, 
for I may need counsel. — Yours affectionately, 

**J. G. LoCKHART." 

Two days later he wrote to his sister : — 

" My dear Violet, — As when this reaches you, 
you are likely to be with my brothers, as well as 
my dear father, I may tell my story at once to all 
I have now left to care for besides my poor babes. 
Sophia's mind had been during many weeks in a 
very unsettled condition, but it pleased God to 
restore her to full possession of herself for the last 
fortnight, and, though her bodily suffering was 
occasionally acute, she surveyed her approaching 
departure with calmness and humble serenity, and 
at different times signified her farewell feelings and 
desires to us all in the sweetest manner. I think 
no one ever lived a more innocent life, and it is my 


consolation now to reflect that it was perhaps as 
happy a life as is often granted to human creature. 
The duty I owe to her children is quite sufficient 
to steady and compose me, and I shall endeavour 
to make the world continue, as it had begun, to 
wear a cheerful aspect for them. Their grief has 
been very deep, but they both have a vast deal of 
good sense and feeling for others, and are trying, 
poor souls, to look like themselves and be a comfort 
to me. . • • 

'* I have purchased a plot of ground in the New 
Cemetery on the Harrow Road — a wide, spacious 
garden with a beautiful prospect — and that morning, 
an hour before we reach the spot, the bodies of 
Anne and Johnnie will have been removed thither 
from the vaults of Marylebone, that the sisters may 
be henceforth side by side, and the child in the same 
dust with his mother. . . . The place will be one 
that we can visit from time to time with ease, and, 
I do not doubt, with a sense of pleasure. 

" Perhaps I am indulging feelings at which many 
would exclaim as savouring too much of the dreams 
of the mere fancy. But I don't believe you will 
take such a view of the matter. My dearest 
mother has a resting-place of which I can think 
with satisfaction, a solemn and awful one; but, 
except Westminster Abbey, there is no old burial 
ground here that I could have been able to look 
at with comfort, and remember that it contained 
the ashes of *my wife. ..." 


The rest of the letter refers to his domestic 
arrangements, and the education of the children. 
By the invitation of his brother William, Lockhart, 
with his boy and girl, retired to Scotland, to Milton 
Lockhart, accompanied by Mr. Charles Scott, him- 
self in deep grief. Walter Lockhart was now, as 
Mrs. Lockhart describes him in a letter of the 
year before, a strong, robust boy, reading even 
Latin books with interest when they dealt with 
war, ''screaming over *Gil Bias'" in the original, 
and, during a holiday at Boulogne, ''speaking 
French with extreme audacity," fencing, riding, 
and dancing.^ He was at King s College School, 
where the Rossettis, and Dr. Boyd of St. Andrews, 
were then being educated. Dr. Boyd remembers 
him as a boy of unusual beauty, with bright fair hair, 

^ In the letter of Mrs. Lockhart from Boulogne, she says : '' Lock- 
hart and I went to the play, out of curiosity to see some of the very 
wicked dramas that have been making such a noise in Paris, such 
as the Tour de Nesle^ and, strange to say, I have felt more shocked 
at some of our own farces. I suppose the extreme want of nature 
of the pieces makes me feel this. They are extremely well acted. 
One thmg is odd enough : a French heroine is always a certain 
age, either in the novels or plays, generally with a grown-up family, 
before she is wicked." Mrs. Locldiart was much interested in the 
Blessing of the Sea before the herring fishery begins, and in a 
tOQching scene of a woman and a child on the return of a boat. 

''The woman had a httle boy of about four years old; a great 
ornament of gold, her husband's gift, I suppose, she pushed into 
the child's hand, screaming, * Child, look for father — I can't see ! ' 
her own hands convulsively pressed on her eyes, evidently not 
being able to see whether she was widow or wife. I could not rest 
tin I learned he was safe ; and such a picture of happiness, both going 
home, their friends congratulating them." (October 9, 1836.) 



and resembling the portrait of Hugh Littlejohn, 
Mr. William Rossetti, in his biography of his 
brother, speaks of Walter's regular features, and 
boyish skill in making boats with the aid of a 

There exists a little pen-and-ink drawing, mounted 
on brown paper, and inscribed in Lockhart's hand, 
** Very like W. S. L. before he went to Cambridge. 
EheuV' For Lockhart's heart was to be doubly 
tried, first by an exaggeration of youthful errors, 
and then, after a complete reconciliation, by the 
sudden and unexpected death of his dear son. 

Of his children, shortly before his great loss, 
Lockhart had written thus to Will Laidlaw (Jan. 19, 
1837): "Walter is now a tall and very handsome 
boy of near eleven years, Charlotte a very winsome 
gipsy of eight, both intelligent in the extreme, and 
both, notwithstanding all possible spoiling, as simple, 
natural, and unselfish as if they had been bred on 
a hill-side, and in a family of twelve." Such com- 
panions must have been, and were, his best con- 
solation, and the most certain stimulus to action. 
Indeed, his packets of books and proofs from Mr. 
Murray followed him to Milton Lockhart. As once 
long before, and in the stress of a mental anguish 
even more poignant and more complex, he "sought 
in business repose." 

Long afterwards, in 1844, Lockhart wrote to 
Wilson, himself bereaved in 1837, "Let us both 
be thankful that we have children worthy of their 


mothers," and he reproaches himself because, in 
spring, he can awaken no more than ''a dim, ghost- 
like semi-sympathy with them, or in anything pre- 
sent or to come. No good, however, can come of 
these croakings." Mrs. Gordon charges Lockhart 
with ** something of a listless bitterness," in con- 
trast with her widowed father's "healthful heart." ^ 
Surely in the "regret for buried time, that keener 
in sweet April wakes," a man may speak freely to 
an old friend and companion in sorrow, about the 
regret pensif et con/us d' avoir iti, et de nitre plus. 

It will be shown that Lockhart neither forswore 
society, nor threw a gloom over the happiness of 
his children. The very letter to Wilson disproves 
this part of the theory. Mr. Gleig writes, in defence 
of his old college friend, that Lockhart visited 
Wilson "at the season of his deepest anguish." 
Then, from notes of a conversation with Lockhart, 
he prints his words: — 

"I found Wilson utterly prostrated, unable, or, 
as he said, determined never to take any interest 
in the affairs of life again." 

" Well, what passed ? " 

"Not much worth repeating. I reasoned with 
him, and tried to show him that neither he nor I 
had any right to succumb to evils that were not 
of our own seeking — that we both had work to do 
and must do it — that it was neither manly nor 
Christian to mourn as he was mourning." 

^ " Christopher North," xi. 287, 289. 


** Had your remonstrances any effect ? " 
" Yes, I think they had He pressed my hand, 
looked up for a moment into my face, and said, 
* It is all true, I know it, but I have no strength/ 
However, his strength came back faster than we 
had both expected, and now he is pretty much what 
he ever was."^ 

Lockhart, within himself, did not become " much 
what he ever was." But, except in his letter to 
Wilson, and in another to Milman, he kept his 
enduring grief ; while, in that cor serratum, 

" His night of loss was always there.'' 

It is ill work, the criticism of another's grief: 
"the heart knoweth its own bitterness." Let it be 
enough to say, and later to show, that Lockhart 
could still find pleasure in nature and in human 
company ; and, above all, could take and give an 
aging man's, and a sad man's, but a brave and 
constant man's pleasure in the society of his 

Lockhart could not work at his Biography of 
Scott in these months of retirement at Milton 
Lockhart. His diary tells nothing of his doings 
from March 3 till May 16 and May 17. On the 
former date Sir Walter Scott, the son, arrived from 
Ireland ; the latter page bears, between lines of 
black, the melancholy record of the day. On 

^ Quarterly Review, vol. cxiii. p. 230. 


May II something had been written, and oblite- 
rated with one large coating of ink. There follows 
a blank till the note of leaving Milton Lockhart for 
town, by way of Rokeby, on September i8. There 
Lockhart saw Charles Scott, and met Christie again. 
On October 21 he with Lord Ashley and the chil- 
dren visited Hatfield House. On December 4 he 
wrote thus to Miss Edgeworth, on some slip in the 
first edition of his " Life of Scott '* : — 

** London, December 4, 1837. 

** My dear Miss Edgeworth, — I had some days 
ago your very kind letter, and I thank you for it 
most sincerely, though very briefly. I much regret 
the circumstances which have given pain to you or 
to others ; but the truth is, the enormous heaps of 
letters committed to me were all copied by ladies, 
and the originals forthwith returned ; and I fear 
besides innumerable blunders of names and dates 
which, in the most important of them, it cost me no 
small pains to correct, there may have been, on the 
part of my dear Sophy and her assistants, many 
omissions of hints about omission which had 
come to hand on separate papers. I hope no 
very serious evil has been occasioned, but consider 
that she who had been my secretary for years in 
preparing these Memoirs only lived to see, not to 
read my first volume, and in her I lost the only 
person who could have put and kept me right as 
to a thousand little things. 


** I shall bear all you say in mind when I come, if 
ever, to a second edition. Meantime believe me 
always most gratefully and affectionately yours, 

"J. G. LoCKHART." 

On December 12, Lockhart notes, "Dine at Mr. 
George Cruikshank's, to meet Mr. Dickens, alias 
Boz." He takes the children to see Madame 
Vestris ; when he can be, it seems, from the entries, 
that he is always in their company. 

As to his feelings about his book, a trace may 
be found in a letter to Haydon, part of which has 
already been cited in another connection ^ : — 

" Your approbation of the * Life of Scott * is 
valuable, and might well console me for all the 
abuse it has called forth both on him and on me. 
I trusted to the substantial greatness and goodness 
of the character, and thought I should only make 
it more effective in portraiture by keeping in the 
few specks. I despise with my heels the whole 
trickery of erecting an alabaster image, and calling 
that a Man, Probably I shall be very severely 
handled for daring, in the seventh volume, to in- 
dicate the decay of his intellectual vigour. But I 
did this very deliberately, on purpose to show that 
all the good points of his moral being, and all the 
predominant trains of fancy and feeling, survived 
the wreck. The work is now done, and I leave 

* February 11, 1838. 


it to its fate. I had no personal object to gratify,^ 
except, indeed, that I wished and hoped to please 
my poor wife ; and, since she is gone, I consider the 
whole affair with most consummate quiescence." 

For the rest, Lockhart's diaries of 1838 and 1839 
show that he kept his usual company ; saw, among 
new faces, Hay ward, Carlyle, Sterling, Mr. John 
Hope; went to Commemoration at Oxford with 
Christie; dined with Traill and Gleig; took the 
children to plays and to the country houses of 
intimate friends; occasionally dined alone with 
Walter, and became acquainted with Mrs. Norton 
and Miss Burdett Coutts. Autumn he spent in 
Scotland with his relations. 

As happened in Sir Walter's case, people were 
determined to marry Lockhart, and selected for him 
a young lady of great fortune. On April 22, 1839, 
he writes to his brother William : — 

"I have sent you lately two or three Satirists, 
&€., for private refreshment. The story of my 

marriage to is revived in such force that I 

expect to find it in some of these worthy chronicles 
anon. The fact is, I have not seen the damsel 
above twice these twelve months, and I never was 

in her house in my life. Yet Lady formally 

congratulated me on the engagement. . . . This 
malice is at her, not me. ... If ever the girl pro- 
poses to me, you shall hear immediately." 

^ The profits of the book went towards paying ofT Sir Walter's 


The absurd news reached the Border, and Lock- 
hart was congratulated by one of "huz Tividale 
poets," not the tuneful weaver of Galashiels, who 
breakfasted with Scott and Hogg on a notable 
occasion, but the Bowden Bard. He wrote : — 

"Dear Sir, — It's rumoured hereabouts ye're 
gaun to wed the widow" (the lady was not a 
widow). " They say the widow has a land of big 
stane-houses in the Strand, chockfu' o' siller, kists 
on kists. A five pund note will ne'er be missed, 
which would refresh yours, with regard, for auld 
lang syne, 

"The Bowden Bard." 

Bowden Moor is in Roxburghshire ; there Scott, 
on a day, was guided by a pillar of smoke to the 
shy haunt of a timid Tory voter. 

To his sister Violet, Lockhart wrote often ; she 
was in ill health, and his father was old and ailing. 
"The Queen," he says, "was much delighted with 
Sydney Smith's late definition of Tom Macaulay — 
"a Book in Breeches ;" but it is only a terse angli- 
fication of old Talleyrand's mo I on the same subject, 
eight years ago, "Voila un gros livre, on m'avait 
parl6 d un grand homme." 

The year 1840 finds Lockhart dining, or giving 
dinners, or taking the children to parties almost 
every day. His engagement book might make 
envious men of letters feel as young Mr. Moss did 


when he surveyed the cards on Clive Newcome's 
chimney-piece All manner of men, men of letters 
and marquises, entertain and are entertained. We 
find Lockhart attending Carlyle's lectures, or, at 
least, one lecture of Carlyle's. The Quarterly 
absorbed his working day ; autumn, as usual, he 
spent in Scotland, seeing, among others, Wilson 
and Lord Peter. The diary of 1841 opens — 
*'This year died Charles Scott, October 29; and 
Theodore Hook died in August." To Mr. Charles 
Scott, who died at Teheran, he was deeply attached ; 
and Hook was a familiar companion, met for the 
last time on July 14. 

This letter to Miss Edgeworth speaks of the loss 
of his brother-in-law : — 

" London, December 27, 1841. 

*• My dear Miss Edgeworth, — The confirmation 
of the newspaper report of Charles Scott's death 
never arrived till last night — the Persian Minister's 
messenger having been stopped by our Ambassador 
»t Vienna for a week. I had no doubt of the truth 
of the sad story — but still could not write to you, 
sis I otherwise would have been sure to do, in the 
^absence of direct intelligence. 

" I am very grateful for all your kind thoughts and 
recollections. Charles has only joined a company 
"who are, and ever will be, as present to me, while 
memory remains, as if they still were partakers in 
what we call Life. It is, however, a very serious 


calamity to me, for we had very much in common, 
and it was to him I had always looked, in case of 
my own death, for protection to my children during 
their tender years, or rather, I should say, for giving 
them that cast of mind and sentiment which I 
would fain have them inherit from their mother. • . . 
— Ever affectionately yours, 


'* Please return the letters." 

Lockhart's life at this period is best read, perhaps, 
in his letters to Milman. 

This note, after some details about " The Em- 
peror" (Mr. Murray) and the Quarterly, describes 
a " Demonstration " with some vivacity : — 

" Milton Lcx:khart, Lanark, 
Sept 22, 184a 

"Mv DEAR Milman, — . . . Yesterday I spent 
in Glasgow. I found the town all occupied with 
a Chartist procession of at least 20,000 people 
arranged by trades and districts — the object being 
to welcome back, as the first huge banner explained, 
* Victims of Whig persecution,' to wit, two cotton- 
spinning scamps convicted of a conspiracy for, inter 
alia, murder about two years ago, and now returned 
from Botany Bay by the favour of the Whig Govern- 
ment, who have reduced their seven years of exile 
to one. The flags and symbols were of the most 


audacious kind — the inscriptions breathing every- 
thing horrid and atrocious against kings and priests, 
and especially Whigs, and the only flags not in- 
scribed being either Tricolour or Yankee. Yet 
the captain of the Glasgow police stalked with his 
baton in advance of the whole, and his satellite 
sergeants r^^lated and accompanied every section 
of the march ; halting to groan at every Whig 
factory or mansion, and to cheer, very often, at 
the residences of the Tories. I thought this was 
carrying liberality a little too far on the part of the 
authorities ; but Jacobi of Balm, whom I sat by at 
dinner, was enchanted — he had never before seen 
police acting but like executioners ; in this happy land 
they seemed good-natured schoolmasters humouring 
the boys in a frolic I And certainly all was good- 
humour and whisky — not a symptom of violence 
all day long, and the evening quite tranquil. A 
barber who cut my hair told me he fancied it might 
be a question whether the Chartist row or the 
scientific one^ were the grosser humbug. I met 
twenty-four of the philosophers at dinner chez Sheriff 
Alison, Historian and Economist, and Lionfeeder 
in Chief of the City — Duke and Duchess of St 
Albans ; Sir A. Johnstone, Privy Councillor ; 
Lords Breadalbane, Sandon, and Teignmouth ; Sir 
J. Macneil and his wife ; half a score Germans and 
Russians; and the Contessina — whom you pro- 

^ Lockhart used to banter Sir Roderick Murchison about the 
British Association. See Mr. Geikie's *' Life of Murchison." 


bably encountered among your Whigs when she 
illuminated Mayfair a while ago. She owns to 
twenty-three, but looks forty — very handsome, 
dressed after some picture of Correggio, with 
magnificent black curls clustered under portentous 
draperies of gold and scarlet. Her section is, I 
fancy, that of F amour physique^ and the specimen 
she seemed to take most interest in was Sir John 
Macneil, who sported his red ribbon and star with 
due effect. I accompanied these exotics to a prth 
nUnade scientifique et musicale, where perhaps forty 
or fifty ladies and gentlemen were jostled up and down 
the Royal Exchange of Glasgow, among two thou- 
sand dominies in corduroys and mackintoshes, with 
their spouses in straw bonnets, and their daughters 
in tartan snoods and plaids — the refreshments, tea, 
coffee, and punch, in about a hundred huge bowls, 
arranged under a gallery crammed with all the bag- 
pipers of the region. I witnessed the introduction 
of the blazing Contessina to Chalmers, reeking forth 
rain and other fluids, splashed to the mid-leg with 
mud, and with a portentous hat, which distilled 
abundantly water, grease, and odours. The doctor 
has little French and no Italian — so they only 
looked their loves. But I did not see his Grace 
of Siluria,^ and, alas ! I fear I shall not see him ; for 
I left Glasgow at six this morning, quite satisfied 
with the Association, and he and her Grace are, I 
hear, to move whenever the grand Cattle Show is 

^ A nickname of Sir Roderick Murchison, 


over upon the deer parks of Breadalbane. — Yours 
ever truly, J. G. Lockhart. 

"I hope you will do the *Roms, Beschreibung,' 
&c, soon. (A modest Editor ! ) " 

The trouble of the Oxford Movement was now 
beginning, as the following letter shows : Lockhart*s 
position in the Quarterly was that of the moderate 
High Church party : — 

"Milton, October^ 184a 

" My DEAR MiLMAN, — Thanks for your serta 
mixta jocis. I believe I must cut ecclesiastical 
things entirely — it is so very hard to keep the 
peace among my reverend allies : but I think I 
altered nothing in your last article, though I 
omitted a few things, and italicised one or two 
of the quotations; and I am sure you will own 
that if the article were to be in the same number 
Vith that on Tom Carlyle, this was as little as 
the Editor could do in the way of manipulation, 
and most assuredly I took a hundred times more 
liberty with the Oxonian,^ wherefore his jobation is 
yet to come. He has spent these three months past 
in Ireland, and is still there. ... I expect that 
his lucubrations will be highly curious and inte- 
resting, as regards the prime object of his study, 
viz., the actual state and system of the Romish 
clergy, and I hope that this study will be found 

^ Sewell apparently. 


to have much qualified his general theory as to 
the legitimate scope of ecclesiastical authority. It 
would be a lamentable thing for me to lose him. 
I seriously think him one of the greatest writers 
now going ; and even Croker expresses admiration 
pure and unmixed of his last paper, though he is 
as far as you are, perhaps, from the New Mania ; 
but I am thoroughly alive to the danger of the case, 
and extremely obliged to you for all your hints. 

** Of the nine poetesses ^ only one has written in 
acknowledgment — and perhaps she is the best of 

them, *V .' She says that 'all her good has 

come on her at once, ' for she never ' hoped * either 
to be praised in the Quarterly Review^ or to get a 
husband, and that both this article and a proposal 
'reached her in the same week.' I expect cake. 
H. B. must not make her the Terpsichore of the 

" I am sorry John Murray has not sent you the 
Memoirs you wanted — pray, en attendant, give us 
a short article on the French tract you mention — 
but can I not persuade you to buckle to Juvenal 
and Persius? You only have to assume the truth 
as to the profound ignorance of the public, and 
make free use of the best bits of Dryden, Gifford, 
Drummond, &c., &c., and throw off a fine rhapsody 
on Satire — Greek, Roman, Italian, French, and 
English — and you can't fail to produce a most en- 
tertaining, instructive, and really valuable article. 

* Nine Muses reviewed in the Quarterly. 


Gifford's notes are capital material, many of them, 
both for extract and in the way of suggestion. 
Hallam has shown, as well as yourself heretofore, 
how new such old things may be made to appear 
under the treatment of a vigorous hand thoroughly 
mistress of the craft. Another favourite scheme of 
mine for you has been ' Ovid.' " 

Here is a trifle of political gossip, and literary 
talk of new books. Lockhart's interest in Hayward 
may be observed ; they were not deeply attached to 
each other : — 

"The Rev. H. H. Milman, 

Kent House, Tenby, Pembrokeshire. 

"London, Feb. 17, 1841. 

**Mv DEAR MiLMAN, — ... I am not able to tell 
you whether Croker had any offer from Peel. His 
phrases are obscure on that head ; but he seems to 
dine daily with the new Ministers, and to be in good 
humour with them all. Mahon had an offer of his 
old berth ; but I fancy that, the new Foreign Secre- 
tary being a peer, Peel wished to take the Foreign 
department in the House of Commons on himself, 
and therefore made a merit of declining. Peel says 
he behaved very handsomely — and he has gone with 
his wife to the Loire apparently in placidity — ^so I 
look for his name by-and-by in a Gazette. Ashley 
has, to Peel's extreme regret, stood aloof altogether 
on account of the Factory question — and the 
Carlton says his dissent has already cost them 


Bradford. He, too, however, expresses no sort of 
displeasure, and I hope the crack may yet be 
mended — perhaps when a Lordship of the Chamber 
falls vacant. 

" I have had as usual a request to give hints as to 
literary persons worthy of favour, and I hope some 
of my hints, falling in with those of more potent 
voices, may be attended to anon — e.g. as to Hay- 
ward, who ought to have a Police Magistracy or the 
like, if he pleases, as soon as possible. I suppose 
nothing could tear him from May fair, or a Colonial 
Bench might be adorned easily with his person. The 
Quarterly has but few on its staff, and of these 
I don't know any other that is very likely to be 
served soon. In fact, we are a small band. Only 
Croker, yourself, and the Editor can be called 
regular supporters — if I may put myself with you 
two. Sewell, I fear, may hardly do for us, unless 
occasionally when I can tempt him out of his own 
beat, which he has pretty well exhausted. I wish 
they would give him a good living, however — and 
have said so— or a prebend, better still. Ford, 
Broderick, and one or two more, though now and 
then useful, are hardly more than outlying volunteers 
— old Barrow quite effete. I wish I could find one 
or two really good and sturdy hands ; for we are all 
getting old, and I for one am often weary enough 
of the business of article-making. I assure you 
I have had neither offer nor promise of anything 
for myself — indeed, I never had anything like that, 


except from Ministers whom I could not undertake 
to stand by, viz., Canning and Goderiche. But I 
daresay there is no indisposition to serve me in 
case of opportunity. Should a baronetcy be pro- 
posed, I shall beg to hand it to the Emperor.^ 

** Poor Theodore is off the list of claimants. He 
has of course died deep in debt — they say ;^30,ooo — 
and he has left six children, and there is a subscrip- 
tion going on, I think favourably, in their behalf. 
Four g^rls — all young women ! and the mother, who 
is said to have been married by T, H. a year ago. 
His exit was characteristic — but I'll keep it till we 

" There is a deal of very curious reading in a new 
American book by Stephens on Central America — 
rediscovered cities, temples, statues, inscriptions, 
&c, &c ; but, to take up that, one should have Lord 
Kingborough's huge work digested. The images 
have a most Hindoo look some of them — others 
almost Egyptian. Mr. Catlin is going to head a 
party of a hundred, under the Yankee Government, 
for exploring a region said to contain similar monu- 
ments in the direction of the Rocky Mountains. 
Perhaps we shall see the cloud dispersed. Already 
Stephens gives us minute plans and sections of 
palaces which nobody seems to have disturbed since 
the days of Pizarro, and he appears to have strong 
belief in the existence at this moment of an unvisited 
and entire Indian kingdom, enclosed between two 

* Mr. Murray. 


ranges of the great Cordillera.^ Eight thousand 
copies of the book went off forthwith in America — 
so that the interest excited must bq great. I expect 
some very magnificent things from Peel in the way 
of building, painting, &c., &c. He is aware that 
this is Albert's hobby, and it is also his own. Trench 
has published a new edition of his plan about our 
great river, and I really think if we live ten years 
we may see quays and railways on both sides, from 
Westminster Bridge to London Bridge. — Ever 
yours and Mrs. Milman's, 

"J. G. LoCKHART." 

Lockhart had acquired a habit of noting the 
deaths of the year on the first page of his diary. 
In 1842 he marks, ''This year die Dr. Maginn, 
Allan Cunningham, Tom Hamilton" (the brother of 
Sir William), *' Mrs. Fergusson " (his doctor s wife), 
"and my father." 

His diary records, " I placed my father in his 
coffin with my own hands." Dr. Lockhart was buried 
beside his wife in the " Dripping Aisle" of Glasgow 

Lockhart promoted a subscription for Mrs. 
Maginn, and in a letter to Wilson (p. 209), de- 
nounced the Carlton for refusing a contribution. 

* Archaeology has much neglected Central America. To this day 
the Indian city haunts the fancy of explorers, and has believers in its 
existence, despite Mr. Haggard's story of its downfall, '' The Heart 
of the World." 


Meanwhile the usual social functions go on : 
"Walter and I dine at Christies;" "Duchess of 
Sutherland's ftte for the King of Prussia ; " " Lady 
Salisbury's, Lord and Lady Mahon, Lord de Ros, 
Miss de Ros, Lord and Lady Douro, Duke of 
Wellington, Captain Percy." March 15: "The 
Flatterer" (Mn Flatters) began his bust of J. G, 
Lockhart" "To 'Acis and Galatea,' with the 
Murchisons, Walter, and Cha." April 5 : " This 
is the evening of debate on the Copyright Bill. 
Lord Mahon, Macaulay, Lord John Russell, Peel : 
the Bill carried through in its important clauses in 
the Committee, and good hopes of its passing this 

The Bill was of great importance to the family of 
Scott, and Lockhart discussed it in the Quarterly, No. 
cxxxvii. His letter to Mr. Murray on the subject 
IS in Mr, Murray's "Memoirs," ii. 499. "You can, 
if you please, reject the article in toto,'' he says. " I 
don't at present feel at all disposed to take thought 
about Peel's or any other politician's opinion. I 
have studied the subject, and so has Wordsworth, 
who is at least as likely to study any question to ad- 
vantage as Sir Robert Peel, I propose no plan for 
an Act of Parliament. But I think I have shown 
that unless more protection be given to authors and 
publishers — whose interests I have treated as 
identical, which they are — our literature must ex- 
pire in a muddled heap of fraudulent and worthless 
compilations, and base appeals to the lower passions. 


After all, just ask yourself whether the Editor of 
the Quarterly Retnew has not a right to express 
his own deliberate opinion on a subject of that 
sort whenever he pleases? It seems to me, if 
he has not that right, he has none/' (December 
13, 1841.) 

Lockhart's relations with his children at this 
period were as amiable as they were unusual 
Miss Lockhart was being educated at Calais. Her 
brother went from King's College School to read 
with Mr, Holden. He had been entered at rabbits, 
and looked forward to grouse. To both of the 
children Lockhart wrote frequently, treating them 
almost as equals in age and understanding. The 
gossip of Parliament, anecdotes of the Queen and 
Prince Albert, news of the Duke of Wellington, are 
mingled with bulletins as to Pepper and Ginger> 
doubtless of the old Liddesdale breed, the Dandie 
Dinmont strain. To Charlotte he writes that he 
misses their ** cosy little Sunday dinners," *'your 
little interruptions." " I miss your voices, and feet, 
and plague, sadly," he writes to Walter, "but must 
bear my solitude for a while longer yet." He sends 
Sydney Smith's latest jokes, old jokes now, and well 
known. "Now mind * Medea,' " he writes to Walter ; 
" it was the first Greek play I ever read, and I can 
still say every chorus by heart." " The King of 
Oude" — then a neighbour of his — "can flirt like a 
Christian," he writes to Charlotte. To Walter, at 
Mn Holden's, he gives some advice, Walter having 


jested at "The Puseyite Calendar" : " Consider these 
gentlemen think the fate of the world hinges on this 
nonsense ; laugh at it in your sleeve as nonsense, but 
respect their sincerity, and be polite." In a matter 
of some difficulty with a governess, Lockhart shows 
the most perfect considerateness and liberality. He 
would cross to Calais, entertain Miss Lockhart, her 
duenna, and her girl friends at dinner (including 
champagne), and drive as many of them as a roomy 
chaise would hold into the country. When they 
were at Brighton he went down, gave them dinners, 
and consulted them on the innocent menu. He 
corrected Walter's Latin prose (and very bad that 
Latin prose was) with extraordinary gentleness and 
patience. Few parents indeed would have been so 
lenient in the presence of such perversions of the 
language of Cicero. Here is a rhymed petition, 
written for Charlotte to Mr. Rose, asking him to 
contribute to her Album. In 1825, Scott, Lockhart, 
and Miss Anne Scott formed an Anti- Album Society. 
This was forgotten when Lockhart had a girl of 
his own. 


Dear Mr. Rose, 

I can't suppose 
You'll frown on my petition. 

The tiniest dose 

Of verse or prose 
Will satiate my ambition. 


But if you be 
In topping glee 

(As I could wish you ever), 
Throw off for me 
Some jeu d* esprit y 

The cleverest of the clever. 

The book I've got — 
As yet no blot 

Upon its virgin pages — 
May show perhaps, 
Ere long, the scraps 

Of many bards and sages. 

But, grant who may 
The boons I pray, 

A blight's on all my posies. 
If luckless scorn 
Shall plant with thorn 

The spot I've marked for Rose's. 

He was no gloomy recluse, who, fatigued, like 
Caxton long ago, with weary writing, yet found 
time and energy for long letters of family and 
political gossip to a boy and a girl. The politics 
are dead, dead are the uncles and aunts and friends 
of whom Lockhart writes, but the ardent affection 
in these old letters never dies. Here follow a few 
somewhat longer extracts — Miss Lockhart was then 
in Calais : — 

^^ August Zy 1840. 

" My dear Charlotte, — Your French epistle has 
given me much satisfaction, and I regret that, how- 


ever French my figure may be, I have not French 
at my jftnger-ends to answer it to-day, I am sur- 
prised you say not a word about Louis Napoleon's 
new insanity, and beg you will let me know all the 
Calais part of the story. I have met him occasionally 
in society, and he always appeared to me a stupid 
vulgar corporal, with nothing imperial about him, 
but a breast-pin of diamonds in the shape of an eagle. 
He must now be mad in earnest, I suppose. Our 
alarms of war have already blown over, but I hope 
you will also let me know what they say at Calais 
on that score. ... It afforded me more pleasure 
than I can well express to see in what kind hands 
you are, and I hope you will profit largely by the 
opportunities of improvement afforded you in being 
surrounded by such accomplished and amiable 

To Walter he writes on **Coningsby," which 
Croker asserted that he had never read : — 

"ii/ay 13, 1844. 
**(To Walter Scott Lockhart.) 

"... Ben Disraeli, the Jew scamp, has published 
a very blackguard novel, in which the Pusey and 
Young England doctrines are relieved by a full and 
malignant, but clever enough detail of all the 
abominations of Lord Hertford, and Croker figures 
in full fig.^ I should not wonder if there were some 

^ As Mr. Rigby. Lord Hertford left a large sum of money to Mr. 



row — the abuse of Crokey is so very horrid, ditto 
of Lord Lowthen Peel is flattered, but the Govern- 
ment lashed. Awful vanity of the Hebrew ! " 

In March 1844 (to advance a little beyond our 
date), Walter failed to get into Christ Church and 
Balliol. Lockhart makes no harsher criticism than 
this : ** I am in great difficulty, and I don't doubt 
you will quite share my concern." Again : " Your 
letter gives me great pleasure, I trust there will 
ever be entire confidence between us. Our interests 
are and always must be the same, and I don't doubt 
that when the proper time comes we will agree as 
to your choice of a vocation. 

" I have always considered that it would be absurd 
to choose the Bar, unless you had satisfied me and 
yourself, while at Oxford, of your capacity for very 
arduous study, and, I may add, of your having a 
natural faculty for public speaking. The last I 
never had — and it was the great error in my early 
days that I nevertheless selected the Bar. In these 
days there were no Debating Societies at Oxford ; 
and it is very different now. 

"But I had to make my election at a very early 
age — 19 — and had no relations capable of under- 
standing the case or of advising me judiciously." 

He then says that they must consider about a 
profession after Walter has taken his degree at 
Oxford. He next refers to the little office (the 
Auditorship of the Duchy of Lancaster) which 


Government had given him in 1843, as below his 
expectations, if anything was to be done. '' But, in 
truth, I had never counted on them at all. I ac- 
cepted what was offered, and thankfully, an your 
account^ as enabling me to defray the charges of 
Oxford more easily than I could otherwise have 

As has been said, Walter did not matriculate at 
Oxford. At Cambridge, where he stayed but a 
short time, he acquired those singular habits of 
vsdn expense which a certain proportion of under- 
graduates develop. By the end of 1846 he was 
thinking of the army, and was already in debt, and 
in his father's displeasure. Lockhart set down his 
extravagances, and rightly, to vanity ; and the old 
familiar course of things ensued — a sudden outburst 
of a young man's folly, estrangement, and, at last, 
fuU reconciliation and early death. Of this sorrow 
more is to be said. 

Letters to Will Laidlaw, of this period (1842), 
are interesting. 

" 24 Sussex Place, Regent's Park, 

April 'y^y 1842. 

*' My dear Laidlaw,— I feel very much your kind- 
ness in taking care that my first intelligence of your 
attack should come in your own handwriting, and 
show that neither mind nor the nobler functions of 
the body have suffered. Be of good cheer — temper- 
ance you always practised, but you can still reduce, 


and that will do wonders. Perhaps you may not 
know, for great pains were taken to conceal it, that 
Professor Wilson had a similar seizure a year ago. 
Ever since, he has resolutely abstained from all 
strong drink whatever, and his friends assure me he 
now not only shows no symptom of the malady, but 
looks as if he had renewed his youth under the 
salutary influence of the pledge. 

" Let me hear again soon. I am writing to-day to 
Sir W. Scott, whose last letter gave good news of 
himself and wife, but very bad ones of the state of 
the Native Army in Madras. I am afraid he must 
have a share in the great doings now arranged for 
the Cabool frontier. God send him well out of that 
and safe home. If this Copyright Bill pass the 
Lords (as I hardly doubt it will), it will be a very 
great thing for his interests. Indeed, I expect he 
will have some proposition for Cadell, which will 
enable him soon after the law is made to call his 
land his own. Said Cadell also talks grandly of 
the prospects of his pictorial edition of the Novels, 
of which No. I is published this day ; but commerce 
is at present in a very ticklish state, and I fear he 
will find less success — at the start, at all events — 
than he has been looking for.^ 

"Give my love to Mrs. Laidlaw and the young 
ladies. My boy and girl are both well — but, alas ! 
you and they wouldn't know each other if you met. 
And yet I should not say so, for Walter is very like 

* The " Abbotsford Edition " was clumsy and unsuccessful. 


Sir Walter Scott, and Charlotte very like her mother 
and Anne. — Ever yours affectionately, 


To Laidlaw he again gives a budget of family 
news: — 

" London, May 25, 1843. 

*• My dear Sir, — . . • My boy is now as tall as 
I am — 17 years old — and exceedingly active and 
robust ; a good horseman and an excellent oarsman ; 
a very good boy and a great comfort to me, though 
not as yet very ardent in his pursuit of learning. 
His sister is at 15 more of a woman in appearance, 
manners, and acquirements, than many considerably 
more advanced in years. She is, I think, though not 
beautiful, a very graceful girl, and I have in her a 
constant and agreeable companion at my fireside 
and in my walks. So much for home. — Sir Walter 
and his wife continue to have perfect health in 
India. Some time ago he fancied he might be able 
to effect an exchange and come home, but the bad 
times of trade have not spared the booksellers, and 
the debt remaining heavy, after I had hoped to 
hear of its total liquidation, he, for the present, has 
laid aside all thoughts of quitting the post he holds. 
He had for a year the command of the regiment, 
and will, I trust, have it again soon, and when he 
has that the allowances are very handsome. Mean- 
time he writes regularly and in excellent spirits. 
Lately he tells me, hearing that a Highland battalion 


was to pass about fifty miles off from his station 
(Bangalore), he rode that distance one day, and 
back the next, merely to hear the skirl of the pipes. 
No doubt there would be a jolly mess for his recep- 
tion besides — but I could not but be pleased with 
the touch of the auld man, I fear he had not got 
your letter about seeds. He writes that a box of 
seeds is on its way, which I am to hand over to 
the Duke of Buccleuch on its arrival, his Grace to 
give him some of the produce in the shape of young 
trees of Himalayan and Cabul origin in due season 
for Abbotsford. If he had had your application I 
am sure he would have directed a parcel to be in- 
cluded for you, and possibly so I may find the case 
to be when it comes to hand after all. — Ever yours 
truly, J. G. LocKHART." 

A few other notes from Lockhart's domestic 
correspondence at this period may be given. Here 
is a little note on illustrious persons, written to Miss 
Violet Lockhart : — 

** I was twice at Court last week, once as an 
Oxford Doctor, when the Duke of Wellington went 
up with the Oxford address to the Queen and 
Prince Albert ; but I hardly saw her^ there was 
such a crowd of Academics. The Duke, however, 
looked quite himself, and read his address in a good 
firm voice, not a whit shaken ; and she [read] her 
answer in a very sweet silver tone, with much grace, 
1 was also to be presented, and, kissing her hand. 


had coolness to study her face. It struck me as 
careworn, and grown ten years older within the 
twelvemonth. I had seen Prince Albert before, 
at the play. He is considered very handsome, and 
is, certainly, — though his figure has defects, the 
shoulders being too high, and the legs somewhat 
heavy — a very fine youth, with regular features, a 
clear olive complexion, and a mild, and, for his age, 
uncommonly manly expression." 

Lockhart then alludes to the domestic happiness 
of Her Majesty in very pleasing terms — but here 
quotation must cease. 

" My children," he writes to Miss Lockhart, 
•*have been very happy in some country visits, and 
much admired everywhere, and their respectable 
papa was seduced by a Court belle of nineteen, Lady 
Wilhelmina Stanhope, into dancing till five o'clock 
at a Kent County Ball, which fact will probably 
receive due notice in to-morrow's Age'' 

These fragments out of a life, busy with litera- 
ture, politics, society, and, till Walter went to Mr. 
Holden's, with the daily tutoring of Walter, may 
remove the not uncommon impression that Lock- 
hart, after his wife's death, was a moody and lonely 
man. He did not, and could not, forget, and 
once or twice, as to Wilson, he expresses what is 
most intimate, and lays bare his heart. But he was 
emphatically no kill-joy. 

His dancing days were over, despite his exertions 
at the Kent County Ball In 1842 and 1843 he 


had to endure what he calls " severe surgical treat- 
ment" at the hands of Sir Benjamin Brodie. His 
hair, he complains, is whitening, and he notes that 
Lord Palmerston has ceased to dye, ** has dropped 
his bottle and brush," In August 1843 he went to 
Italy, leaving the Quarterly ''nearly ready," and 
an article on Politics by Croker "unseen by me/' 
Travelling by Strasburg and Basel, he crossed the 
St, Gothard, and so to Genoa (which he thought 
over- described), Pisa, Florence, and Rome to 
Naples. Avernus he describes to Christie as "very 
like a third-rate Highland loch." So Sir Walter 
must have thought when on that classic shore he 
bethought him not of Virgil, but murmured — 

" Up the rocky mountain. 
And down the mossy glen. 
We dauma gang a-milking 
For Charlie and his men." 

Herculaneum he visited, and spent ten days at 
Rome. Perhaps what pleased him most was the 
view of Naples and smoky Vesuvius from the sea. 
He returned by Venice, Verona, Munich, Augsburg, 
reaching England on October 20. Here is his 
itinerary in a letter to Christie : — 

" Naples, September 13, 1843. 

** My dear Christie, — . . . At Milan we had a 
couple of days most interesting — the Duomo being 
by many miles beyond any Gothic Cathedral I 


have ever seen — even Cologne and Strasburg — and 
the Ambrosian Library containing several first-rate 
pictures, &c, and the Last Supper of L. da Vinci 
being still visible enough (on the walls of a deserted 
refectory, turned by the French into a stable) to 
prove that no engraver or copyist has caught even a 
glimpse of the Saviour's expression— but the wonder- 
ful picture is otherwise a mere ghost, and will soon 
be laid entirely. Thence we proceeded to Genoa, 
and enjoyed some palaces ; but I thought the de- 
scribers had all been much in the exaggerating line. 
Then we took steam for Leghorn, and nothing can 
be more delicious than such travelling in this season 
over the Mediterranean, which never showed more 
than a ripple ; and, by-the-bye, I thought our captain 
gave a very sensible account of the blue of the sea, 
which Davy tried to explain and failed to satisfy 
himself. . • . He says the reason is plain — where 
there are no tides the yellow sand is rarely stirred 
from the bottom to mix with the blue and make it 
green. The cuisine on board very good, abundance 
of ice^ and the company excellent, especially some 
very well-bred and well-read Franciscan Friars, with 
whom I conversed in very elegant Latin, de Papa 
et Puseyo et quibusdam aliis. We had also a couple 
of worthy and learned priests from Munster (in 
Westphalia), on their pilgrimage to Rome, and quite 
made friends with them. One, after dinner, sang in 
fine style— our own old mihi est propositunt in 
tabema mori. Funny to hear that from a German 


divine in a Tuscan boat off Civita Vecchia. These 
all landed and went to Rome, and we were afraid if 
we once got there we should never go farther, and 
so stuck on the boat, and had another glorious 
night — seeing, when the sun rose, Vesuvius right 
ahead, with his smoke all blazing in the purple, and 
Capreae and Baiac, and, by-and-by, all the bays 
and promontories between Baiae and Castellamare. 
You can't conceive anything richer, grander, or 
more beautiful, certainly nothing more curious, for 
every rock is pierced with Roman brick, and you 
can see arches and pedestals creeping everywhere 
into the sea. We have since perambulated the 
shore, and found the remains of temples and baths 
and water reservoirs very satisfactory — these last 
on a truly stupendous scale — their object to supply 
the Tyrrhine fleet, which usually lay at Misenum. 
Avernus (close by) is very like a third-rate Highland 
loch, and the King has a most cockneyfied little 
fishing lodge just where it ought least to have been. 
The Acherusia palus is no great shakes : — Smith of 
Dranston would soon convert it into better ground 
than the Elysian fields just beyond, which produce 
only food for goats, Le. bitter herbs smothered in 
dust. We spent our first day at Pompeii ; but I 
shall only say that none of the books or prints had 
given us the least notion of the place, nor even of 
the minutest discoveries. I was, I confess, surprised 
to find that the Legionaries found dead at their 
sentry-posts had their heads cased as heavily and 


completely in enormous hats of iron, with visors 
down, and merely two open circlets to look through, 
or (when the finish indicated an officer) a barred 
visor, precisely as in the helmets on our heraldics. . . . 
— Ever affectionately yours, J. G. Lockhart." 

Once arrived, we find him rushing, as it were, 
instandy to dine with Christie and Gleig. On 
December 15 he took Walter to Balliol, where he 
met Mr. Shairp, later Principal of St Andrews. 
Dr. Jenkyns examined Walter: Mr. Jowett would 
have stretched a point, Dr. Jenkyns did not, Walter 
was plucked. 

We may now resume the correspondence with 
Milman, first offering a letter to Wilson on Maginn's 
affairs :^ (see p. 194) — 

''April 710, 1843. 

" I forgot yesterday to say anything about Maginn. 
The subscriptions have come to about ;^350 to 
;f 360^ and a good deal of that has of course gone 
already, keeping four people alive. I believe no 
more will subscribe here. I have tried the Carlton 
Club in a very serious way, by a long letter to the 
Committee, and they sent an unanimous refusal. 
Government gave a cadetship for the boy ; but if 
he is equipped and sent out, that will swallow all 
the money in hand at the least. 

" James Wilson's wife has, I believe, got a gover- 

^ I owe this letter to the kindness of Mr. C. M. Falconer, of 

VOL. IL o 


ness's place in Ayrshire for one of the g^rls. If 
you could do so for the other it were very comfort- 
ing. ... I cannot comprehend Irish folk — ^never 
could. . . . 

** Please observe the doctor's creditors were ar- 
ranged for through myself and a few others some 
ten years ago, when we raised nearly ;^iocx) for 
him, and paid off with that about ;^3000 or ;^40cx> 
of debt Just before he died he passed through the 
Insolvency Court on schedule, Dr. G. says, of just 
under ;^ 10,000. 

"The girls are comely, lively, clever girls. . . . 
One writes poetry ! 

"I went yesterday audaciously and witnessed a 
queer scene in a tavern opposite Bow Street Police 
Court, and dined abominably with three or four 
dandies of forty or fifty. . . . 

" One of the attorney's clerks who acted counsel 
was Brougham himself— every touch and tone — ^the 
other Thesiger, two most clever fellows, and their 
speeches, examination and cross-examination of the 
witnesses, and the Judge's charge (Abinger alive !) 
were all quite equal to the best of Matthews' 
mimicries. Peter must not be here again without 
seeing this comedy — the only one I have seen for 
many years, and almost the best I ever saw — such a 
complete show-up of all the trickery and pompous 
humbug of forensic practice. . . ." 

In a brief note to Wilson he says, " I hear you are 


in love with E. Rigby, and she with you, of course. 
All right — she is a good one, and bright too." Miss 
Rigby, afterwards Lady Eastlake, wrote occasionally 
in the Quarterly Review at this time. In her 
Memoirs is a touching expression of affection for 
Lockhart, who was popularly, though inaccurately, 
said to be "crushed" when Miss Rigby married 
" another." He gave her Scott's works as a wedding 

Out of place, and out of date, here occurs another 
note to Wilson ; it is not in harmony with Mrs. 
Gordon s picture of him as a moody, world-weary 
mortal: — 

"Glasgow, August 26, 1839. 

" My dear Wilson, — I have just heard from R. 
Finlay that you are idle enough to be going to the 
Eglintoun Tournament. Be so good as to go on a 
Glasgow hack armed with a rung, and I lay 500 to 5 
you will beat all the Knights, Squires, and Heralds 
to a jelly in a jiffy. Astley's, to be serious, is a 
better thing by far than, from witnessing the 
rehearsals, I expect the performance to prove. I 
shall regret not having been there if it turns out, 
after all, that you are in armour, and the veritable 
chevalier inconnu. 

"Now contrive to come with Allan. — Ever yours, 

"J. G. Lockhart." 

From this excursion into the past, we return to 
Milman and the Review : — 


'' Sussex Place, May i, 1842. 

" My dear Milman, — I have been, and shall be 
while the East wind lasts, plagued ever and anon 
with a complaint which unnerves me, so that I 
don't know when we may meet. I fear you have 
worse distresses at home — but it is long since I 
heard anything of your household. 

" I must now think, in spite of all maladies and 
misfortunes, of the shop. Can you do anything for 
me this time ? I don't think anything you gave me 
has been better liked than the Amndines Catnip and 
I say so in hopes that you may snatch a morning or 
two for something of an unfatiguing sort. Yet I 
have nothing to suggest. What say you to Words- 
worth's new volume? I fear the tragedy is very 
dull, and can see but little to admire in the rest — 
except some very fine feeling verses about Burns. 
Campbell's new concern I have not seen, nor have 
I heard either it or the other mentioned by any one. 
That it should be come to this ! — Ever yours, 


Lockhart had now to condole with Milman on a 
domestic loss, and remembered his own : — 

** Sussex Place, July 5, 1842. 

" My dear Milman, — I am very sure I need not 
say how often, and how much, I have been thinking 
of Mrs. Milman and you of late — how well I re- 


member your kindness to me in my great affliction 
of 1837 — how willingly I would have tried to see you 
now had I been able, or sure that a visit would be 
otherwise than disturbing. I now hear you are out 
of town, but I hope you can g^ve me a line (when 
acknowledging the enclosed) to say how you both 
are. — Ever yours affectionately, 


The same memory recurs here : Lockhart's friend 
and physician. Dr. Fergusson, had lost his wife : — 

"Sussex Place, October 18, 1842. 

"My dear Milman, — I was very sorry to miss 
your wife and you; but hope you are soon to be 
settled, and that we shall then meet often, I am 
well in health again, and fancy I shall be able to 
find some pleasure in society this winter, which was 
not the case last season almost at all. But neither 
for you nor for me will there ever be any approach 
to comfortable feelings, unless the mind have regular 
work found for it beyond the sphere of personal 
reflection. I wish you would make an effort for 
your own good, and also for mine exceedingly, by 
setting about an article ; but I am greatly at a loss 
to suggest a subject If Macaulay's ' Roman Lays ' 
be out soon, I shall look to you for a review thereof 
in the Christmas Number, that is, if they be worthy 
of his talents — which I hope and trust is to be the 


"Ovir friend Fergusson is in a calm state — I 
rather think recovered as well as he is likely to be 
for many a long day. I was present at the funeral 
— and lived over again the hour in which you stood 
by me — but indeed such an hour is eternally present. 
After that, in every picture of life the central figure 
is replaced by a black blot ; every train of thought 
terminates in the same blank gulf. I see you have 
been allowing yourself to dwell too near this dreary 
region. Escape it while the wife of your youth is 
still by you ; in her presence no grief should be 
other than gentle. — Ever affectionately yours, 

** J. G. LoCKHART." 

Lockhart was now, as will be seen, placed in a 
difficult position. He admired Macaulay. Milman 
was devoted to Macaulay; but Macaulay had assailed 
Croker. The letter shows Lockhart s readiness to 
aid deserving writers : — 

^^ January 17, 1843- 

**My dear Milman, — I am exceedingly vexed 
to find that the sheets containing your article on 
Macaulay are not printed off — for the gross insult 
to Croker in his new article on Madame d'Arblay 
makes it very difficult for me to sanction the publi- 
cation of your eulogies on the perpetrator. The 
detection of the imposture about F. Burney's age 
was made in the Quarterly Review^ as you know. 
Can the editor allow his contributor to be thus 
handled, and then caress the enemy ? Would not 


Croker have reason to complain of me as deserting 
the soldier of my own flag ? 

'' Do not suppose that I blame Macaulay for criti- 
cising Croker in regard to that affair ; but it might 
have been done in the style of a gentleman. It is 
done in a style of low, vulgar rancour and injustice. 

" Nor, on the other hand, do I wish to take credit 
for any special tenderness of feeling towards 
Croker. I think he has, of late especially, not 
treated Murray and myself at all well in the 
concerns of the Quarterly Review. But he is at 
least one of our most prominent hands ; and can we 
continue to accept his assistance without giving him 
some right to reclaim against the appearance, at this 
moment, of such a paper as yours ? Make the case 
your own. Suppose such an attack on you, from 
so distinguished a quarter, for what you had written 
in the Quarterly Review some years ago. Suppose 
you had been assailed by Blomfield, or Whately, or 
Sydney Smith ; and suppose it to be felt that the 
odium ecclesiasticum had been mainly excited by 
your use of the Quarterly Review against doctrines 
or tenets or Church parties espoused by such an 
assailant as one of these. 

" There is another difficulty which I must state. 
I never received any civility from Peel in the line 
of patronage but once — when he took office in 1834.^ 
Croker then called here and said Peel was anxious 

^ In 1838 Lockhart, writing to Mr. Cadell, described Peel as *' the 
{greatest Reformer in heart, and the ablest in head, of his period." 


to know if Murray and I had anything to suggest to 
the new Minister for the department of Literature 
and Science. Murray said he wished there could 
be a pension for Mrs. Somerville. I expressed my 
anxiety (Murray heartily concurring) that you might 
have some London preferment, if possible a prebend, 
in order to break the force of a prejudice which at 
that time seemed so strong as to make your advance- 
ment in the Church improbable, unless something 
were done effectually to discountenance it ; and 
secundo, that Crabbe's son might get a Crown 
living in place of his curacy. Now all these three 
things were done, and that almost immediately ; and 
next time I saw Lord Lyndhurst, which was at a 
drawing-room or levee, he said to me, * You are a 
pretty fellow — I find your man Crabbe is a keen 
Whig, if not a Radical, and he has got his living.* 
He laughed heartily; and when I told him I had 
not doubted that he would like the opportunity of 
serving so good a man, the son of such a father, all 
the better for his being of the opposite colour, he 
laughed the more. I have no similar evidence to 
connect your prebend with Croker s intermediation. 
Perhaps you know that other and not less efficient 
machinery was worked in your behalf. But I 
thought I must state what I knew of the affair at 
this moment, and I am sure you will consider the 
statement as worthy of your candid reflection under 
all the circumstances. — Ever affectionately yours, 



Notwithstanding Croker's grievances, an admir- 
able and laudatory review of the "Lays," with a 
welcome to Macaulay as a prospective historian, 
appeared in the Quarterly (March 1843). Lock- 
hart's hand, perhaps, may be detected in a note, 
quoting Hudibras's description of the Roman alder- 
men — 

*' Followed by a world of tall lads, 
Who merry ditties trolled, and ballcukP 

The next letters are on articles about Newman's 
conversion, and other ecclesiastical questions then 
flagrant: — 

**East CowES^Jufy 30, 1845. 

"My dear Milman, — On all the great heads I 
think you are right and sound, and have taken also 
what will be thought the proper combination of 
religious tone and mundane sense. I go with you 
nowhere more than in your argument on Celibacy ; 
but pray look sharply to every syllable where St. 
Paul is alluded to, bearing in mind the ordinary 
notions of his inspiration — for in one or two places 
you seem at least to discuss his dicta as if that 

notion were thrown over. The whole of what 


you say about the Puseyites is excellent — I only 
desiderate more distinct references and more bold 
use of their Lives of the Saints. The lecture on 
coarseness of idea and intolerance in the new 
juveniles is likely to tell with exceeding effect — it 
is so just, and to me it is new too. This part will 


repay all possible elaboration. It is needless to 
think of exhausting such a subject in one article* 
or in six — I think there is already as much thenu 
as will suffice, and look merely for pruning and 
paring here and there, and the skilful interweaving 
of any illustrations or facts that may have occurred 
since you wrote the draft. 

"If I were you I would not at all hesitate about 
expressing your fear that the two French parties 
are equally in the wrong. Have we not, in fact, 
the same with us^-our Ultra-Church and our 
Ultra- Liberal factions? You have already, I think, 
taken up the proper to and fro between the ex- 
tremes here, and every word on the foreigners will 
carry its application with it, if you exert all your 
dexterity. — Ever yours affectionately, 

"J. G. LoCKHART." 

" Milton, October^ 1845. 

" My dear Milman, — I thank you for your letter, 
and will meditate on the subject thereof ; but I do 
not believe I shall be able to make up my mind to 
ask any one to do a paper on Newman, unless you 
should yourself encourage me to ask you. I think 
the tone of your last article perfect, and so I fancy 
all its readers (sane readers) have done ; except- 
ing, of course, the Morning Post, who considers it 
a bit of Hoadleyism — Croker, who suspects it of 
being Ward's post-nuptial statement — and Palgrave, 
who says he is utterly puzzled to make out the 


drift Either Gladstone or Croker would jump at 
the proposal, but I fear either would miss the 
mark. You could do what would satisfy equally 
sober Christians and calm gentlemen of the world, 
and yet even you would avoid the grand fact, but 
the ' fact ' was avoided. 

" I leave this place to-morrow — hope to be in 
London this day fortnight, and to see you there then, 
or speedily afterwards. Meantime pray consider what 
a great service you might do, not to the Quarterly 
Review merely, but to the Church and the country, 
by devoting some leisure to the working out of 
your own sage suggestions. Two or three such 
articles as the last would really rally round your 
name a very great body of via media people! I 
wonder you are not already a bishop, but hope and 
trust I shall see you one in three or four years. — I 
salute my godchild, and remain, ever affection- 
ately yours, J. G. Lockhart." 

* * December 14, 1 845. 

"Mv DEAR MiLMAN, — Your note gives me an 
anxious and earnest hope that you mean to do 
Newman, and I am certain you, and only you, could 
do him in a way that would be satisfactory to the 
sane and superior mind of the country. I may not 
be able to have a talk with you to-morrow on 
such matters, therefore I say now, that if you under- 
take the thing, I shall feel at ease ; and if you don't, 
I know I shall have much trouble with Gladstone, 


who will be sure to desire a job for which his 
deep predilections must render him entirely unfit. 
He has not yet offered, but in some recent letters 
he says he is studying the book. 

"If you do this now, and rightly, you will carry 
on and complete the very salutary impression made 
by the paper on Michelet — which I think you 
ought now to acknowledge generally. I hear it 
is commonly given to Dr. Turton. I think I wrote 
you so. They had traced it to the Abbey. I 
think it very likely — there not being time now 
for much politics, and it being on the cards that 
we may find either another Conservative Govern- 
ment contracted, or a Radicalised Whig one in 
power by the time Parliament meets — that we may 
be forced to publish a number in February, for 
the purpose of taking ground decidedly and delibe- 
rately. I have promised, however, to set about the 
miscellaneous two hundred pages of the spring 
number forthwith, so as to be quite ready in case 
there should be a call of this nature on the 
Quarterly Review. — Ever yours affectionately, 


Milman finished his article on Newman. Lock- 
hart writes : — 

^ December Yj ^ 1845. 

"My dear Milman, — You could not have told 
me more agreeable news. Be early ready, and be 
sure you shall have the last touch at the last proof. 


I quite understand that a profane hand might do 
harm by the least alteration of a colon — to say 
nothing of a diphthong. 

" I suppose you rather approve of sending a few 
Littlemore black sheep for the wide tables of 
the New Zealanders. G. will for the present be 
occupied with anti-agricultural schedules and devils- 
dustrial calculations; but, depend on it, his creed 
will by-and-by show itself in Elections of Anti- 
podal Mitres — if — if — if — if the Government 
endureth — a right pregnant if 

"Ellenburgh is writing a Proclamation, say his 
colleagues to be — but on what subject, or what 
place he is to have, I have not as yet been in- 
formed. I think, in case of war with Jonathan, he 
would do well at the Admiralty. Indeed, I don't 
know why he might not replace Arthur presently 
as well as Albert The Queen could make him a 
Field-Marshal if she liked, and I back him to invent 
a hat that would please ^wtnjeames} 

" All good things be on you and your household, 
now and ever. Amen. J. G. Lockhart. 

^^P.S. — Have you read Arnold s second volume ? 
I suppose his work ought to be reviewed, and I am 
sure you are the proper person, if you should feel 

" I shall get to London about the end of this 
month, and so I suppose will you — so my rural flir- 

^ One reference, at last, to Thackeray. 


tations with the house of Maryburgh must lie over 
until another season. Tell me, if you write again, 
what you think of the Duke s health. I take it for 
granted you have seen a good deal of him as well 
as of your other neighbours ; also whether you 
have heard anything particular lately touching Lord 

" Kindest respects to Mrs. Milman, in spite of all 
her sarcasms upon J. G. Lockhart." 

Milman s article on Newman's book was cour- 
teous, if controversial. The lay mind is rather 
baffled by the learning.^ The Rev. James Smith, 
of Ecclesmachan, who seems to have been very 
erudite, was able to correct Newman and de 
Maistre, and to inform Milman on certain points. 
A via media was what the Quarterly tried to follow. 
Lockhart was free from bigotry in these matters, 
and this child of the Covenant, when abroad, was 
very fond of the society of learned priests of the 
old faith. This appears in his letters of travel, 
which usually describe the ordinary sights dear to 
tourists, and do not need to be cited. 

* Quarterly^ vol. Ixxvii. p. 404. 

LONDON, 1 828-1 848 

Correspondence with Carlyle.— Review of Life of Bums. — Their first 
meeting. — Carlyle*s description of Lockhart — Desires Mr. Elwin 
to write a Life of Lockhart. — " Mr. Carlyle knows this to be a 
is'eJ* — The Goethe medal — Lockhart proposes a novel. — Carlyle 
offers "Chartism." — Borrows books. — Lockhart answers as 
"Able Editor.** — Carlyle on Jenny Geddes. — Carlyle on his wife*s 
mothei's death. — Loclcharfs reply. — His poem. — Carlyle on the 
Infinities and other matters. — On the gi^d Gilfillan. — Carlyle's 
affection for Lockhart — His desire that Lockharfs life should be 

At this point — a kind of middle point before the 
evil days begin — it may be convenient to introduce 
all Lockhart's extant correspondence with Mn 
Carlyle. To Lockhart, though they saw each 
other seldom (a quiet dinner is noted now and 
then), Mr. Carlyle was greatly attached.^ In 1828 
he called Lockhart's book on Bums "a trivial 
one enough," but the sage was not on good terms 
with the nature of things in 1828. In 1831 they 
met. " Lockhart (whom I did not know) desires 
to be introduced to me," at a Fraser dinner. *' A 
precise, brief, active person of considerable faculty, 
which, however, had shaped itself gigynanuaUy only. 

^ Once Lockhart met Carlyle at Lord Ashburton's. His diary says 
of the visit, " very stupid ! " 


5""* Ate » ^ A testing •« . one 


your communication, and shall not forget it when 
I reach that part of Sir Walter Scott's life to 
which it refers. My impression is that I have 
seen at Abbotsford the medals, and that I never 
did see the letter of Goethe. So if it be not 
too much, pray, when the original turns up, be so 
good as to transcribe the necessary paragraph. — 
Yours very truly, J. G. Lockhart." 

Mr. Carlyle complied with this request : his 
original letter to Scott is at Abbotsford. Like 
Mr. Carlyle, Lockhart could feel " low." 

^^ April 2/^ 1839, 

"My dear Carlyle, — I am your debtor, and 
Vamhagen's too, for a very neat and pleasant little 
book, which you shall read when you like. I am 
sorry to hear you are low, but I am myself in 
profundissimis. — Ever yours, 

"J. G. Lockhart." 

That Carlyle should write a novel, as Lockhart 
next proposes, was a curious suggestion. Thomas 
busy over a love-scene cannot well be imagined. 


"Dear Saurteig,— There used to be a learned 
Icelander in the Advocates' Library, but he left 
there years ago, and is now established, I think, at 

VOL, II. p 


Copenhagen — Rask, his name, I believe. I know of 
no one here at all inclined to that lore. Like you, I 
have dabbled in it, and in the Danish and Swedish, 
but not lately. I was in youth, language mad, and 
remember with wonder spending a whole winter on 
Anglo-Saxon, from which I diverted to the Saga 

" I hope we shall walk, or, better, dine together 
soon ; but I am now going into Herts for a few 

••Now give us a Romance of the Middle Ages, or 
of any age. Why not Cromwell's time and the 
Scotch Covenanters ? You have more the power of 
putting life into the dry bones than anybody but 
Scott, and nothing could be more unlike his method 
of doing it than yours. Ergo, you may walk into a 
field that always will be rich for whoso can walk 
without stick or crutch. — Yours, 

"Able Editor." 

The familiarity of this note seems to show that it 
is later than the following proposal from Carlyle : — 

" 5 Cheyne Row, Chelsea, 
May 20, 1839. 

"Dear Sir, — It will probably seem surprising 
that I of all persons should propose writing for you 
in the Quarterly Review. Neither do I propose it 
for a series of times, nor altogether definitely even 
for one first time. For one first time, however. 


there is in it such a look of possibility that I find it 
worth while to consult you on the matter. 

*' I have, and have had for many years, a word to 
speak OH the canditum of the lower classes in this 
country. My notions on this subject differ intensely 
from those of the speculating Radicals, intensely 
from those of the Whigs : it seems to me the better 
class of the Conservatives are, on the whole, the 
persons to whom it were hopefullest, and in many 
ways fittest, to address myself. There are writers 
in your Review with whom I have a deep sympathy ; 
a Rev. Mr. Sewell in particular, whose name I 
inquired out some years ago, gets in general from 
me the heartiest, most entire assent all along till we 
get to the conclusion he draws, when, strangely 
enough, I am obliged to answer, ' Not at all by any 
means,' for most part! On the whole, I think I 
pardy understand what the conditions of this pro- 
posed sermon of mine would be ; and if you gave 
me scope I think I could tell my audience a strange 
thing or two without offence — nay, with hope of 
persuading and interesting certain of them. 

" At all events, as I said, it is a kind of necessity 
for me to speak this word, some time or other, 
somewhere or other ; and as I cannot afford to pay 
for printing pamphlets, or even to write for nothing, 
I find on looking round me that first of all I ought 
to ask you to consider what is feasible about this, 
and let me know your decision. 

" I come almost daily into the Piccadilly region. 


and could give you a meeting anywhere in that 
quarter, at any house, at any time (about the middle 
hours of the day), you might please to appoint. At 
all events, pray consider this proposal not altogether 
as an intrusion, but at lowest as a proof of some- 
thing which (I judge very certainly), if you knew 
it to the bottom, would not be offensive to you. 
— I remain, dear Sir, yours very sincerely, 

"T, Carlyle." 

Lockhart was unable to accept Carlyle's essay, 

which, indeed, was a book, not an article. Carlyle 

writes, after he learned this, assuring Lockhart that 

he is not annoyed : — 

" 5 Cheyne Row, Chelsea, 
December ii, 1839. 

" My dear Sir,— There are two books of yours 
here ; which I beg you to understand are not meant 
to be kept as black-mail, but to be returned with 
thanks. I retain them only till the Chartism concern 
be printed — till I can send you a copy of that along 
with them. 

" However, the reason of my writing is not these 
books, which are probably of no value at all to you ; 
but a reflection I made yesterday on the irritable 
nature of authors — on the doubts you may by possi- 
bility have about my being irritated 1 God knows I 
am much gratified, by your praise of me especially, 
which I believe to have much more sincerity in it 
than praise usually has. For the rest, I consider 

f^-*^^ t-^ 

r (./ a Wair.Ci,\Q«t lUaviit b, y. G. Lo,t!ia 


that your decision about that wild piece as an 
article for the Quarterly was altogether what it 
should have been, what on the whole I expected 
it to be. Fraser is printing the thing now as a 
separate pamphlet. Your negative was necessary 
to decide me as to that step. The Westminster 
people were willing to have taken the thing after 
you ; but I was not willing to appear with it there. 
And so it comes out in the pamphlet way — quod 
bonum sit! One has an equation with more than 
one unknown quantity in it : eliminate the Quarterly 
y, there remains preprinting as a pamphlet. 

" With many kind regards, and a hope to fall in 
with you again by-and-by, — I remain, my dear Sir, 
yours very truly always, T. Carlyle." 

Carlyle was now in search of books on the 
Covenant, and found them hard to obtain ; to buy 
books was, indeed, difficult for him at this date. 

** 5 Cheyne Row, Chelsea, 
October 2t^ 184a 

"Dear Mr. Lockhart, — In reference to one of 
the topics touched upon yesterday, when I was 
lucky enough to come athwart your orbit for a little, 
— it strikes me that I might as well have asked 
you if you did not by chance possess a copy of 
the Covenanter Baillie's * Letters and Journals' } or 
perhaps you know some charitable soul who has 
one, and would lend it me to read } As I borrow 


books from all persons, it ought to be added that I 
endeavour to make conscience of punctually re- 
turning them uninjured. I have been in quest of 
this Baillie for two years and more, to no purpose 
hitherto. It strikes me that one Peterkin re- 
published it at Edinburgh lately, or was about 
doing that ; in which case you are more likely to 
have it 

" I will ask farther, now that my hand is in, whether 
you have not, in defect of Baillie or not in defect, 
some stock of books on that period of history, in 
which a hungry reaver might be allowed, on 
occasion, to forage ? I desiderate greatly the 
Literature of it, Songs, Pasquinades, &c. &c. — so 
far as it had any Literature. 

At lowest, perhaps you can tell me something 
about Jenny Geddes ! I search to no purpose for any 
glimmering of light about Jenny. C K. Sharpe (in 
Kirkton) says, she had sat on the Cutty Stool for a 
mistake in behaviour ; but even that small fact I am 
unable to verify. Burns, you tell me, named his 
mare after her ;— proper surely. In truth, she stands 
as a most memorable monumental figure, this poor 
Jenny, to me ; featureless, I am afraid, for ever. 
Shakespeare's is not the only lost Biography ! 
Greedy oblivion makes haste to swallow us all. 
— Believe me, yours very heartily, 

" T. Carlyle." 

Lockhart did possess some books on the period 


Carlyle was studying — Napier's ^* Montrose," for 
example. Carlyle writes : — 

** Chelsea^ /anuafy 6, 1841. 

" My dear Sir, — Yesterday I left your Napier's 
* Montrose ' with Fraser, who promised to send it 
home forthwith ; many thanks for it The book is 
very readable, not without talent : an anti-Cameranian 
ranty as in the former case, but with somewhat of 
the dissonance abated, marrowbone and cleaver 
music mostly left out, &c. I find the great Montrose 
not unintelligible; a right brave man, with his 
haughty shut mouth, with his broad mournful brow ; 
a man of genius, — a hero and hero- worshipper, 
with nothing but a poor shambling Charles First 
to worship : one of the most tragical conditions. 
Ah me! 

" Have you ' Arg^le s Letters ' among your Mait- 
land books ? or is it a Bannatyne one ? 

"If you ever see that Mr. Richardson, of Flud- 
yer Street,* perhaps you will bethink you to gather 
from him whether he actually possesses a stock 
of Covenant works, and is communicative of it? 
I have got from Scotland, after endless labour, a 
Baillie under way for me, A hapless man searching 
in these departments is like a cinder-sifter, a Parisian 
rag-picker, searching and swashing through all 
gutters, happy if here and there he find a copper 
button or an old nail ! 

^ Mr. Richardson had a good library, now at Kirklands. 



" I wish I fell in with you oftener, A mouthful 
of rational conversation does a man real good ; and 
he seldom gets it in these times and places, poor 
devil ! — Yours very truly, T. Carlyle." 

"The good honest Scotch face" of poor Charles 
Scott, spoken of by Carlyle in the following letter, 
had been sketched by Lockhart long ago. Carlyle 
also comments on Lockhart's article on Copyright : 
the subject of his own humorous petition : — 

" 5 Cheyne Row, Chelsea, 
January ii, 1842. 

" My dear Sir, — If you have yet got any certain 
intelligence about poor Charles Scott, may I claim 
of you to let me share in it. If not yet, then as 
soon as any does arrive. I have the liveliest 
impression of that good honest Scotch face and 
character, though never in contact with the young 
man but that once. Alas, so many histories are 
tragedies ; or rather, all histories are I I pray you, 
let me know. 

*' That is a capital article on the Copyright ques- 
tion : a conviction in it as deep and vivid as my 
own, or that of any other idealist ; but embodied, 
with excellent dexterity, in the given element of 
practicalities, possibilities, and existing facts — which 
do and will exist, let us bless them or curse them ! 
It cannot but do great service. I fancy I know 
the hand very well : a most velvet touch ; truly a 


patte-cle-^elours^ yet here and there with a terrible 
claw in it! Mr. R. Chambers's till is infinitely 
obliged — Yours always truly, 

"T. Carlyle." 

Carlyle's grief at the death of Mrs. Carlyle's 
mother finds expression in his next letter.^ That he 
wrote to Lockhart in this hour of sadness proves 
his confidence in his friend s heart and sympathy. 


March 26, 1842. 

" Dear Lockhart, — An event has occurred here, 
of which, though it can only concern you through 
me, I think I should apprise you. My poor wife's 
mother, Mrs, Welsh of this place, has been un- 
expectedly called away by death. She was a 
person of much generosity and worth ; whose very 
frailties and failings, being, as they were, all virtues 
in a state of obstruction and terrene imprisonment, 
now make one love her more, now that the im- 
prisonment has broken down, and all has melted 
into clearness and eternity! My wife, her only 
daughter and child, has returned to Chelsea ; her 
letters still betoken extreme misery and disconsola- 
tion. Mrs. Welsh was a widow, and her father 
had died here, and before him her sister. This 
establishment is now to be abandoned and termi- 
nated. None can fancy what all that will mean 

» See " Thomas Carlyle," iU 237. 


for me. Rough country businesses, with the poor 
passions and avidities of rustic men, occupy me for 
a part of every day. I keep myself all alone other- 
wise ; alone with the old hills and rivers, with God's 
universe and the spirits of the dead. I am to 
be here yet, I suppose, for a matter of three weeks. 
You need not write to me ; send me a friendly 
thought in silence. 

" It is often far longer than this that I do not see 
you; but I feel as if, were I within four miles of 
you at present, not even London should keep me 
from exchanging a few words with a thinking man. 
Adieu. — I remain yours very truly always, 

" T. Carlyle." 

*'P.S. — This Mrs. Welsh was the owner of the 
little dog Shandy which used to run about the feet 
of Sir Walter Scott. Ah me I " 

The dog, which fell in love with Sir Walter in the 
street, is mentioned in Carlyle s essay on Scott. 
Lockhart replies thus : — 

"Sussex Place, April i, 1842. 

*' Dear Carlyle, — Thanks for your brief, friendly 
missive from the hills. I have outlived so many 
friends, and am left with so few, that it is no wonder 
I should dwell a good deal more in the past than 
the present ; but I am nevertheless quite alive to 
whatever interests and concerns you, and therefore 
your wife — never seen by me, alas ! but often heard 


of, and respected for her own sake as well as Thomas 
Carlyle's afar off. Pray, since you have spoken of 
this loss, speak again and tell me that it brings some 
addition to your worldly resources, i.e.^ £^ s. d. — 
makes you somewhat a fatter victim for the altar of 
Income-Tax Peel You and I would not be made 
a whit loftier in spirit, or more Mayfairish in per- 
sonal habits, by the sudden bequest of all that Lord 
Stratford has just not carried with him to the ingle- 
side of Father Dis ; but it would be a fine thing to 
be independent of booksellers, and, though I don't 
hope ever to be so, I would fain hear that you are 
henceforth. Meanwhile, with philosophy such as 
you can muster, thole the factor's clash, and all the 
botherations of the Moorland region, and return to 
us, be it rich or poor. 

" It is an old belief 
That on some solemn shore 
Beyond the sphere of grief 
Dear friends shall meet once more — 

Beyond the sphere of Time 
And Sin and Fate's control, 
Serene in changeless prime 
Of Body and of Soul. 

That creed I fain would keep, 
This hope I'll not forego ; 
Eternal be the Sleep 
Unless to waken so." 

" Yours very truly, 



The verses are part of a lyric written by Lockhart 
in 1 84 1. Mr. Carlyle answers wisely as to book- 
sellers; but he had grumbled the same grumble 
himself, as his published letters declare. The letter 
is touchingly affectionate, and displays the sage in 
his best mood : — 

"Templand, Thornhill, 
April 5, 1842, 

" Dear Lockhart, — Your letter is very kind and 
friendly ; thanks to you for it. 

" We are not much richer, even in money, by our 
good mother's death, which has made us poorer in so 
many other ways : a smsi}^ peculium^ once hers, is now 
ours, and might in case of extremity keep the hawks 
out of a poor author's eyes (which is a blessing too) ; 
but henceforth, as heretofore, our only sure revenue 
must be the great one which Tullius speaks of by 
the name Parctmonta — meaning abstinence, rigo- 
rous abnegation — Scotch thrift, in a word ! Not so 
bad a vectigal after all. Really the Scotch are a 
meritorious people. They make wholesome pot- 
tage by boiling oatmeal in water ; savoury soup of 
a singed sheep's head. They teach a poor man to 
understand that he is verily to live on bread and water, 
or even to die for want of bread and water, rather 
than beg, and be another's bondsman. They say, 
with their rigorous stoicism, and Calvinism, which 
is hyper-stoicism : ' Suffer, abstain ; ' thou art there 
to abstain and endure ! Honour to them, poor 
fellows. It is really the lesson which destiny itself 


teaches every man, in the great inarticulate way, 
throughout this life ; and if the man be not a block- 
head and unteachable, he learns it, let him be bom 
in a peasant's hut or a king's palace. 

" We growl much about bookseller-servitude ; 
worse than Algerine — and yet at bottom we are 
but a foolish folk. Consider you, for example, 
how many of your good things you would perhaps 
never have taken the trouble to write at all had 
there been no such servitude ! Servitude is a blessing 
and a great liberty^ the greatest that could be given 
a man ! So the shrewd little De Stael, on recon- 
sidering and computing it, found that the place, of 
all places ever known to her, she had enjoyed the 
most freedom in, was the Bastille. As to me, I 
tiave dragged this ugly millstone Poverty at my 
lieels, spurning it and cursing it often enough, ever 
since I was a man ; yet there it tagged and lumbered 
on ; and at length I was obliged to ask myself, 
I^ad they cut it for thee, sent thee soaring like a 
foolish tumbler-pigeon, like a mad Byron ! Thank 
the millstone, thou fool ; it is thy ballast, and keeps 
the centre of gravity right! In short, we are a 
foolish people, born fools — and it were wise, per- 
haps, at present, to go and smoke a pipe in silence 
under the stars. 

•• The mountain-tops are aglow like so many vol- 
canoes : it is poor tarry shepherds burning their 
heather, to let the grass have a chance. Sirius is 
glancing blue-bright like a spirit — a comrade of 


more than twenty years. Penpont smoke-cloud 
and Drumlanrig Castle have alike gone out In 
the north is an Aurora — footlights of this great 
Theatre of a Universe, where you and I are players 
for an hour. God is great ; and all else is verily 
altogether small. 

"These last days, the rustics and factors driven 
out of my way, have been altogether like a kind of 
Sabbath to me — different enough from Agnew's. 
Unhappily they are now to end : in the beginning 
of next week come packers, carpenters ; on the 
Thursday it all ends in an uproar of auctioneers, 
&c. ; I before that am far off, never to return hither. 
Back to your whirlpool, I suppose, in some few 
days more. Adieu, dear Lockhart ; many good 
nights. — Yours very truly, T. Carlyle." 

Lockhart here acknowledges Carlyle's " Past and 
Present," in Carlyle's own manner:— 

"^/n7 27, 1843. 

** Father Saurteig, — Thanks to thee for thy 
new work — a real piece of work such as even 
thou hadst not before given us the like of — not 
even in 'Sartor Resartus.' I could wish thou 
hadst not put forth more of this at once than the 
two or three first books, and that the first had 
been placed last of these. Thou shouldst have 
begun assuredly with thy true revivification of the 
men of St. Edmundsburg. 


. "Neither can I agree with my teacher in what 
he more than once proclaimeth as his judgment 
general, touching Olivier of Tyburn; nor, indeed, 
am I very sure that I leap as yet contentedly to 
any of thy distinct conclusions, save one — namely, 
that we are all wrong and all like to be damned 
(p. 158). But I thank thee for having made me con- 
scious of life and feeling for sundry hours by thy 
pages, whether figurative, or narrative, or didactic. 
Thou hast done a book such as no other living man 
could do or dream of doing. 

"Give us more of thy pictures of the past. Bad 
is the present, and black exceedingly the future, 
and even thou canst do little for either of them, 
except truly that thou canst enable thy fellows 
now breathing to breathe more nimbly whenever 
it so pleaseth thee to indite a page of Carlylism, 
— So resteth ever thine, 


The Templand epistles are those of which Carlyle 
speaks in his notes on the letters of Mrs. Carlyle, 
where he fears that he has lost Lockhart s replies. 
"A hard, proud, singularly intelligent, and also 
affectionate man, whom in the distance I esteemed 
more than perhaps he ever knew. Seldom did I 
speak to him ; but hardly ever without learning 
and gaining something."^ 

"The ways are sair" from Regent's Park to 

^ *• Letters of Jane Welsh Carlyle," i. 44. 


Cheyne Row, wherefore the two men rarely met. 
Lockhart was of Carlyle's mind, as a letter of 
his to Croker shows, on the overwhelming im- 
portance of the question of Society, and had be- 
come nearly as indifferent as Carlyle to Whig and 
Tory. The correspondence is thoroughly charac- 
teristic. Lockhart " was not afraid " of Carlyle, as 
many people must have been, so gruff was the 
bark of the sage, though innocuous enough was 
his bite. In Lockhart's notes we mark the heavy 
heart and the light tone of the man, his Panta- 
gruelism, confit en cUpit des malheurs. 

Carlyle's letters are, as always, the man himself. 
How true, especially (despite his own murmurings), 
are his remarks on Lockhart's grumble at the " book- 
sellers," a traditional grumble: Lockhart had no 
cause for complaint. Two later letters of Carlyle's 
may be added. The gifted Gilfillan, whom he 
here recommends, published later in a kind of 
"Life of Scott" the usual things about Lockhart, 
called him ** malignant," '* virulent," and so forth. 
He who would defend Lockhart, said Mr. Gilfillan, 
would be "another Lockhart," with the rest of such 
inspired judgments. 

" Bay House, Alverstoke, 
Nov. 20, 1845. 

" Dear Lockhart, — A poor, meritorious Scotch- 
man, a burgher minister in Dundee, of the name of 
Gilfillan, has published a book — I believe at his 
own expense too, poor fellow — under the title 


* Gallery of Literary Portraits/ or some such 
thing; and is about sending, as in duty bound, a 
copy to the Quarterly. I know not whether this 
poor book will in the least lie in your way ; but to 
prevent you throwing it aside without so much as 
looking at it, I write now to bear witness that the 
man is really a person of superior parts ; and that 
his book, of which I have read some of the sections, 
first published in a country newspaper that comes 
to me, is worthy of being looked at a little by you, 
— that you may decide then, with cause shown, 
whether there is anything to be done with it. I 
am afraid not very much ! A strange, oriental, 
Scriptural style ; full of fervour, and crude gloomy 
fire, — ^a kind of opium style. However, you must 
look a little, and say. 

** This testimony I have volunteered to send, 
having seen the man as well as his writing ; — and 
now this is all I have to say. The antecedents to 
this step, and the corollaries that follow from it on 
your part and on mine, are not needed to be written. 
I believe you will do me the honour (a very great 
honour as times go) to believe what I have written ; 
and the helping of a poor fellow that has merit, 
when he can be helped, — this, I take it, is at all 
times felt to be a pleasure and a blessing by you 
as by me. And so enough of it. 

"We are here on the Hampshire coasts, hiding 
with kind friends from the London fogs for a while : 
a pleasant place in comparison, especially when one 



has tobacco and nothing to do ! When I return to 
town I design again to try Sussex Place, though 
my successes there are rather far between, of late. 
Why do you never come to see me? — With real 
regard, yours ever truly, T. Carlyle." 

This is the last letter which has been preserved : — 

'* Chelsea, March 29, 1849. 

"Dear Lockhart, — Here are your Session 
Papers again, with many thanks to the Lord Peter 
and you. I had heard of Jeffrey's opinion on the 
same question, but do not find it here ; perhaps he 
sits in some other 'Division,' under some other 
kind of wig. May the Lord help them all — and 
us all! 

" There will be required, I perceive, a very great 
deal more palaver before they get a real English 
Poor- Law passed for Scotland ; but to that con- 
clusion, if they should paint an inch thick, they will 
be obliged to come ; — and even that (God knows !) 
will not stead them very long. Palaver has been 
loud very long ; but Fact, in these times, is getting 
still louder — loud as Cavaignac's cannon and the 
thunder of the gods ! I confess I am not sorry that 
this brutish dog-kennel is either to be cut off 
altogether or made more human a little. Was not 
Peels prophecy, the other week, a kind of gleam 
as of something like a dawn that would get above 


the horizon by-and-by? If there lay ten years 
more of life in that man, he might still do great 

" You will never more come to Chelsea ; and at 
Sussex Place it is useless for me to call — yet I will 
once again before long, in spite of the grim Fates. 
If you are in bed or abroad, your blood be on your 
own head ! 

" Good be with you at any rate ; I do salute you 
across the Arctic seas and their ice-floes ; and am 
always, dear Lockhart, yours sincerely, 

"T. Carlyle." 

By 1849 Lockhart's health and private sorrows 
made him averse to paying visits ; probably Carlyle 
and he saw little of each other henceforth. The 
great probability of encountering Leigh Hunt at 
Mr. Carlyle's may not have been wholly agreeable to 
Lockhart In all affections there is celui qui atme, 
et celui qui se laisse aimer. It seems not unlikely 
that Carlyle was in the former position : he had a 
real and warm affection for Lockhart, who, in his 
own misfortunes, turned seldom for comfort to others, 
as Carlyle at Templands had turned to him. But, 
at bottom, the two men trusted and understood each 
other. Carlyle, in his latest days, was often heard, 
Mr. Froude says, to quote Lockhart's lines, "It is 
an old belief." He often insisted that Lockhart's 
biogfraphy should be written then, while there were 


many who wdl remembered him. Thus loyalty of 
friendship, ever constant in Lockhart, and ever 
constant to him, followed him beyond his resting- 
place beside the Tweed with a love more strong 
than death. And it is of this man that people said, 
•* He is without a friend." 


LONDON, 1826-1852 

Lockhart as a journalist — Charges of Miss Mardneau. — Interpola- 
tions. — Southe/s ideas. — Lord Stanhope. — His displeasure. — 
His account of Lockhart — The marks of Croker. — Lodchart^ 
articles. — His variety. — ^Want of permanency. — ^The reasons for 
this. — His idea of his duties. — His copious extracts. — Essay on 
Colonel Mure's " Greek Literature." — Biblical Criticism. — Croker 
and Donaldson. — Letter to Mr. Murray. — Lockhart on Homeric 
Criticism. — On Biblical Criticism. — Satire of German vagaries. — 
Lockhart's biographical essays. — Hook. — Wilkie. — Southey. — 
Campbell. — Wordsworth. — Letters to Wilson on the Life of 
Wordsworth. — Violent language of Wilson. — His contribution 
cannot be published. — General reflections on Lockhart as a critic. 
— The policeman t)f letters. — ^This function exaggerated by him. 

At a happy period in Lockhart's early life, in the 
good days of Chiefswood, we interrupted the con- 
tinuity of his biography, to comment on his skill 
as a verse-writer and a caricaturist Now he has 
reached the age when he might say, in his own 
quotation from Merdinn Wyltt — 

" Gad hath provided bitter things for me : 
Dead is Morgenen, dead is Mordag, 
Dead is Aforien, dead are those I lave^ 

Here, then, before telling the story of his latest 
years, we may consider him in his capacity as a 




After the completion of his " Life of Sir Waiter 
Scott," Lockhart did not attempt, and probably did 
not even contemplate, any book on a great scale. 
Indeed, though he thought of amplifying and ex- 
tending his " Life of Bums," there is no evidence 
that he intended to write any book at all, except, 
perhaps, a version of the " Iliad." The spring of 
ambition, long weakened by sorrows and disappoint- 
ment, broke at the death of his wife. He became 
occupied with the education of his children, the 
pleasures of friendship, the observation of society, 
and the daily duties of editorial routine. These 
included, as it seems, a vast deal of consultation, 
both by word of mouth and by written notes, with 
Mr. Murray, with Croker, with Milman (for whose 
counsel Lockhart was wont to apply) ; and possibly 
there were other advisers — indeed, too many. 

This kind of occupation, though not laborious, is 
distracting and fretful, and adverse to serious and 
sedulous literary composition. No journalist, by 
the very nature of his duties, has the undisturbed 
leisure which literature demands, and Lockhart was 
a journalist. Mr. Carlyle, during these very years, 
was occupied with great works, and was building 
his own literary monument. Readers of Mr. Car- 
lyle s journals can readily imagine what sort of 
monument he would have erected, had he been 
obliged eternally to keep an eye on " the literary 
movement," to watch the stream of new books, to 
criticise things in general **from Poetry to Dry- 


rot,'* to be abreast, or a few yards in advance, of 
novelties in politics, and in matters theological and 
ecclesiastical and social. Endless reading of con- 
tributions in manuscript, of books in manuscript, 
interminable consultations over articles, corrections 
of articles, interpolation of articles, correspondence 
with writers of articles, the reading of new books, 
and the accomplishing of new articles on the new 
books — often trash, — ^these things were the daily 
life of Lockhart, as of able editors in general. A 
man in his position is engaged in a kind of intel- 
lectual egg-dance among a score of sensitive 
interests. The authors reviewed not to their liking, 
the authors not reviewed at all, the rejected con- 
tributors, the sensitive small-fry of letters, were 
ready to say and believe anything evil of Lockhart. 
Miss Martineau (whom, by the way, he never did 
review in the Quarterly) has given currency to the 
legends, myths, and fables of Lockhart's sleepless 
"malevolence." It is not now possible, at least for 
me, to analyse Miss Martineau's anecdotes, and to 
prove or disprove her story of how Lockhart sped 
hastily by night to the printers, for the abominable 
purpose of cutting out some perilous passages in a 
criticism of the fair Economist ! 

Charges, which have some truth in them, represent 
Lockhart as making, or permitting to be made, un- 
welcome or sarcastic interpolations in the articles 
of contributors. The custom was traditional, and 
Jeffrey, in the Edinburgh Review, had interpolated 

m8 life of J. G. LOOKHART 

contributions as freely as Rhapsodists are supposed 
to have interpolated the ** Iliad." Southey, if called 
to the helm of the Quarterly ^ anticipated spending 
his time "in correcting communications when there 
was anything erroneous, imprudent, or inconsistent 
with these coherent opinions which the journal 
should have maintained under my care." Lockhart 
gleefully cites this remark from the letters of Southey, 
who was for ever groaning over editorial changes 
in his own sacred text ^ 

The Quarterly Reviews of old partook more than 
they now do of the nature of journalism. But 
writers in them were justly annoyed when inter- 
polations into their work attacked, it may be, 
persons whom they admired. The most severe 
comments on Lockhart's editorship which I have 
seen, occur in a private letter of a critic now dead. 
But opposite this gentleman's name, in a diary 
of Lockhart's, is written in Greek the quotation of 
that speech of Achilles : " Hateful to me, even as 
the gates of hell, is he that hideth one thing in his 
heart, and uttereth another." 

An explicit statement of a grievance in this 
kind occurs in a paper prepared by Lord Stanhope 
(Lord Mahon), the distinguished historian, for Mr. 
Gleig, a paper partly published in Mr. Gleig's often- 
cited article on Lockhart in the Quarterly Review} 
Here follows the passage. It deals with Lockhart's 

^ Quarterly^ vol. Ixxxviii. p. 233. 

* The document is lent by the kindness of Colonel Gleig. 

I 'i I 

politxal as 

editor. He ifid 21GC iriwwr>f 

shown diat he vas. a masL 13k rjr i n'ir de I3ie 
adminisiTaiinB Hs leamzig^ •^it iii'ii^ 

in the direcxioo mhiiLa llx. CarTiiclec 


'•>^«< ri :■ j« 

my leminisoeDoes of 

Mr. Lockhait. I feci oc tics 

as I bsFC 

on many 

of notes taken at the time. Ettc 

conversations, and the oKBt Brciiy txss ot 

seem dim and more than haM otrmcrstsd vhcn 

viewed throu^ the retrospeg of yeais. 

" My first acquaintance wid: Mr. Lockhart 
made about the year 2S2C, in dining with 
common friend Robext William Hav. Under-: 
tary of State for the Colonies. Subeequenihr w^ 
often met at dinner-pardes and sometimes in 
country-houses. Above all we used then to meet 
at Hatfield. Both he and I were honoured with 
the friendship of the Marchioness of Salisbury, 
first wife of the present peer. Even thus, in pasang, 
let me say how justly we learnt to appreciate the 
qualities of that highly gifted lady — her generous 
and lofty character, her disdain of everything that 
was false and mean, her manifold accomplishments 
of mind, and her most attractive conversation. 
When, in October 1839, she died after a long pro- 
tracted illness, there were few beyond her family 


circle who mourned for her more sincerely than 
did Mr. Lockhart and myself. His letter on that 
occasion is now before me. In it he expresses his 
sorrow at the great loss which our friendship had 
sustained, and he adds — not certainly without a 
pang at his own and similar domestic bereave- 
ment — * But the world will on ; and lamentations 
avail not.' 

"It was not long ere my friendship with Mr. 
Lockhart engaged me — nothing loth — as a writer 
in the Quarterly Review. I contributed an article 
on the French Revolution, in reply to a new theory 
which Mr. Macaulay had just before in another 
review propounded. But when my article was 
finished, my friend in Sussex Place, without ap- 
prising me, placed it in Mr. Croker's hands, and 
left him at liberty to add some further observa- 
tions.^ Mr. Croker, as is well known, did not allow 
to lie dormant his great powers of caustic wit. 
No man knew better how to enliven a dry or diffi- 
cult subject by the pungency of personal allusion ; 
and no man was more fully aware of his own 
abilities in that respect. I remember, for example, 
a series of private notes from him to Sir Robert 
Peel in the autumn of 1841, when Mr. Croker was 
assiduously employed in the composition of a sting- 
ing article * against the Whigs.' He declares him- 
self so hard at work that he must for the present 

* The Revolution was Croker's private province in the Review, He 
had to be consulted, otherwise trouble arose. 


decline all dinner engagements ; and he adds as a 
postscript, ' I am as busy as a wasp ! ' 

" Mr. Croker, then being in full possession of my 
unfortunate proof Sy proceeded to embody with them 
some comments by himself on a former publica- 
tion by Lord John Russell. With the article so 
'amended' — if amended I must call it — the Quarterly 
came out in April 1833. But when on its appear- 
ance I saw how my handiwork had been dealt 
with, I was much annoyed and displeased. The 
disparaging remarks on Lord John Russell seemed 
to me open to objection in their tone and temper, 
and did not accord with my feeling of respect for 
that eminent man. I did not wish to be con- 
sidered as their author, in case the entire article 
were ascribed to me. Accordingly, I published as 
a separate essay the article as it stood at first, 
declaring at the same time to Mr. Murray that I 
would never — no, never — write again for his 

" It is worthy of note, I think, as showing how 
high the character of Mr. Lockhart stood among his 
friends, that although I chafed — possibly more than 
I ought — ^at the treatment of my bantling in the 
Quarterly, I did not, even at the outset, impute 
any want of kindness or consideration for me to 
the Editor. It was only, as I was convinced, that 
he had seen the matter in a different, perhaps, as 
the public might think, in a juster view. It was 

* A broken vow. 


only that he could not find it in his heart to refuse 
the good things— iox good they were undoubtedly — 
that Mr. Croker tendered. It was only that in a 
survey of his writers he preferred the veteran to the 
debutant Our personal friendship was not at all 
affected. We continued to meet and to confer as 
often, and with the same cordial feeling, as before. 

"It was not, however, until eight years afterwards 
— in the spring of 1841 — that I resumed my pen in 
the service of the Quarterly. The bait held out, 
and that hooked me, was an offer to review Mr. 
Fraser Tytlers 'History of Scotland.' It gave 
me the occasion to discuss, according to a via media 
which I had formed, the character of poor Queen 
Mary — a princess certainly quite as attractive to 
scribblers since her death as she can have been to 
gallants in her lifetime ! 

** In literature and politics, Mr. Lockhart has 
been very frequently censured as too bitter. So far 
as regards the literary field, he was convinced that, 
like other fields into which crowds are pressing, it 
requires a police — that a warning voice should keep 
it clear, so far as possible, of impudent pretence, as 
well as shallow ignorance. That duty had been 
discharged in a spirit of stern justice by Mr. Gifford 
and Lord Jeffrey. It was no less needful in Mr. 
Lockhart's time ; and the keen weapon of ridicule, 
which they knew so well how to wield, shone as 
bright in Mr. Lockhart's hands. 

** On the other point, and so far as politics are 


concerned, I may observe that Mr. Lockhart was 
warmly attached — by family tradition in the first 
place, and by settled conviction as he grew older — 
to the ancient institutions of his country in Church 
and State. It was his lot to live in days when, 
after a period of comparative tranquillity, these 
institutions were fiercely struck at and assailed. 
Perhaps the sentinels may have slumbered a little 
at their posts. Perhaps they had not always mani- 
fested the same energy and the same ability as the 
besi^ers* It was under these circumstances that 
Mr. Lockhart threw himself into the breach. His 
courage rather rose as the dangers grew. Even at 
the worst of times — ^when, in 1831, the Duke of 
Wellington was mobbed through the streets of 
London on the very anniversary of Waterloo — 
when, in 1833, Sir Robert Peel, in the House of 
Commons, could scarcely muster around him the 
merest handful of his former followers, — even then 
the high spirit of the Quarterly writers never for 
an instant quailed. 

•*In these days we took comfort— and certainly 
we needed some — in the idea that we had often 
the better of the arguments, though always beaten 
to pieces at the hustings or the House. I remember 
raising a smile in Mr. Lockhart when I told him 
of an Irish friend of ours, who, with honest warmth, 
exclaimed to me that we had now a clear majority 
in everything except in numbers ! 

" But besides the distaste of Mr. Lockhart to rash 


or ill-considered changes, as he conscientiously be- 
lieved them, he had another strong ground of objec- 
tion to the Whigs. He thought— and such is also, 
I confess, my own opinion — that although at in- 
tervals too democratic in their principles, they are 
always too aristocratic in their predilections." 

The Crokerian interpolations into the article of 
Lord Mahon may be recognised by a babe in 
criticism. Mr. Croker never abstained from three 
things — personal sneers ; the use of copious italics 
and of capital letters ; and the impassioned defence, 
in season and out of season, of his beloved religion. 
These marks of Mr. Croker will be found in Lord 
Mahon's review of Lord John Russell. Mr. Croker 
was the literary Thangbrand of Christianity, ever 
''spoiling for a fight," like the militant Apostle 
of Iceland ; he was an Anglican Berserk. Lord 
Mahon need not have feared that these qualities, 
or Mr. Croker s italics, would be attributed to him ; 
still, he did well to be angry. 

So much for Lockhart as a political Editor. In 
literary Editorship he inherited the tradition ex- 
pressed in the motto of the Edinburgh Review: 
Judex damnatus quum 7iocens absolvitur. An author 
on this theory is, ex officio, nocens, or at least reus : 
an accused person on his trial. Tennyson, as we 
saw, was tried and condemned, humorously and 
unjustly, for the "Poems" of 1833 — ^^^ ^^^ those 
of 1842, or for "The Princess." Luckily, per- 
haps, for Lockhart, Mr. Browning did not appear 


in his Court, and no other great poet was then 
in the dock. Aging men are most fallible judges 
of new poets. 

As a contributor to the Quarterly Review^ Lock- 
hart was industrious. During his twenty-eight years 
of Editorship he wrote more than a hundred articles 
on subjects the most various. He reviewed the 
notable great literary works of the hour, such as 
Croker's " Bos well," Scott's " Lives of the Novel- 
ists," Moore s "Sheridan," Leigh Hunts "Byron 
and his Contemporaries," Tennyson's "Poems" of 
1833, ^^ histories of Lord Mahon, Southey's 
"Doctor," Taylors "Philip Van Artevelde," and 
Mure's "Literature of Greece." Biography inte- 
rested him especially, and he once (as we have 
seen) thought of publishing an extra number, en- 
tirely consisting of biographies of great men re- 
cently dead, including Scott and Goethe. He did, 
as occasion arose, write on the lives of Crabbe, 
Theodore Hook, Edmund Kean, Southey (in part), 
Wilkie the Painter, Beattie's " Life of Campbell," 
and, at the last, was part author of the article on 
the life of his old opponent, Jeffrey. He also 
frequently reviewed books of travel^-especially, 
perhaps, books of travel in America, or by Ameri- 
cans in England. He wrote an interesting essay 
(No. 90), on Donn's Gaelic Poems. He reviewed 
a number of novels now for the most part forgotten. 
He produced an essay, still lively and readable, on 
Dry-Rot in Timber (No. 97). That number also 


contained his notice of Tennyson, and his reviewal 
of Lady Dacres "Recollections of a Chaperon." 
Translations, as of Goethe s "Faust," of Dante's 
" Inferno," and of Servian Minstrelsy, engaged his 
attention. Subjects pardy antiquarian, such as 
"The Lives of the Lindsays," came within his 
province. In brief, from deer-stalking to dry-rot, 
from poetry to Biblical criticism, he had a wide 
range of interests. He was no^ the author of the 
attack on the pretensions of the Sobieski Stuarts. 

An essayist so various, so industrious, so spirited, 
and so learned, must have left, it might be thought, 
many pages worthy of rescue from the shelves 
devoted to old magazines. But Lockhart, in fact, 
left no such legacy. His essays, if collected and 
published, could not pretend to rival those of 
Macaulay. A volume of his biographical studies 
might, indeed, be worth contemplating, and the 
censure on Tennyson is a remarkable literary curi- 
osity, while some few other literary articles perhaps 
deserve a jpermanent form. The rest was written 
for the current quarter, not for posterity. 

This is a disappointing circumstance, which 
Lockhart himself may be said to explain. Late 
in his career he wrote (September 1850) a criticism 
of Colonel Mure of Caldwell s " History of the 
Language and Literature of Greece." I venture to 
dwell at some length on this topic — first, because the 
criticism is so thoroughly characteristic of Lockhart ; 
next, because the gallant and learned Colonels 








admirable work appears to be left in most unde- 
served neglect ; lastly, because Lockhart here ex- 
plains his own theory of reviewing. In doing so, he 
also explains the want of permanent and enduring 
quality in his own essays. 

He writes, and he is obviously thinking of 
Macaulay's ** Essays " : **On the present occasion we 
mean to confine ourselves within narrow limits, and 
to keep before us principally what critics nowadays 
are apt to regard as a humble and trivial function. 
For we adhere to our old-fashioned notion, that, 
when a man of rich endowments makes his first 
appearance, or offers the first specimen of what 
seems to be the main monument of his literary 
energy — but more especially when the book is of the 
graver class — it is the primary duty of reviewers to 
think not of themselves but of their author ; to put 
the rein on indulgence in any sort of display except 
the display of his qualities ; to aim, in short, at 
encouraging his zeal by awakening the curiosity 
and sympathy of his and their public. . . . This 
excludes all chance of formal, original, or would-be 
original disquisition on the part of the journalist ; 
and we suspect that even at present, when the case 
is really one of solid and serious claims, our friends 
are far from being displeased with a recurrence to 
the primitive notion of Nouvelles de la Republique 
des Lettres'' 

Here is Lockhart s explicit avowal of his own 
theory of his own function. He is not the inde- 



pendent essayist, who treats his author only as a 
starting-point for a tractate of his own : he is merely 
the journalist — merely the newsman of letters. His 
duties are of the day and the hour ; his business is 
with his author, and with his author's treatment of 
a topic, rather than with the topic itself. We may 
lament this conscious self-effacement ; we may, and 
do, regret that Lockhart did not adopt the method 
of Macaulay and of Carlyle. But he deliberately 
eschewed it ; to do so was part of a character which, 
as a friend of his remarked, detested to "show off" 
or to be " shown off." ^ Lockhart was paid, as it 
were, to do one kind of duty ; he would not seek 
another — a more tempting, though, no doubt, a more 
laborious course. His ideas and his method in- 
volved, to his mind, the use of copious extracts 
from his author, who thus had the advantage, 
greatly coveted by authors, of speaking for himself. 
But the bulk and volume of the extracts is injurious 
to the original character and to the permanence of 
Lockhart s essays. 

There are other drawbacks. Lockhart had ever 
in his mind the Conservative character of his organ, 
and would make temporary defences of its ideas, with 
reference to the questions of the hour, where perhaps 
no such excursions were necessary. Now they are 
superseded and otiose, if the essays be taken as 
works of pure literature. They become journalism, 
as Lockhart knew and intended, and nothing is less 

* Mr. James Traill, son of Lockhart's friend, Mr. Traill. 


permanent than journalism. It cannot be denied 
that, like Croker, he had a vein of the Christian 
apologist out of season. 

Not much out of season are his remarks in this 
kind on Colonel Mure s " History of Greek Litera- 
ture." The Colonel necessarily devoted much of 
his space to the Homeric question, the question of 
the unity and antiquity of the Homeric Epics. This 
unity had been assailed, as every one knows, by the 
learned Wolf, and ever since his day German 
criticism has been sedulously occupied with dis- 
secting the poems, and tearing the poet into disjecta 
membra of all manner of diverse dates and author- 
ships. Many, one might even say most, of these 
dissertations are marked by learning, indeed ; but 
are also notable for perverse and wilful caprice of 
fancy, for utter insensibility to poetry, and for a 
blind indifference to the fact that most of the 
arguments against the unity of authorship in the 
Homeric poems are just as strong arguments against 
the unity of authorship of the Waverley Novels, 
of " Paradise Lost," or of almost any other sustained 
work of imagination. 

Lockhart made these reflections, and stated them 
with point and vivacity. But he also noticed, what 
in fact nobody of sense can overlook, the analogy 
between destructive Homeric and destructive 
Biblical criticism. The wilful and tasteless vagaries 
of pedantic ingenuity, the arbitrary, baseless, con- 
tradictory theories of the Homeric critics, are not 


by any means absent from the labours of their 
Biblical brethren. But the Biblical critics are 
dealing with reports of actual events, which, to some 
extent, are capable of proof or disproof from external 
and internal evidence. The Homeric critics are 
dealing with poetry, or, if with facts, with facts of 
manners and customs. Thus there is a kind of 
check on Biblical criticism, which is not so powerful 
over the Homeric theorists. 

Lockhart was interested in Biblical criticism. 
He did not wish to burke it: he did wish that it 
should be studied ; should, if possible, be answered, 
as the following letter shows. It is quoted here, 
as it illustrates his attitude to the important sub- 
ject which he introduced into his discussion of 
Colonel Mure's remarks in defence of the unity of 
Horner:^ — 

^^June 16, 1846. 

** My dear M., — I think you are entitled to ex- 
pect that gentlemen who so very boldly denounce 
the conclusions of such a scholar as Mr. Donaldson, 
should show evidence of their capacity for grappling 
with lore so varied as his ; and also, and at least, 
that Mr. Croker should convey his objections in 
some such shape as may admit of their being laid 
before Mr. Donaldson. 

** I have not heard the name either of your or 

^ The letter is, apparently, addressed to Mr. Murray. Perhaps it 
was never sent to him ; I found it among a mass of family letters from 
Milton Lockhart. 


of Mr. Croker s clerical authority. Both, or either, 
may be sufficient But it is not an everyday thing 
to meet with a clergyman qualified for criticising 
philological researches, embracing not merely Greek, 
Latin, and Hebrew, but Arabic, Coptic, Sanscrit, 
and the whole range of the Italo-German tongues. 
Mr. Croker makes no pretensions himself to learn- 
ing of this sort — but it is a little odd to see him 
dismiss a page of Donaldson's 'Comparative Ana- 
tomy of Language' by a marginal note consisting 
of the one word * Gibberish' 

" Although language has been my chief study all 
my days, and I have some practical knowledge in a 
good many of the languages in which Mr. Donald- 
son has acquired, as I believe, a really accurate 
skill — it never occurred to me that my editorial care 
could, in such a department, be of any use to him, 
save in suggesting a doubt or an illustration. So 
much I endeavoured to do by this as by all other 
papers ; and I took the advice twice over, formally, 
by writing, of Milman — the only extensive scholar 
on the actual list of Quarterly Reviewers. 

" The grand difficulty of Ewald's explanation of 
the Patriarchs' names, as being not personal names,^ 
but words describing periods of advance or descent 
in art and civility — this was stated by me to Mr. 
Croker orally, as well as I could make it clear. 
Mr. Croker said he could see no objection to such a 

^ Attempts to '' mythologise " the Patriarchs are many, wildly 
conflicting, and, perhaps, discredited. 


view. So I understood him, certainly. I believe 
Ewald is, in the main, right — and that views like 
his are those of all who believe the Old Testament 
in any manly sense of the word believe. People 
who merely adopt and rq>eat the interpretations of 
men acknowledged not to have had a glimpse of 
what is now ascertained by the science of Philology, 
seem to me to be precisely on a footing with the 
honest Catholics who persecuted Galileo^ and with 

the present Dean of ^ who would, if he could, 

roast the Dean of Westminster to-morrow. 

"In my humble opinion, the wise course for 
Donaldson would be to place the views or theories 
of Ewald and Bunsen, whenever apparently hard to 
be reconciled with our old canons of interpretation, 
clearly before the reader of the Quarterly Review: 
but not to compromise himself or the Review by any 
adoption of them. As yet, I think, knowledge of 
what is thought and written on such subjects by 
really profound scholars, is so rare that the com- 
munication of their ideas should be the humble 
task of an English journal. — Ever yours truly, 


These and similar ideas as to Biblical criticism 

^ From this letter I have omitted many passages which elucidate, 
in a curious and interesting way, the internal management of the 
Quctrterly Review, For reasons elsewhere stated, these matters are 
beyond my province ; but it was necessary to publish as much as 
concerns Lockhart's position with regard to a subject of high import- 


are introduced by Lockhart into his review of the 
Homeric critics: — 

" With the Germans, eccentricity has long been 
the standard substitute for genius. • . . The 
attacks " (on Homer and on the Bible) " were 
conducted upon the very same principles, and it 
would be curious enough to exhibit in detail the 
precise parallels between the methods of working 
out these principles, the results announced, the 
overawing effect produced for the moment, the 
subsequent reaction of a scepticism against the 
sceptics, and the ultimate success of awakened 
reflection, honest investigation, and candid judg- 
ment in disentangling the whole vast web of 
sophistry. ..." 

Taste, learning, humour, and sense concur in 
Lockhart's article on Colonel Mure, an article more 
vivacious by far than we can expect from the grave 
quarterly serials of to-day. The Teutonic love of 
** anything odd and startling in the way of theory," 
combined with the Teutonic total **want of taste," 
is displayed as the inspiration of German efforts to 
lacerate the sacred body of Homer. Analogies are 
found in German dealings with our own literature. 
"We are proved to be wholly wrong about Doll 
Tearsheet, whose genuine affection for Sir John 
ought to cover a multitude of early indiscretions, 
and who was uttering the deepest emotions of a 
true heart when she declared that she would never 
dress herself handsome till her little tidy boar-pig 


came back from the wars." The German method 
is then illustrated in application to Byron and Scott. 
**Were Hogg and Scott dialectical forms of the 
same name? Was shepherd Gaelic for sheriff f^^ 
The wars of the White Rose and Prince Charles 
are probably the same with those of the Two 
Roses, and so on. Lockhart, of course, admits 
that " Wolf was himself a man of splendid talents " ; 
and Wolfs keen appreciation of Homer, when he 
reads Homer "for human pleasure," is contrasted 
with the distorted vision of the critic reading for 
the establishment of a pet theory. Admiring the 
Homeric poems as he did, how could Wolf per- 
suade himself that an unknown multitude of men 
composed these poems? 

"Scott amused himself with an imitation of 
Crabbe : it is as clever as James Smith's — but is 
that all ? When Crabbe read it, the honest bard 
smiled and sighed. *Ah,' said he, *this man has 
caught my trick ; he can do all that I can do, but 
he can do something more.'" Is it very probable, 
Lockhart asks, that the presumed author of the 
nucleus of the " Iliad" would find plenty of poets, 
like those of Book ix. and Book xxiv., and of the 
"Odyssey," who had "caught his trick, could do all 
that he could do, and something more"? 

Lockhart then applies the pettifogging manner 
of the critics to Virgil and Milton, showing that 
they are as vulnerable as Homer. He next, more 
suo, makes long extracts from Colonel Mure : for 

HELEN 26s 

instance, as to the Helen of the " Iliad " and the 
Helen of the "Odyssey." "Our Colonel {nuper 
idoneus) is likely to understand such a develop- 
ment better than most meerschaumed professors." 
But one cannot, however willing, follow Lockhart 
through an argument which is, perhaps, especially 
strong when he touches on the so-called Cyclic 
poets, and on the inconsistencies detected in the 
" Iliad." These, in fact, are not more numerous 
and glaring than the inconsistencies in modem 
works of imagination, yet they are supposed to 
prove that each poem cannot have had one author. 
Lockhart rather regards them as a presumption 
that the author could write, than otherwise. For 
if he wrote he might never read his poem again, 
and, consequently, might never correct it. But if 
he was always reciting it in public, the errors could 
not escape his observation. 

It may seem a pity that Lockhart did not try his 
method on the weaker points of Biblical criticism, 
which are full of entertaining opportunities. But 
orthodoxy is too apt to leave ridicule to its oppo- 
nents, and to neglect the legitimate diversion of 
comparing the contradictory dogmas and mytho- 
logical ingenuities of competing Biblical theorists. 

Among Lockhart's Quarterly articles, the most 
permanently valuable are his brief contributions to 
biography. Of these the essay on Theodore Hook 
(1843, No. 143) is the best known, having been 
published separately in Murray's "Railway Reading," 


and is, perhaps, the best.^ Lockhart, after 1826, 
knew Hook well, and was at least as much in his 
company, ''more fair than honest," as Sir Walter 
could approve of. He had, also, access to poor 
Hook's pathetic diaries. The man had greatly 
amused him, and won his liking. He could make 
allowances for Hook's untidy education, his brilliant 
youth in theatrical society, his temptations, his reck- 
less indifference to accounts while an official in the 
Mauritius. Lockhart s comments on Hook's con- 
duct of the yi^Aw ^»// (a paper which he calls "in- 
famous" in a letter to Wilson) have been already 
cited. Maginn, about 182 1, tried to engage Lock- 
hart to write for John Bull; there is no record of 
his success or failure. That Lockhart, like Thack- 
eray, should have tolerated and associated with 
Maginn, is perhaps no great feather in his cap. 
But, as has been shown, he worked hard on several 
occasions to set Maginn free from debt. As late 
as 1 85 1, Mrs. Maginn writes to him in terms of 
touching gratitude; he had secured a shelter and 
support for her declining years. Her various ad- 
dresses are usually entered in his diaries, indicating 
that he was always watchful over her and her inte- 
rests. In the essay on Theodore Hook (1843), ^^ 
expresses a wish to see Maginn's ** learned and 
witty essays in verse and prose " collected, both for 
the honour of the doctor's name, and for the advan- 
tages that might accrue " to the doctor's family — a 

* Theodore Hook. A Sketch. Fourth Edition. London, 1853. 


most respectable gentlewoman, and three children — 
all utterly unprovided for." Lockhart was no mere 
fair-weather friend. Though disinclined to preach, 
especially on the errors of a friend, Lockhart is con- 
strained to mention Hook's ** two unhappy errors " — 
first, his negligence to repay his debt to the nation, 
and so to clear his name ; next, his omission to 
make legal and binding his connection with ''a 
young woman, until then of unblemished reputation, 
whose unwearied attention to his interests during 
his confinement and distress was exemplary, and to 
him invaluable." He was thus cut off from^ mar- 
riage with a person of his own condition ; yet he 
never had the courage "to atone to his partner, and 
in some sort to the children she had borne him, by 
making her his wife." 

Lockhart traces the black threads of these errors 
running through the brilliant warp and woof of 
Hook's social and literary success. He follows 
Hook's regret and remorse, through his diaries, and 
in the veiled confessions of his novels. This jester 
had the gloomiest of faces behind his merry mask. 
He filled — strange as it seems now — Hook filled the 
Athenaeum Club with revel and glee. His favourite 
comer in the dining-room was called Temperance 
Comer. " Many grave and dignified persons being 
frequent guests, it would hardly have been seemly 
to be calling for repeated supplies of a certain 
description ; but the waiters well understood what 
the oracle of the comer meant by ' Another 


glass of toast and water/ or * A little more 
lemonade.' " 

In Lockhart s diaries I observed, before reading 
this remark, that he dined pretty often at the Athe- 
naeum, and I wondered why. Causa paiet ! 

" It is said that at the Athenaeum the number of 
dinners fell off by upwards of 300 per annum after 
Mr. Hook disappeared from his favourite corner, 
near the door of the coffee-room." 

As the little "Life of Hook" is not now very 
common on the railway bookstalls, I extract a story 
of Hook and Coleridge, already once referred to in 
this book. The " friend " who shared and describes 
the revel is, of course, Lockhart himself. 

"The first time I ever witnessed Hook's im- 
provisations was at a gay young bachelor's villa 
near Highgate,^ when the other lion was one of a 
very different breed, Mr. Coleridge. Much claret 
had been shed before the Ancient Mariner pro- 
claimed that he could swallow no more of anything, 
unless it were punch. The materials were forth- 
with produced — the bowl was planted before the 
poet, and as he proceeded with the concoction. 
Hook, unbidden, took his place at the piano. He 
burst into a bacchanal of egregious luxury, every 
line of which had reference to the author of the 
* Lay Sermons ' and the * Aids to Reflection.' 

* The residence of the late Frederick Mansell Reynolds — then a gay 
character enough, though best known as author of the novel entitled 
" Miserrimus." He was son to the popular dramatist. 


The room was becoming excessively hot. The first 
specimen of the new compound was handed to 
Hook, who paused to quaff it, and then, exclaiming 
that he was stifled, flung his glass through the 
window. Coleridge rose with the aspect of a benig- 
nant patriarch, and demolished another pane — the 
example was followed generally — the window was 
a sieve in an instant — the kind host was farthest 
from the mark, and his goblet made havoc of the 
chandelier. The roar of laughter was drowned in 
Theodore's resumption of the song — ^and window 
and chandelier and the peculiar shot of each indi- 
vidual destroyer had apt, in many cases exquisitely 
witty, commemoration. In walking home with Mr. 

Coleridge, he entertained and me with a most 

excellent lecture on the distinction between talent 
and genius, and declared that Hook was as true a 
genius as Dante — th4xi was his example." 

In Lockhart's diaries he notes the death of Mr. 
Reynolds, and adds that at his table he saw Cole- 
ridge begin the breaking of the window panes. 
Lockhart s recollections of Hook include examples 
of great and genuine kindness, as well as of frolic. 
He had also met Hook at Hatfield House, where 
he composed " light and easy little melodramas " for 
the amusement of Lady Salisbury's guests, dramas 
"staged" by "that grave Presbyterian, Sir David 
Wilkie." The whole essay is full of pleasant anec- 
dote, as well as of sympathy, clear observation, just 
appreciation, and incisive statement. Lockhart ends: 


"We have not endeavoured to conceal, or even 
palliate, Hook's errors. To do so, even in the 
slightest biographical sketch, seems to us most 
culpable . . . We are not afraid that any of his 
real friends will suspect us of regarding his memory 
without tenderness, because we have discharged our 
duty by telling what we believed to be the truth." 
Lockhart's "Hook," in its hundred pages, is as 
excellently drawn to scale, and as masterly, as his 
" Life of Scott " or his " Life of Burns." It is to 
be regretted that some of his other biographical 
articles are more of the nature of reviews than 
of substantial essays. 

This remark does not apply to his essay on Sir 
David Wilkie, a criticism of Allan Cunningham's 
biography of the painter. Poor Cunningham left 
the book unrevised, and Lockhart makes just 
allowances for its blemishes. He was much 
attached to Allan Cunningham : to him and to 
Hogg, as we saw, he had dedicated his " Life of 

'* To-day died good Allan Cunningham," he notes 
in his Diary, as, on another such sad occasion, he 
speaks of "good Mrs. Murray of Albemarle Street" 
Cunningham was bred to the trade of a mason. 
He entered literature as Cromek's assistant in 
collecting Galloway legends and ballads, many of 
which Allan is believed to have manufactured, in 
the spirit which made Surtees of Mainsforth palm 
off impostures on Scott. Lockhart is obliged to 


notice divers faults in Allan's work, in addition 
to the common biographical error of loading a 
life with heaps of crude and worthless raw 
material. Allan had also a grudge against ''the 
aristocracy," the Royal Academy, and even the 
King, as regarded their dealings with Wilkie. 
Lockhart defends these august persons with suc- 
cess. Sir William Knighton, ** The Invisible," had 
told him the story of George IV., and his really 
delicate and generous behaviour to the painter 
when incapacitated by illness. His Majesty's 
action and tone on this occasion were not un- 
worthy of "The First Gentleman in Europe," 
nor did Wilkie's behaviour fall below the Royal 
example. This incident and others were distorted 
by Allan's prejudice or by a failing memory. 

Lockhart, as we learn from the " Memoir of Mr. 
Murray," was rather unwilling to write this essay. 
He had conceived that he could not please Mr. 
Murray by his work — ^an example of the presence 
of "the black dog." Again, he did not care for the 
coldness and want of geniality which he found 
in Wilkie — characteristics constantly censured in 
himself. None the less, *'a manse bairn" himself, 
he enters with zest into the history of the early days 
of this illustrious child of the manse. Wilkie^ as a 
boy, caricatured the minister in the pulpit, with a 
bit of soft charcoal, on the bald pate of the vener- 
able and slumbering miller of Pitlessie ! The freak 
was a Scavoia studiis haud alienum. It is a temp- 


tation to linger over a crowd of anecdotes and 
amusing reflections. 

The malignant Lockhart extracts in full the 
charming sketch of Hogg at Altrive, with his 
rural hospitality, and his noble compliment to 
Wilkie :— 

*' ' Laidlaw, this is no' the great Mr. Wilkie ? ' 

" * It's just the great Mr. Wilkie.' 

** ' Mr. Wilkie — sir,' exclaimed the Shepherd, seiz- 
ing him by the hand, ' I cannot tell you how proud 
I am to see you in my house, and how glad I am 
to see you so young a man.* 

** When I told Scott of Hogg's reception of Wilkie, 
'The fellow!' said he; 'it was the finest compli- 
ment ever paid to man.' " 

In Wilkie's painting of Scott with his Family, 
Lockhart did not find much merit, except in the 
portrait of Sir Adam Ferguson. We are glad to 
welcome his tribute to the Shepherd, as proving 
that Lockhart's irritation caused by the unlucky 
"Domestic Manners of Sir Walter Scott" had 
passed away. 

In commenting on Wilkie's criticisms of the 
great Italian painters, Lockhart shows his usual 
keen but unobtrusive interest in and knowledge 
of their art. He had taste and skill enough and 
practice enough to know "how difficult it is," but 
he never dealt in technical terminology and the 
special argot of the studio. The essay on Wilkie 
is a worthy pendant to that on Theodore Hook. 


The study of Crabbe's Life {No. 100) is briefer, 
more of a reviewai, yet marked by sympathy and 
personal knowledge. If ever it is reprinted it 
should be accompanied by Lockhart's criticism 
of Crabbe's poetry. Another interesting, though 
rather painful, essay is devoted to Dr. Beattie's 
" Life of Thomas Campbell." The poet's letters are 
not of much merit, and do not display, Lockhart 
says, "that ever-glowing necessity of the brain 
and blood to which we owe the correspondences 
of Cicero, Erasmus, Voltaire, Scott, Byron — of 
Goethe, whose signet bore a star with the words 
ohne hast, okne rast -, and, we may safely add by 
anticipation, the name of Southey " (1849). Had 
Lockhart's correspondence with his friends been 
better preserved, his own name might well have 
been added to those of the great men of letters 
who shine in this field, with the names also of 
Cowper, Gray, Carlyle, Macaulay, and Thackeray. 
Campbell's genius, however, he says, "seldom ani- 
mates the page that was meant for a private eye." 
'■ What he did with his eye set on immortality was 
first thrown out with vehement throes, half pain, 
half rapture, and then polished with anxious and 
timid toil ; the happiest of the first suggestions 
not seldom suffering grievous mutilation, sometimes 
eclipse, in this cold process. Let us be thankful 
for what has escaped such risks. It is no wonder 
that an author so framed, and compelled to give a 
considerable space of every day to joyless, uncon- 


genial tasks, should have found no stock of spirit 
and pleasantry for a copious and lively epilogue of 
correspondence. " 

Lockhart was probably disappointed to some 
degree in his anticipations of Southey's published 
correspondence. His own essay on Southey's 
" Life," though interesting, is more or less narguais. 
** His style of writing to third parties about those 
with whom he was content to co-operate, so much 
to his own pecuniary benefit, for more than 
a quarter of a century, does not seem to us very 
becoming."^ He and Southey never **took to" 
each other. Of all faults Lockhart most detested 
vanity, a failing which has its amiable side in the 
comfort yielded by "a canty conceit o' oursel'." 
For this the Scotchman prayed! 

With more of canty conceit, Lockhart would 
have been a happier, a more successful, and a 
more popular man. Mr. Christie has remarked 
on his contempt and intolerance of vanity. Now, 
the vanity of Southey, though most innocent, was 
very great : we have given an example in his 
remarks on his own book, "The Doctor," and 
Lockhart collected a spicilegium of instances in 
his review of Southey's " Life." 

The following letters to Professor Wilson, on 
Wilson's notes for use in the Quarterly Review^ 
after Wordsworth's death, set forth Lockhart's esti- 
mate of Wordsworth and Southey as men. They 

* Quarterly Review, vol. Ixxxviii. (185 1), p. 233. 


also prove, in a surprising way, that as the male- 
volent Lockhart protected the dead Byron from the 
assaults of Maginn, so, as Editor of the Quarterly, 
he defended the dead Wordsworth from the almost 
incredible spleen of Wilson. He was obliged to 
reject Wilson's aid (notes apparently to be used 
in an article), and, after this, it will perhaps be 
impossible for any one to maintain that Lockhart, 
not Wilson, is responsible for all the cruelties of 
the early BlackwoocTs Magazine. 

In this letter Lockhart asks Wilson for reminis- 
cences of Wordsworth : — 

« Sussex Place, Regent Park, 
April II, 1851. 

" My dear Wilson, — I was, I need not say, well 
pleased to hear of your restoration to health and all 
your usual duties, as soon as of your having been 
out of order. Pray assure me that all continues 
well with you. 

" Quillinan called here yesterday, and told me he 
understood you had declined to review the * Memoirs 
of William Wordsworth,' by his nephew, the canon 
of Westminster. I have this day got the book and 
read two or three chapters. I fear it is clumsily 
executed — but these opening chapters contain some 
very striking specimens of Wordsworth's early 
letters, and I see, on glancing through the book, 
more correspondence than I had expected ; so that 
there must be abundant interest of some kind in 
this book. 



** I have no notion what you think of the Pre- 
lude, but I confess it very much disappointed me. 
Coleridge, and you, and lesser men, had conspired 
to give me very lofty expectations. I found it, on 
the whole, heavy, and what there is of life in far 
greater proportion strong rhetorical declamation than 
poetry. But I am conscious that I may have outlived 
any degree of capacity for feeling poetry that I ever 
had — albeit not much — and would very gladly learn 
your impressions on now reading for yourself what 
you had in young days listened to ex ore magistri. 
Pray indulge me for once — and indeed if you have 
no view of criticising the * Memoirs,' nor are in com- 
munication with any one who counts on your hints 
for an article thereon in Maga, anything that occurs 
to you on reading this book too would be very 
thankfully received by me. I wonder who writes 
the two articles in Ebony on the Life of Southey — 
if no secret, tell me. He has in various places 
contradicted what I had said in the Quarterly 
Review^ but nowhere, I think, brought any argfu- 
ment to his side. He is, however, an able reviewer, 
and I should think has had suggestions from H. 
Taylor — though I can hardly doubt that Taylor 
will in the Edinburgh Review, or somewhere else, 
treat the * Life ' of his friend for himself. He wished 
to write on it in the Quarterly, but as he would 
insist that of all men Southey had the least vanity, 
I was reluctantly compelled to reject his always 

* No. clxvii. 


vigorous assistance. How good was Hogg's com- 
municating to Southey what Jeffrey said about his 
being * about as conceited a fellow as his neighbour 
Wordsworth.' To be sure they were both magni- 
ficent peacocks! I wish for a good letter of the 

" Manning is, I fancy, on the whole, next if not 
equal to Newman for importance as a convert : 
his influence very great in society at large, as well 
as among the younger clergy. He is a very agree- 
able and polished gentleman — a fine ascetical 
coxcomb (and tuft-hunter) — the image of a Jesuit 
Cardinal of the sixteenth century, and I expect him 
to be followed by a long train of ladies, including 
probably the of , and Lady } 

" I am hopeful that Rutherford is really recovered, 
but even so think him wise in taking the Bench, 
especially under existing circumstances as to 
Whiggery. — Ever yours affectionately, 


" Professor Wilson." 

The next letter is in answer to one of Wilson's, 
apparently no longer extant : — 

"Sussex Place, April 15, 185 1. 

"Dear Professor, — I am delighted with John 
Wilson's letter about you and others — especially 
for its own excellence in all but the penmanship, 

^ One lady followed, the other did not 


which, too, will soon come right, and after all is not 
mtuh worse than I had seen thirty years ago on 
occasion.^ I went a week ago to see Faed s picture 
of Sir Walter Scott and his friends, and there 
met Home Drummond. We agreed that Adam 
Ferguson, T. Thomson, and you were so far 
like — you had all evidently sat to Faed, and as 
evidently no one else in the party had, nor could 
we see resemblance in any one of them. Then all 
ages are jumbled. Scott is a man of fifty. Ferguson 
and Thomson are eighty. I am twenty-five, and you 
are sixty or thereby. This will never do. I did 
not subscribe. I could do a better picture myself of 
those people even now, if I had three weeks' free 
admission to Grant's studio, and the free use of his 
materials. I think I will try. What an agreeable 
party that would have been ! And this will perhaps 
be re-engraved in 1950. But then we shall be walk- 
ing serene in some grove of Hades, with Landor, 
and Southey, and Hazlitt, and Jeremy Bentham ; Dr. 
Parr and Gray of the High School, Johnnie Dow, 
Delta, &c. &c. I was last night reading here and 
there in Deltas new bookie,* and found you, Aird, 
Pollock, and others glorified — nay * Captain Paton's 
Lament ' dug up to justify the placing of the late 
Dr. Odontist Scotty among the great poets of the 
half century. This will do. De Quincey, I ob- 

* Professor Wilson's hand, in letters to Lockhart, is a difficult, untidy 
' Lectures, by Dr. Moir (Delta), on the Literature of the Age. 


serve, is the greatest master of language — going 
or lately gone. This also will do ! 

" I yesterday read over calmly the Prelude, and 
am doubly in the dark as to its meaning — doubly 
dumfoundered by its heaviness and unharmony. 
The Canon's book also I have re-read, and pro- 
nounce it raw and bald unbearably. There is 
nothing ot Ais that helps you in the least to a con- 
ception of what the living man was. But it is not 
so with some of the letters by William Wordsworth, 
or with some of the reminiscences. 

"William Wordsworth's arrogant chillness as to all 
the contemporary bards comes out well — Southey not 
excepted — indeed with no exception but Coleridge. 
This we expected — but still there is a manlviess 
about William Wordsworth that separates him vastly 
from Robert Southey. What else can it be .'' Or is 
it that the one was really a great poet — the other 
not — the one's 'conceit,' in short, based on a really 
grand something, though not on any one grand 
work — the other's erected on no similar foundation? 
1 cannot answer. What I know is that I liked 
William Wordsworth and never liked Robert 
Southey, and this though they both equally and 
completely differed from all my critical notions as to 
almost all their contemporaries, and as to all the 
best of them. I think, too, that William Wordsworth 
was a better man than Robert Southey — far better 
— even in the qualities for which Robert Southey 
deserves most praise, with the one exception of 




lecuniary generosity, of which 1 fancy William 
Vordsworth had little or nothing — his early straits 
laving hardened him effectually on that score, and 
lo wonder, 

" I have read fifty articles on Wordsworth's 
philosophy. Hang me if I don't suspect 'tis all 
an airy sham — beyo what lies on the very sur- 
face, that is to say, anc might be expressed on this 
page in plain prose — a humble as any scrap of the 
Prelude is pompous. Words, words.' 

" It seems lo be a* jmed that William Words- 
worth made some " onderful discovery, whict 
Homer, Dante, &c. c., lived and died withou' 
having had even a mpse of I beg to doubt 
There is more exact < servation of Nature impliei 
in the epithets of the Second Iliad than declare 
in all William Wordsvorth's tomes, and bragge 
of by all his laudators, from Wilson down to Delta 
" I suspect there is more of artifice than of art i 
all that has been relied on for proof of this modei 

" Let me hear again either from John Wilson 
the Professor. They are both far finer fellows th." 
either William Wordsworth or Robert Southey, 
even W. S. Landor. — Yours, 

"J. G. LoCKHART." 

Wilson replied, and sent notes very hostile 
Wordsworth. These, he said, must be publist 
complete, or not at all. Lockhart answers : — 


"Sussex Place, May 9, 1851. 

•' Dear Professor, — Yours of yesterday beats all 
cockfighting ! But you have sickened me about 
William Wordsworth in toto. How or what can I 
now write on his Life — Prose or Prelude ? 

" You can't have recollected the langfuage of your 
former sheets, when you said in the penult that I 
must put in every word or none. Could one make 
the Quarterly Review talk of William Wordsworth 
as the fat ugly cur, for instance ? It would cause 
old Gifford to snort in his grave. You were laughing ! 
But in truth I am very unwell, and now despair of 
doing the job — at least now. Lord Lonsdale has 
surprised me by writing that on examination he 
finds the statement about his fathers payment 
in 1806 to be 'near the mark' — that he believes 
the old peer had rebelled at the extravagance of 
his solicitor s charges — but that he (Lord Lonsdale) 
would now like nothing to be said of the concern. 
Sir James, I fancy, was next door to mad. There is 
a picture of William Wordsworth in this Exhibition, 
by the younger Pickersgill, which would give you a 
good chuckle. The Stamp-master is at full length, 
reclining or leaning on a rock near a stream, and is 
smiling so sweetly. Evidently the foreground should 
have displayed the daffodils. * The Professor,' * by 
Watson Gordon, was much noticed by the Queen, 
who, on hearing who it was, turned back again and 

^ Wilson himselC 


said, ' Oh, a very distinguished man — I must look 
at it again.' This I had from Gordon, who had it 
from Roberts, who conducted the lady round that 
room as Keeper. But, I think, the best portrait in 
the place is Dr. Wardlaw, by M 'Nee of Glasgow, of 
whom I had not heard before — never. 

" Lord Peter is here, guest of a rich City man, Peter 
Dixon, in this pack celebrated for his cookery. 

Peter R dined with me yesterday and seemed 

in high fig, though not at all riotous. It was the first 
time any one had dined with me for many months — 
for I am as much a recluse now as you can be. — 
Ever affectionately yours, J. G. Lockhart." 

Wilson repeated that he was in earnest about 

his remarkable notes on Wordsworth. Lockhart 

answers : — 

"Sussex Place, May 13, 185 1. 

"My dear Professor, — Since you are really 
serious, I must return your sheets, and I do so 
now (though most sorrowfully), in case you should 
possibly think of making some use of them in 

** I certainly could never venture to produce such 
an article in the Quarterly Review. Were there no 
other obstacle, my kindness from the present William 
Wordsworth (who has always been a favourite with 
me) must be an insuperable one. 

**Your story about Quillinan reminds me of a 
similar manoeuvre in reference to the Quarterly 


Review — but I can't at once find the Stamp-master's 
letter on that affair — by far the longest I ever got 
from him in his otvn hand} I am, however, so 
accustomed to things of that sort, that even this 
made little impression. When any one is civil to 
me (I mean any one not habitually so) I always ask 
myself, for the first question, Is he or she big with 
book or big with article ? Utrum horum ? 

"You see I send back everything. I have not 
mentioned, nor shall I mention, a word about your 
having communicated with me on the topic, to 
anybody. So all is and will be with yourself 
Whatever report may reach me it must originate 
in No. 6 G. P.^ — Ever affectionately yours, 

** J. G. LoCKHART." 

These interesting letters, proving the continued 
kindness of the relations between Wilson and 
Lockhart, occurred in a mass of domestic corre- 
spondence with Mr. and Mrs. Hope Scott. They 
make us regret the loss of so many of Lockhart's 
literary epistles. It is conceivable that Professor 
Wilson's severe illness, alluded to in the first letter, 
may have affected his ideas about Wordsworth. 
As Lockhart returned all Wilson's " sheets " of un- 
friendly Reminiscences, they are not, of course, to be 
found among the few letters of his at Abbotsford. 

To return to Lockhart as a journalist : it may 

^ This letter seems to be lost. 

* Gloucester Place, Edinburgh — Wilson's house. 


be remembered that Southey succeeded in making 
Lockhart believe that he was not the author of " The 
Doctor " ; Lockhart therefore reviewed his con- 
tributor in the Quarterly Review (No. cl.) with 
perfect freedom. Southey was thus in the position 
of those listeners who, proverbially, hear little good 
of themselves. Lockhart praised much of **The 
Doctor" very highly, and justly, but the author's 
peculiar uproarious humour he regarded as hardly 
consistent with perfect sanity. That Southey was 
vain, that his humour (what he had of it) was 
noisy, that his tenacity of opinion bordered on 
the bigoted, must be admitted ; but, in a work 
where he is mentioned, it is impossible to leave 
him without a tribute to his honourable and 
generous character, to his wide and multifarious 
learning, to all that makes his name one of the 
brightest and most stainless in the chronicles of 
British literature. He and Lockhart saw very 
little of each other personally, and circumstances 
blessed the beginning of their acquaintance with 
**a slight aversion." 

The mention of Southey has led us aside from 
Lockhart's Essay on Campbell. It contains his 
reflections on the failing and the vice which 
almost make up one popular impression of his own 
character — shyness and arrogance. **In these," he 
says, '* we see merely different shapes of the same 
too indulgent self-esteem, or, if the phrenologists 
please, different developments of the same love of 


approbation — the convex and concave sides of 
the same deformity. . . . What is called * shyness,' 
by men speaking of themselves, is often neither 
less nor more than arrogance not screwed up." 
This reflection, worthy of La Rochefoucauld, is 
not meant to injure Campbell. " His bearing, as 
we remember him, was truly gentle ; the only 
uneasiness that he occasioned was by his own 
manifest uneasiness." 

The mass of Lockhart's Quarterly articles cannot 
possibly be criticised here in detail. Not many of 
the papers deserve our dislike; among these are 
the review of Moore's ** Sheridan," which displeased 
Sir Walter, and the critique of Leigh Hunt's 
unhappy ** Lord Byron and his Contemporaries." 
The book was une mauvaise action: perhaps it 
could not be passed over. But, despite Lockhart's 
reputation for skill in satire, it must be said that, in 
satire (except in the "chaff" about Tennyson), he 
is always at his worst, and is always at his best 
when he is most sympathetic. 

Many fine and valuable extracts might be made 
from his critique of Croker's "Boswcll." His 
essay on Coleridge's "Table Talk" deals too much 
in extracts, too little in personal reminiscences. A 
just remark may be cited. 

"The equanimity with which Mr. Coleridge 
looked back upon a life which any worldly person 
must have called eminently unfortunate will not 
surprise any one who had the honour and privilege 


as you seem to desire, on the same level with that 
of the bricklayer or plumber. I consider it as 
entitled to be thought of as at least as respectable 
a concern as that of the tailor or bootmaker, who 
never demand to be paid for articles of their manu- 
facture that don't fit. 

** I never ordered a review from you, to be ac- 
cepted by me whatever its merits or demerits : I 
only, at your own request, sanctioned your trying to 
make an article suitable for the Quarterly on the 
subject of the Byzantines, which subject you told 
me you had curiously and elaborately studied. It 
was this previous study that I relied on in listening 
to your proposal; but I well knew the difference 
between sketching an outline and finishing an essay, 
and was not surprised, though sorry, when I found 
your performance a very poor affair. — Your obedient 
servant, J. G. Lockhart." 



Gloom of Lockharfs diaries. — Deaths of friends. — Melancholy quota- 
tions. — Contrast of gay letters. — His son Walter. — Letters to 
Milman.— Clough on Walter.— Death of Sir Walter Scott.— 
Letters to Miss Edge worth. — Abbotsford revisited. — All debts 
extinguished.— Marriage of Miss Lockhart — Letters to Miss 
Lockhart — To Miss Edgeworth. — Description of Mr. Hope. — 
Letters to Mrs. Hope. — Apthorpe. — Wimpole. — Christmas 
Letter. — Lord Lonsdale's palace. — Letter on "Jane Eyre.** — 
High praise of the novel. — Letters on Society. — Troubles with 
Walter. — His debts. — Brain-fever. — Letters to Milman. — A 
mummy at a ball. — Paris. — Louis Bonaparte. — Guizot. — Whose 
joke ?— The Dean of St Paul's. 

On a first reading of Lockhart's diaries, mere notes 
jotted down in his engagement-book during the 
latest years of his life, it seemed that the record 
of these years ought to be as brief as melancholy. 
" There is enough of present evil and sorrow always 
in the world," he says in his essay on Wilkie, 
" without lingering needlessly over dreary records of 
past suffering." Dreary his own records are. He 
acquired, as we have seen, a habit of chronicling 
the deaths of friends, within a border of black, and 
the later diaries thus become as funereal as a col- 
lection of tombstones. As early as 1842 we find 
(some examples have been cited already) : — 

VOL. n. «^ T 

.9» Died 8°°^ 

^o°^-^^R^ Vve notes '. J^ ^e d^tres ^^^ ^^^ ,brcc 
great a^^ f. .. 7*»»^^.. lAurraY 

^^ '^^ t\iY ^^^'^ n tbe cViV^d of t'^^ 

age ^^^ ^°\ c^ the three sorr ^^^^, 

lot- , febfi^'^ ''■ 

hart's ^°^;,,..f«&»^*^ 

r ttvarrVes \- J^^^^ent ^^' 



great anxieties. C/s marriage the only good 
thing '^ 

In 1848, if not in 1847, begin the troubles caused 
by the behaviour of his son, now laird of Abbotsford, 
as Walter Lockhart Scott 

The later diaries are still marked by increasing 
sorrow and anxiety about Walter, who was obliged 
to live abroad. Then come Walter's unexpected 
death, and constant notes of Lockhart s own ill- 
nesses and the deaths of friends. 

Over such pages no one would linger, but, on 
turning to Lockhart's familiar correspondence during 
these unhappy years, we find him full of anecdote 
and spirit, always hiding or making light of his 
troubles, except those caused by Walter, on which 
he was obliged to consult, among others, Mr. 
Hope, later Hope-Scott. The mild counsels of 
Lockhart, his gentleness and placidity of temper 
being beyond example and beyond praise — were 
wasted. Could all be known and told, it is not too 
much to say that Lockhart's fortitude during these 
last years, so black with affliction bodily and mental, 
was not less admirable than that of Sir Walter Scott 
himself Thus the trials from which we are tempted 
to avert our eyes, really brought out the noblest 
manly qualities of cheerful endurance, of gentle 
consideration for all who, being sorry for his sorrow, 
must be prevented from knowing how deep and 
incurable were his wounds. 


The correspondence with Milman is continued : — 

"Milton, Lanark, August 27, 1846. 

" My dear Milman, — I am to be in London by the 
first of September, and to stay there till I get the 
Quarterly Review into shape — the political part at 
this moment being too delicate for eternal corre- 
spondence. . . . We in the Quarterly Review are, I 
hope, to take as quiet a line as shall seem at all 
consistent with our creed. I expect your article 
will be of great service to us, and its scope, I fancy, 
will be quite in accordance with our support of 
Peel in his godless College scheme for Ireland, 
the increased grant for Maynooth, and so on. ... 

" I have been unwell ever since I left town, but 
think myself rather better this week, and look for 
benefit from the journey to town, for the root of all 
my suffering is, I am sure, in the stagnation of the 
bilious system. Charlotte and Walter are flourishing 
in health and glee, and enjoying what kills me — the 
tumultuous hospitality of a County Member s house 
on the supposed eve of a General Election. For 
the last two days I have had the relief of being in 
a very pleasant Whig house. Lord Belhaven's, a few 
miles off, and there yesterday we had a Yankee 
artist with locks ci la Leonardo da Vinci, and neck- 
chains ci la Spanish Armada, not, I believe, to be 
surpassed in absurdity even at * that deaf gal's tea- 
drinking/^ The Edinburgh people mentioned by 

^ Can "that deaf gal" be Miss Martineau? 


you are of a crop that has grown up since my day. 
Cha begs her love. — Ever yours affectionately, 

"J. G. LoCKHART." 

On March 3 1 , Walter had been gazetted, and the 
following letter to Miss Lockhart shows that he 
soon became discontented with his financial position. 
Apparently he had already been extravagant at Cam- 
bridge (where he rowed three in the winning Univer- 
sity eight), but no infantry appointment was available 
when he entered the army. He therefore joined 
the Sixteenth Lancers. Lockhart, throughout, re- 
garded vanity as the origin of his lavish expenditure. 
He was a very handsome and genial boy, "not 
literary, but not dull," says Clough ; — for such life is 
full of temptations. But his career was of a kind so 
wildly irresponsible as to make moral criticism almost 
out of the question. No greater torment, for a heart 
so affectionate as Lockhart's, could have been devised 
than the approaching inevitable estrangement from 
his son. 

This letter, to Miss Lockhart, speaks of Walter's 
plans : — 

" Monday^ December 28, 1846. 

•* Dear Cha, — Croker slept here these two nights, 
and made himself very agreeable. I had Christie 
to dine yesterday, and they fraternised beyond 
my hope. To-day Croker has gone to the Duke 
of Rutland's, who likewise is in dudgeon against 
Prince Albert about the brazen Duke's removal 


from the Arch — ^to say nothing of Anti-Peel politics, 
in which all that sit are still fervidly united with 
Brougham, Lyndhurst, and old Lowther himself to 
encourage them. The Court is in bad, bad odour 
with all the Tories. I am distressed to hear that 
Walter is low — ^but I thought it right to let him 
see exactly what military judges said, and I enclose 
another scrap of MorylUon's (?) to the same tune. 
But I am quite anxious that he should consider and 
form an opinion of his own. If I could be sure of 
life, and that my health would enable me to keep the 
income I have for a course of years, I should not 
grudge him ;^300 a year, though certainly anything 
beyond that would be utterly impossible, and it is 
the dread of fresh extravagance from vanity, his 
besetting sin, that hangs over me. But I don't 
wish to write about such things — much better wait 
till he arrives. Mr. Croker thinks, in the present 
state of Ireland, India, and France^ there is no chance 
of any reductions in the cavalry establishments. 

"Here are two lady letters only for you — return 
or don't burn Maria E(dgeworth). — Yours affec- 
tionately, J. G. LoCKHART." 

The death of Sir Walter Scott at sea, in the 
February of the following year, made Walter laird 
of Abbotsford, and the circumstance encouraged, 
perhaps, his new tendencies, without supplying 
funds for their indulgence. He joined his regiment 
at Canterbury. 


On April 30, Lockhart and his son accompanied 
the hearse of his brother-in-law, Sir Walter, to 
Abbotsford* The funeral, at Dryburgh, was on 
May 4th. 

Lockhart writes thus to Miss Edgeworth about 
Sir Walter's death : — 

" AbboTSFORD, May 2, 1847. 

"My dear Miss Edgeworth, — I found your most 
kind note on my arrival here last night, in attendance 
with my son on the remains of our lost friend, who 
had to me been through life a brother, and to whom 
I had always looked with confidence for care of my 
children in case of my own death. His poor widow 
came to my house on reaching London, and she 
accompanied me in the steamer to Edinburgh, where 
I left her with her mother. She exerts great con- 
trol over very acute feelings. No woman ever 
worshipped a husband more than she, and his late 
letters all overflowed with tender gratefulness for 
her unwearied attention to him in his illness. It 
was only his very last letter to me, written the day 
before he sailed from Madras, that expressed serious 
apprehensions, and I learn that he continued under 
such feelings during the voyage, though he mentioned 
them only to some brother officers, not to Jane, and 
exerted himself so far as to dine till the last fortnight 
at table, and occasionally go on deck. I have not 
yet the post-mortem examination, but am assured in 
general by the ship doctor, that the right lung was 


wholly gone or obliterated, and that he had also 
evident traces of his father's fatal malady, rafnollisse- 
ment du cerveaul The liver suffered in India, 
and the seat of the evil had only, it seems, been 
sympathetically and not very severely affected. He 
is lamented most deeply by his regiment — officers 
and men all alike. Two of the former called on me 
to request leave to come down to his funeral, and I 
expect them this evening. 

**I shall have a good deal of business, and 
may be detained here for some little time, but 
my boy will rejoin his corps at Canterbury this 
week. Charlotte is still my Charlotte. She is 
with some kind relations in Surrey till I re- 
claim my housekeeper and constant companion 
and comfort. 

"I find Sir Walter had named me his executor, 
but have not seen as yet the entail of his lands 
which his will mentions. I suppose my boy 
will hereafter add Scott to his name, but I greatly 
doubt whether he will gain anything in a worldly 
sense from his dear uncle's death, at least during 
Lady Scott's lifetime. I will, however, tell you how 
matters clear up by-and-by in that respect. 

'* You, my dear friend, can imagine with what a 
heart I have re-entered this house, which I had 
not seen since the morning after your old friend's 
funeral in September 1832. Everything in perfect 
order— every chair and table where it was then left, 
and I alone to walk a ghost in a sepulchre amidst 


the scenes of all that ever made life worth the name 
for me. — Ever yours, J. G. Lockhart." 

This letter continues the story of the family 

arrangements : — 

"Sussex Place, May 15, 1847. 

"My dear Miss Edgeworth, — I said I would 
tell you the upshot of my endeavours to arrange the 
worldly business I had to grapple with in Scotland. 
It comes to this. I found that the Colonel had en- 
tailed not the house, library, and immediate grounds 
alone (as I had supposed), but the whole lands at 
Abbotsford, on his brother, and then on my son, 
&a, but that there remained a debt of ;^8500, 
secured on these lands in his father's time of trouble, 
and ;^24,ooo more of old bookselling debt — besides 
an odd ;^iooo of claims against the founder — 
with all which I must deal as my father-in-law's sole 
surviving executor. The only funds were the re- 
maining copyrights of his works — now much dimi- 
nished, and every three months diminishing in 
number. Cadell offered, as he had done some time 
ago to the Colonel, to obliterate the ;^85oo and the 
;^24,ooo, on receiving the remaining share of the 
copyrights in Scott's works, and in my Life of him, 
and tb take an abridged edition of the Life in pay- 
ment of the other ;^iooo ; and being wholly at a loss 
how to meet demands for interest (at this Whit- 
suntide even), and really believing that no one else 
could or would offer so much for what I had to dis- 


pose of, I have signed the agreement above indi- 
cated. Abbotsford, therefore, is free as respects the 
debts of the founder, and so far, at all events, a 
great object of my ambition is accomplished. 
Whether my boy is to receive any income from his 
succession will depend on the state of his uncle's 
own matters, which cannot be ascertained till we 
hear from agents in Madras 

'' The entail requires my son to add the name and 
arms of Scott to his own, and this will be done at 
the convenience of the Heralds' College, of course* 

" Lady Scott will have a tolerable income now, 
and a much larger one if she outlives her mother* 
Her plans are as yet quite unfixed, but I much 
doubt if she will live at Abbotsford (which would 
be the most desirable thing for my son), or even 
in Scotland. Her mother, in anticipation of their 
return, had taken Huntly Burn, to be near them 
— you remember the house above Chiefswood, 
where the Fergusons used to be. Both it and 
my little glen are just what they were, only the 
woods on the skirts of the Eildons so grown that 
I could hardly see the summits from my garden* 
Lady Scott continued wonderfully tranquil, and 
Sir Adam is quite paternal in his treatment of 
her — in short, she is as well, and as well placed, 
as one could wish her to be for the present. My 
youth has rejoined his corps at Canterbury, and 
Missy and I have resumed our usual quiet habits 
here. — Ever yours affectionately, 

**J. G. LoCKHART." 

MR HOPE 299 

The diary contains the usual notes of social en- 
gagements, among them a dinner with Mr. Ruskin 
at Denmark Hill. On July 21 is entered, Inter 
patrem et filiam collocutio^ filia rem gestam enarrat. 
The res gesta was the proposal of Mr. James Hope, 
a most welcome piece of news. ** Lockhart's regard 
and affection for Mr. Hope were almost unbounded," 
says Mr. James Traill, who, as a young man, knew 
him well. " He admired him in every way, both 
personally and for his social and intellectual qualities, 
and had a high opinion of his good sense." No 
engagement could have pleased him so well (the 
young lady had not lacked other suitors), and when 
** Mr. Hope called at twelve," on July 22, he had no 
reason for the usual anxiety in these circumstances. 
But after all, Lockhart, like Scott many years before, 
might say — 

'' Ah me ! the flower and blossom of my house, 
The wmd has blown away to other towers." 

He was losing a child to whom he was tenderly 
devoted ; henceforth Lockhart was to be a lonely 
man in London, as age crept on him with many 
maladies, in a great empty house. 

Here follows his letter about the wedding to his 
sister Violet. The letter is anything but heart- 
broken, though it refers to Lockhart's need of the 
attendance of Sir Benjamin Brodie. Several mala- 
dies were beginning to beset him, including a delicacy 
of the mucous membrane :— 


^^ August 20^ 1847. 

** My dear Violet, — As by some mistake of Mr. 
Hope s clerk the papers of this morning don't say 
anything on our subject, be it known unto you 
that Charlotte's wedding and the breakfast after (in 
her absence and her youth's) went off very prettily. 
She conducted herself well, and with very tolerable 
firmness, and they were at the altar a very hand- 
some pair indeed. They retired cunningly to Rich- 
mond, and left me to do the honours of chickens, 
cutlets, all cold, tea, coffee, and plenty of champagne 
to some forty -five people, including several fine 
ones, and many, as I believe, sincere friends. The 
bridesmaids were six: Lady Susan Holroyd, Miss 
(Stratford) Canning, Caroline Gifford, Isabella Grant 
(Frank the painter's daughter), Sophia Christie, and 
Scott Wilson ; of whom Scottie and Miss Grant were 
most to be admired for looks, though I am very 
partial to Sir S. Cannings very clever, nice girl, 
who is returning in a few days to Constantinople — 
very sorry, no doubt, at not having caught a Jim.^ 
I am to dine with the Hopes on Sunday, and on 
Monday go to visit Sir G. Warrender at Cliefden, 
and thence to the Ashburtons, on the coast of Hamp- 
shire. I am therefore much better, but still it may 
be some time ere I dare put myself beyond a few 
hours of Sir B. Brodie. — Yours affectionately, 

**J. G. LoCKHART." 
^ Mr. Hope was always "Jim" with Lockhart. 


To Miss Edgeworth, Lockhart is more full in his 
comments on Mr. Hope : — 

" London, August 28, 1847. 

" My dear Miss Edgeworth, — Peccavi — but not 
from anything so bad as undervaluing your great 
and constant kindness to me and mine. It had 
been settled that Lady Davy, my girl, and I were 
to go about this day to Spain for a three or four 
months' tour ; but after we had begun to rub up our 
Castilian vocables, and even to think of trunks, and 
cases, and mule-saddles — behold a little romance 
that had been going on unsuspected by me, 
and perhaps hardly suspected by the hero, or 
at least by the heroine, was suddenly ripened by 
this Spanish announcement, and in a few days' time 
I found it all settled that our chdteau en Espagne 
must make way for a house in Charles Street, 
Berkeley Square, and another in Fife ! But 
perhaps you will understand me. I had been so 
awfully vexed and mortified about certain premature 
and luckily falsified announcements of autumn 1 846, 
that I was determined not to make any announce- 
ments at all on this occasion, and in fact I never 
quite convinced myself that the thing was certain 
until I signed the contract. It was all done in 
railway time — but no matter ; the acquaintance had 
been gradual, and the feeling was sincere and deep, 
and on both sides, I am satisfied, well bestowed. 
So let us hear no more about my foolish silence! 


Moreover, I was far from well, and the row of eating 
and drinking through a new tribe, and trousseaux, 
&c.f really bothered me out of half my wits. 
Charlotte has been there eight days, the wife of 
a highly distinguished man, exceedingly loved in 
his family, and immensely admired in society, and 
considered as having every chance of the very 
highest honours in his profession. Though only 
thirty-five, he has already laid by a sufficient inde- 
pendence; his practice is very great, his connec- 
tions, natural and acquired, of the most respectable 
kind. To conclude, he is a handsome fellow, and 
Lady Davy hardly yet forgives us for having seized 
on her favourite cavalier. 

"They are now at the Duke of Buccleuch's 
pretty villa at Richmond, and move thence in a few 
days towards Scotland. Mr. Hope's elder brother 
having two places, he rents one of them (Rankeil- 
lour, near Cupar Fife), and is much attached to it 
His business being chiefly that of a Parliamentary 
Counsel, he can be there near six months in the year 
— and there I hope to inspect them presently. I 
have already dined twice with them in their retreat, 
and if they be not most happy they are the cleverest 
of actors. In a word, I have every reason to be 
satisfied and gratified ; and I believe there really is 
not a father in London, of almost any rank, who 
would not have been glad indeed to bestow his 
daughter on James Hope. My boy is now Walter 
Lockhart Scott, Lieutenant in the i6th Lancers 


at Brighton, and I think doing well since he was 
indulged with the cloth of his choice. Thus you 
see my domestic cares are much lightened — for the 
present, at all events. I suppose children's children 
will by-and-by come to provide new objects of 
concern and interest. 

** As soon as I am well enough to work as usual, 
I must now begin the abridgment of the Life of 
Sir Walter Scott ; your suggestions on that head 
are laid by as valuable guidance when I do come to 
the job, and if you can add to the number with 
the kind frankness that belongs to you, most thank- 
fully shall I endeavour to profit by such advice as 
yours is ever sure to be. 

"Now let me hear that you have forgiven me, and 
write to Mrs. James Hope your congratulations on 
her most fortunate wedding. — Ever affectionately 
yours, J. G. Lockhart." 

In autumn Lockhart went to Scotland as usual, 
and his diary records : " On October 23, a visit to 
St Andrews ; " and " November 4, Melrose Abbey, 
with Hope and Cha." He could see, doubtless 
not without a natural pensiveness, the scenes where 
he had been happy as now his daughter was 
happy, and those must have been among the best 
of his later hours. The following letter to his 
daughter was written before this visit ; the " prey " 
referred to is wedding presents. His letters often 
contain much gossip about social facts, which are 


diverting, but cannot always well be published. A 
kind of romance was going on, an exciting novel 
in real life; but it now must remain unchronicled, 
though a very celebrated person was interested : — 

" Sussex Place, September 25, 1847. 

" Dear Cha, — I was pleased with your letter 
from Milton, and the accounts from others of the 
party there. This I hope finds you at homey and 
all well, with Lady Hope and Lady Ferguson, 
to whom offer my best respects. H. Ellis dined 
here yesterday with Vyvyan and Penn ; he has 
come over for a month s visiting en garfon — the 
dame retreated from Spa to Paris. He has brought 
a box for you, which I will bring down ; but you 
will write to himself, of course, or to Mrs. Ellis. I 
don't know what the prey contained is, but 'tis from 
Storr & Mortimer s, as was, I fancy, much of the 
other plunder of the trap. I am very busy, working 
that I may feel easy when away ; but when busy 
I am always better in spirits, and accordingly I 
dine daily with some friends — to-day with Ford, to- 
morrow Vyvyan. On Monday or Tuesday Croker 
comes to stay with me for some days. Love to 
Hope, Q.C., &c. — Ever yours, 

"J. G. LoCKHART." 

" I have bought a fine book for the autographs 
— folio, dark red velvet — but am not at leisure for 
contents at this moment Tell Hope that Sir R, 


Vyvyan swears all the row at Rome, and thence 
over Italy, is a cross. Metternich wanted to get 
rid of the Cardinals and Monsignori in the Lega- 
tions, and set Pius IX. to work, who accordingly 
banishes the real liberal Prince Monsegnano, while 
he of Lucca goes to Vienna to call for white bat- 
talions, as the Tuscan Grand Duke, &c., &c., will all 
do in a week or two. Meanwhile our Queen goes 
to Adverechie without a chaplain, and with a Popish 
Duke ; and Wellington sends Minto to the Quirinal 
to co-operate with Mettemich's tool infallible. What 
fun is my atheist High Anglican ! 

''J. G. L." 

The next letter, at the opening of the Scotch 
visit, does not suggest any hint of the gloom which 
Lockhart really felt at times, and briefly records in 
his diary at the end of the year. In fact, the con- 
trast between what he endured and what he re- 
vealed to those most dear to him is always most 

" Milton Lockhart, Lanark, 
October t)y 1847. 

"Dearest Charlotte, — I had this morning 
your note of the 5th, and therefore lose no time in 
saying here I am, safe and pretty well, though I can't 
tell what my ulterior (Fifeish) movements are to be 
until I have seen William, who is to be here to 
dinner to-day, but perhaps not in post-time. 

•• I spent a couple of very pleasant days at Ap- 

VOL. II. u 


thorpe, though, the Duke of Cambridge being of the 
party, it was rather noisy, but all exceeding good- 
humour and some fun. Also at Brigham I had very 
good entertainment, and was not a little surprised 
with the scale and splendour of the curious place, 
which has, among other things, a most gorgeous 
chapel, all over Popery and heraldry ; and H. B. carried 
me after our wine to vespers, where he has very fair 
chaunting from the villagers, and his brother William 
plays the organ. I had but a rough day's work 
yesterday ; mail-coach overturned near Lesmahago» 
but I was outside luckily, and Paul^ cleared the 
hedge and suffered little from a plunge knee-deep 
into a ploughed field. None of my letters having 
arrived from the South, William was from home, 
and the servants expected nobody, but all very 
speedily comfortable. — Ever yours affectionately, 


Stoical as he was, Christmas brought from the 
lonely man a hint of his melancholy, as to the old 
Christmas must ever be a time of sad memories and 
of forebodings. 

" Christmas^ 1847. 

** Mv DEAR Cha, — I am very weary, and the 
daylight waxes dim apace, so I must merely wish all 
that is good for you and Hope and Walter, and say 
how it gratifies me that he is with you at this season 
— how sincerely I hope you three may spend many 

* His valet. 

"JANE EYRE" 3^7 

happy Christmases together. I will write a lengthy 
letter the first spare hour of day. 

" I have Croker s new edition of Bozzy for you, 
but this box must await your coming as well as Ellis's. 
It is a very great improvement on his former editions, 
and makes a handsome large tome. It shall be 
bound ere you see it in suitable style. . . . 

"All here rave about a novel, *Jane Eyre,' of 
which I have read about half. I think it more 
cleverly written by far than any very recent one, 
and it has a strong interest, but hitherto a disagree- 
able one. It must be, if not by a man, by a very 
coarse woman. — Affectionately yours, 


" Kind regards to Mr. Badeley." 

On "Jane Eyre" he expressed an opinion so 
enthusiastic that it might startle Miss Bronte's 
most fervent admirers. The idea that the book 
must be by a man, or, if a woman, "by a very 
coarse one," is too strongly put in Miss Rigby's 
review in the Quarterly} We can only say that 
in 1848 no critic could have guessed that Currer 
Bell was neither a man nor a coarse woman, but 
the blameless daughter of a rural divine. 

Kingsley, in a letter to Mrs. Gaskell, rejoices that 
he had never expressed in print his opinion. 

^ Miss Rigby said that the author, if a woman, must, for good 
reasons, have forfeited the society of her sex. This was indefensible : 
she believed the book to be by a man. 


" * Shirley ' disgusted me at the opening, and I 
gave up the writer and her books, with a notion 
that she was a person who liked coarseness." ^ 

The next letter — Lockhart wrote many at that 
time — is full of gossip : — 

^^ December 2J^ 1847. 

" Dear Cha, — I heard nothing of Walter s recall 
from York until now from you, but all s well that 
ends well. 

" I suppose I shall see him this week. On Satur- 
day first if possible, if not on Monday, 3rd January, 
I shall go for two days to Grange, but I don't look 
to any other rustications. 

"Yesterday I saw Jinny — still in her attic — no 
man-servant — all in calico mufflings — pretty cheerful 
with a cadeau from Lord Holland— a little portrait of 
that pet himself. 

** One day I had a fine though small dinner at Lord 
Lonsdale's, whose house (a double one by William 
Gladstone's) is, after the Duke of Sutherland's, the 
most splendid I have seen in London — six drawing- 
rooms blazing with gold, glass, and real pictures. 
Below four very large, and three of these gorgeous 
rooms. In the one where we dined all is either 
gilding or mirror, save that three or four huge 
mirrors, filling vast panels, serve as frames to 
oval pictures of French ladies — very fine heads 
by Watteau — Du Barry, Pompadour, and the like. 

^ Kingsley repented on reading Miss Bronte's Life. The whole 
subject is discussed in Mr. Clement K. Shorter's " Charlotte Bronte 
and her Circle." 


" William would think this Elysium, not least one 
arrangement in the only plain room, viz., push back 
the Earl's big chair by his fire, and lift the rug. 
There is a ring. Lift it, and behold a little narrow 
trap stair, by which he descends at once into the 
kitchen to watch the casseroles. The company 
was suitable — Mrs. Fox Lane, Lord Somerton, 
and others after their kinds. Yesterday I made 
up by a quiet meal at the spinster's — only Widow 
Sharpe. This week I shall be at home, I think, 
every day till Saturday. 

*' I have not seen Badeley on marrying a Deceased 
Wife's Sister, but if he prints the argument, of which 
Christie says there is high laudation, in some accept- 
able shape, Jim or he should give me an article 
on the subject one day. 

" • All the world ' seem to be vexed or angry, 
not with Gladstone's pro- Jew vote, but with the 
grounds on which he put it I half begin to sus- 
pect he will lose his Oxford seat, and to be the 
first man ejected would be a severe mortification. — 
Yours affectionately, J. G. Lockhart." 

Here is the laudation of ** Jane Eyre 


** Sussex Place, December 29, 1847. 

"A good New Year to Mr. and Mrs. Hope, and 
many of them to be enjoyed, together with continu- 
ing faith in the wisdom of August 19th, 1847. As 


I shall be on my road to the Grange on Friday, I 
send my salutations now. 

** I have finished the adventures of Miss Jane 
Eyre, and think her far the cleverest that has written 
since Austen and Edgeworth were in their prime. 
Worth fifty TroUopes and Martineaus rolled into 
one counterpane, with fifty Dickenses and Bulwers 
to keep them company ; but rather a brazen Miss. 
The two heroines exemplify the duty of taking the 
initiative, and illustrate it under the opposite cases 
as to worldly goods of all sorts, except wit. One 
is a vast heiress, and beautiful as angels are every- 
where but in modern paintings. She asks a hand- 
some curate, who will none of her, being resolved 
on a missionary life in the far East. The other 
is a thin, little, unpretty slip of the governess, who 
falls in love with a plain, stoutish Mr. Burnand, 
aged twenty years above herself, sits on his knee, 
lights his cigar for him, asks him flat one fine 
evening, and after a concealed mad wife is dead, 
at last fills that awful lady's place. Lady Fanny 
will easily extract the moral of this touching fable. 
— Yours ever (both of yours) affectionately, 

**J. G. LoCKHART." 

With this mirth he ends the year. It is pretty 
plain that Miss Rigby took her own course in the 
critique, which was, and still is, so vigorously blamed. 
Miss Rigby was a writer of stem propriety. 

The year 1848 opened for Lockhart with an 


illness ; all these illnesses, which often confined him 
to bed, are shortly chronicled in the diaries, and 
leave a most comfortless impression of lonely malaise 
and pain. The following letter shows how little of 
his sufferings Lockhart permitted to be apparent : — 

*^ Saturday^ January 15, 1848. 

"Dear Cha, — Lady Davy and Thurlow called 
here this morning in a cab, the first outing after 
a tedious ' trouble ' ; but I think miladi looked 
better— cleaner — than she did before she was seized, 
and hope it is all over. I am better myself and 
busy again, which is always the best for me, but 
I don't think I shall attend the ball at Brighton 
on the 28th, especially as I have to go to Wimpole 
to dine on the 29th. 

"In case I forget, there is a box at Mr. Miles's, 
holding the cast of Thorwaldsen's medallion of your 
grandpapa. Please bring it up with you carefully, and 
the like as to anything else you find for me there. 

I have bid Miss send me calotypes of John 

Murray (a capital one) and of her lovely self; 
whichever of a score she least approves. The 
Miss Murrays gave a very elegant dinner to a 
very gay company on Thursday, and all seemed 
happy — the animal-lover Hardwicke included. 

" I hope Walter can meet you at Abbotsford, but 
I hardly believe it. He has said nothing to me, 
however, on the subject. 

" Martha has had the influenza, and Paul also ; 


and now Martha is leaving me to go to her parents, 
but I have got a neat, tidy lass from a doctor's in 
Baker Street, who seems to do very well, and is 
cleanly and decent-looking — not young, and marked 
with small-pox. The other stayed a week to teach 
her the way of the house, but goes this night or 
Monday morning — a very excellent servant, but her 
family wanted her, and I can't help it. * Spicey ' 
would be welcome to me, but do as you judge best ; 
perhaps you will come and see me, even if she be 
not here. — Ever affectionately yours, 


The next letter dissembles his real anxiety for 
Walter, who, after the manner of foolish young 
men, affected a tedious mystery about his move- 
ments. Lockhart's plan was probably the wisest, 
not to irritate by cross-questioning and constant 
lectures, but no plan could have been successful. 
He carried a heavy heart among the gay people, 
who may have been no happier than himself : — 

" London, February 2, 1848. 

** Dear Cha, — I have just come home after 
some very pleasant days at Lord Hardwicke's, 
which is a place on the largest scale, and was illus- 
trated by a very grand collection of Tory sages, 
viz. : Duke of Richmond, Marquess of Exeter 
and wife, Earl of Eglinton, ditto and Countess of 
Desart, Lords and Ladies Stanley and Ashburton, 


Lord George Bentinck, Croker the right honour- 
able, and myself the only esquire ; lots of honour- 
ables, but no baronet I am entreated to, I 
suppose, a similar gathering next week at Burghley, 
but I won't accept until I hear your day for arriving 
here. All were frank and jolly, but their political 
horizon is, I think, quite in obscuro. Lord George 
IS not to lead in the Commons, nor could any of 
them guess who (if anybody) is to replace him. 
There were splendid games at billiards between 
Stanley and Eglinton, and Lady H. sang divinely ; 
and we had (as Paul soon told me) the identical 
German cook that so nearly poisoned the Member 
for Carluke ; but, luckily for me, there was turtle 
every day, and that even he could not contaminate ; 
also capital pies, and cold beef and beer, worth all 
the champagne. 

" I find a line from Walter, who is to dine and 
sleep here to-day, and start to-morrow, he says, for 
Bowhill. I had some hints lately that vexed me on 
his account. I fear last time he was in Scotland 
his chief fixture was at a place he never mentioned 
to any of us. Sir J. M'Neil is alarmed for his folly. 
I don't know that I shall say very much, or perhaps 
anything, on the subject, but I think a little help 
might be lent by you and Hope. If he proceeds, 
it seems to be as like an insurance of worldly dis- 
tress as anything one could fancy. 

"You may, I believe, expect to hear in another 
post or so of the death of the Primate. At Wim- 


pole, opinion seemed to incline in favour of Bishop 
of Norwich, whom, by the way, I forgathered with 
at Cambridge ; as also my love Catharine, who will 
have her nose further up at both Sedgwick and me 
if she becomes a Princess of Lambeth. At Wimpole 

my flame was Lady , who is rather under a 

cloud just at present, but I hope not so serious as 
Mayfair talk represents it. — Ever yours, 

** J. G. LoCKHART." 

It is extremely disagreeable to dwell on the chief 
misery of Lockhart at this time, and for four years 
longer. But his biography would be incomplete 
did it not record his conduct towards the cause of 
his anxiety. A father vexed and straitened by the 
follies of a son, too often loses temper and dignity. 
These Lockhart never lost, his affection was never 
weakened, his appeal was ever to reason and right 
feeling. The following letter was written to Walter 
after some escapade of which the details are no 
longer memorable. The young man had, appa- 
rently, been imposed on, and dragged deeper into 
pecuniary difficulties. 

In these circumstances Lockhart wrote the fol- 
lowing remonstrance, most gently worded : — 

"London, September i, 1848. 

" Dear Walter, — As it would be quite unne- 
cessary to explain my feelings, more especially in 
connection with the last letters that passed between 


you and me as to money matters, I presume you 
will think it wise, as respects your own interests, 
no longer to defer putting me in possession of a 
full statement, on conscience and honour, of the 
actual condition of your pecuniary affairs. 

" I well know that persons in difficulty as to 
money feel extreme reluctance to make /u// dis- 
closures, and I am quite disposed to make consider- 
able allowance for whatever omissions occurred 
when we last corresponded on the subject : but 
this affair must have attracted, or soon attract, the 
notice of a// who take a concern in you, and I 
think you will perceive that no good can, and 
much, perhaps irreparable, evil may come from 
any hesitation about complying with my present 
suggestion. — Your affectionate father, 


A boy of Walter Lockhart's kind always wants to 
be treated '* like a man of the world," and like a man 
of the world Lockhart treated him. But no mea- 
sures were of any avail. Lockhart's diary, after 
the note Sept. 23, **Gui2ot dined, Croker and J. G. 
L. — three only," contains the record — 

" Sept 25. — Walter very unwell at Norwich." 
Walter was suffering from a brain fever, which, 
to any one who has been obliged to read through 
the documents about his brief and stormy life, sug- 
gests an explanation of what had been, and of what 
was to follow ; of the change from the kind and 


friendly boy to the sullen, wayward, reckless youngf 
man. They who, with unavailing grief, have be- 
held and endured such a change in one beloved, 
best know what Lockhart had to suffer, and, under- 
standing his son's case, can most readily pity and 
pardon. There was a meaning in the ancient be- 
lief in "possession." 

The following letter to Milman tells all that need 
be told of this part of the story : — 

"Sussex Place, October t^ 1848. 

'* My dear Milman, — Murray has sent me a note 
of yours which gives very comforting accounts ot 
Mrs. Milman and yourself. Perhaps he has told you 
why I have been and am here. My son had given 
me continual distress and anxiety for some time, 
but lately he fell into a brain fever, and was for some 
days despaired of. I left Charlotte and Hope in 
care of him at Norwich (Cha in the Palace — him in 
the Barracks), and do not know when he may be 
able to travel with them to Scotland ; but when he 
does, there is left an awful load of care and trouble, 
and, I fear, embarrassment upon me. He seems to 
have crammed the folly of a lifetime into less than 
two years. I do not think I shall get away at all 

** Murchison has returned ten years younger than 
he departed, belly gone, wig gone, and lo ! a glossy 
dark chevelure of his own — how he triumphed at 
my greyness ! 

TO MTLMAy 317 

" Fergusson, too, has returned from Germany, where 
he and his wife saw all the tokens of a fearful revo- 
lutionary civil war, not long to be stayed from explo- 
sion all over Vaterland — ^the rage of class against 
class fiendish ; in the meantime a total stoppage of 
all trade and the deepest poverty. — Ever yours, 


Mr. and Mrs. Hope showed unwearying kindness 
and affection to Walter, and Lockhart's best hopes 
were in the influence of his daughter over her 
brother. Many letters on this topic are omitted 

On October 21, Lockhart paid his usual autumn 
visit to his brother at Milton Lockhart On No- 
vember I he returned to London. This letter 
refers to the critique of Layard's " Nineveh." The 
reference to the printing of Messrs. Clowes is in 
contrast with other praises which he elsewhere be- 
stows on their work. 

^^Novimber 19, 1848. 

"My dear Milman, — Clowes has outdone him- 
self in blending your paper, but I see through all 
his mists the worth of the work, which I beg you to 
correct tttnce ere I see it again, for I don't wish to 
come dulled to the true edition, and am sure that 
will need to be edition third 

" I hope you will give a note on the doctoring of 
the ivories, which interests whoever hears thereot 

" I also hope you will select a few of the best 
woodcuts. Perhaps it might do to cram two pages 


full of them, and give numbers and references, but 
better, if possible, to dovetail the cuts into the text 

" I desiderate your allusion to the Papal confirma- 
tion of Queen Semiramis's system of tonsure. 

" Please get me made one of the three paid Eccle- 
siastical Commissioners, whose office, however, must 
not, as they are to be laymen, infer any tonsure at 
all. Upon my word, this is saddling Mother Church 
with three costly incubi. Senior, I suppose, can't be 
one of them, as well as Master of Chancery and 
Tutor-General of the Whigs. Yet another £2000 
a year would repay him for some extra exertion. 

"The Archbishop will appoint some little saint 
and Lord John two big sinners. This is another 
very decided step towards the commencement of the 
end. Oh, my Philpotts ! my bowels are disturbed for 
thee ; this is worse than the Surplice question, or 
even the Catholic one. 

" I suggest for Commissioners at ;^2ooo — Ex 
parte Lambeth, Mr. Fitzsam Wilberforce, R.N., or 
Mr. Fitzbore Raikes. Ex parte Cn?zt/«, Escott, Esq., 
Hon. Grantley Berkeley. — Yours ever, 

**J. G. LoCKHART." 

Nothing could ever depress in Lockhart a kind 
of intellectual high spirits when his pen was in his 

On December 9 he dined with Mr. Gleig. " Be- 
tween him and me is a great affection," he once 


wrote to Milman. "Sam Rogers more amusing 
and far more instructive than I ever had found him. 
In good-humour and great force every way at eighty- 
six," he writes in his diary. On December 26 he 
left England with Christie for the Continent. 

The following letter describes revolutionary 
Paris : — 


December ^if 1848. 

** My dear Charlotte, — This is the last night of 
1848, and I pray that 1849 may be a happy year 
for you. This morning I had your note, for which 
I thank you, though its contents were not over 

" I shall not write at length until I get home. 
The only result of all I have seen and heard is 
that this L. N. B.^ concern must come to an end 
very soon : the bets are within three months. I was 
at one sitting of the Assembly — a horrid row, indeed 
— in a place as big as our opera-house, but made 
chiefly of pasteboard, and which a Mirabeau would 
roar down, I believe, in ten minutes. Nothing like 
argument can be even attempted where there are 
from 1000 to 1500 French people, male and female, 
all crammed together, almost all jabbering. Poor 
little Marrast is not heard, hardly seen ; his hammer 
and bell no more heeded than his white gloves and 
other barber-like ornaments. 

"We have seen two plays, both very cleverly 

^ Louis Napoleon Bonaparte. 


acted and very amusing, on the state of public 
affairs, and I hear there is a third at some third 
theatre to the same tune, that is, the most scornful 
derision of this and all revolutions — and with what 
gusto all the audiences gulp it ! Then, to-day, we 
heard the great Protestant preacher, Cocquerel, 
who is, I think, the best preacher I ever heard, and 
whose sermon was full of most sad reflections on 
the ending of a year of * wanton mischief.' He said, 
so far from predicting what would occur before the 
end of 1849, he was sure all would agree that 
anything might fall out before the end of another 
twenty-four hours. 

" L. N. B. is an ass. At his first dinner last 
Friday there were two ladies, and one of them was 
the Guiccioli,^ now Madame de Boissy! Secundo^ 
when all the world is willing to forget Strasbourg, 
he makes a dust about the bills. We walked past 
the Elys6e to-day, and it looked as military as it 
ever could have done in the time of Mon oncle. 

" Well, good night, and all good wishes to Hope 
and you. This is a shabby note, but I am very 
badly colded to-night, and must go to bed. — Affec- 
tionately yours, J. G. Lockhart." 

The diary now contains not only pessimistic 
quotations from the Greek Anthology, such as ** All 
is laughter, dust, and nothingness," but this epigram 
on Alisons •' History of Europe" — 

* Lord Byron's mistress. 


'' A book to bend an omnibus, 
A style like Hullah's Chorus ; 
Rome may put up with Tacitus, 
But Glasgow boasts Sonorus ! " 

This letter is dated the day after his return to 
England : — 

" Sussex Place, Saturday, January 6, 1849. 

"My dear Charlotte, — Christie's business forced 
him back, and I had not courage to stay alone in 
Paris, though I am little else here, God knows. 
We arrived yesterday afternoon in time for me to 
send off two Punches; but not for writing, and to-day 
I am so cold and colded that I can't write more 
than a line- All well, however, and my health much 
improved by ten days of open air and exercise, very 
much; the cold I suffer from is a nothing. I feel 
greatly better. 

" I have little to say as to Paris. It is quite a 
camp ; 90,000 men in arms there ; infantry in every 
part of the town ; no five minutes without a drum 
beating and a detachment passing, and all the vil- 
lages round swarming with cavalry. H\it, forts all 
equipped with artillery. The Tuilleries, Place du 
Carrousel, &c., covered with cannon ; two regiments 
at the Elys6e — partly tented in the gardens, and 
dragoons posted in all the streets near that scene of 
empire ; constant patrolling there. 

" I did not meet with one person, French or Eng- 
lish, German or Russian — and we talked with many 

VOL. n. X 


of various sorts and sizes — who did not abuse the 
Republic, laugh at Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, and 
predict a speedy change of some kind. If the As- 
sembly persist in sitting many more weeks, Chan- 
gamier will probably disperse them d la iS Brumaire, 
but somehow they will be sent to the right-about 
Whether Louis Napoleon Bonaparte will not be 
quite done out of all popularity by that time is 
doubtful, at least ; but I think no one conceives it 
possible that he will be in France, unless as a 
prisoner, in January 1850. Still, if Changamier be 
willing to keep him as a show, and content himself 
with the real sway, he may have a chance, and 
retain his palace and pomp, and get drunk (as all 
say he does) there, just as he did here, Thiers, it 
is believed, works hard for Madame d'Orl&ms and 
Comte de Paris, and I should not be surprised if that 
party had already coalesced with Henry V. ; but, 
indeed, I should not be surprised at anything, save 
a continuance of even such order as there now is. 

" I was at one sitting of the Assembly — the famous 
one of the Salt Duty, too, which was luck — but I 
think I mentioned this before. 

" I have had nothing from Walter ! This is very 
sad indeed. Be sure I shall never break your in- 
junctions. My best regards to Hope and William. 
— Ever yours, J. G. Lockhart." 

Fortune never left Lockhart long unassailed. 
On January 26th he heard of the death of his 

TO MILlfAN 393 

sister Violet, with whom he had been in constant 
and affectionate correspondence, mainly on matters 
of purely domestic interest On January 30th he 
attended her funeral ; on February 2nd he was 
with the Hopes at Abbotsford. 

On April i6th he wrote the following letter to 
Milman on a sorrow of his friend's. Lockhart dis- 
plays no enmity to the Americans in his later 
remarks ; he used to try to tone down the pug- 
nacity of Basil Hall where the United States were 
concerned : — 

"Sussex Place, Regent Park, 
April 16, 1849. 

" My dear Milman, — J. J. Rousseau says, * Dans 
les grandes afflictions le silence et la tristesse sodt 
le vrai language de Tamitid.' C'est tout dire, 

" I hope it would now do you good to do me 
goody I mean by reviewing our friend Lyell's two 
books on America. I have seen some sheets of 
the new one, and Murray would gladly supply you 
with them as they come to him if you could under- 
take the job. The old one never was reviewed 
in the Quarterly Review^ and was badly and scantily 
treated by stupid young Merivale in the Edinburgh^ 
so you may consider it as fresh material 

" Of course there would be some delicate subjects 
to touch on, and perhaps it would be necessary for 
you and me to talk over some of them beforehand ; 
but I have no doubt our feelings would be much 
the same on anything of real moment. The tone 



of Lyell is very likely, I think, to promote the 
great cause of international amity, and I know you 
would be ready to follow it in the main, though 
he is too Whiggy for the Quarterly Review in some 

"The doom poem now sent is his. I add two 
volumes of Whitefidd's Methodist Hymns, in which 
you'll find a new evangelisation of Tom Moore's 
Melodies. These please quote after Book of Doom, 
and let me have them again, for they are dear to 
me as the ruddy drops, &c. — Yours, 

"J. G. LoCKHART." 

His son's affairs were his chief concern. To his 
daughter he writes on a domestic misfortune : — 

"My Dearest, — You are so right to keep a 
cheerful heart. That is the true and wise sub- 
mission. Such disappointments well endured pre- 
pare the soil for fuller happiness hereafter, and you 
will have your reward in due time." 

On June 6, he reports a dinner at Lord Mahon's, 
where were Lord Lincoln (a character in the social 
romance already alluded to) and " Vanity Fair 
Thackeray." "Tell Hope that the fun of this 
town turns on the new attachment to Lola Montes ; 
every evening her tea-table is graced by Lord 
Brougham. ... He quite brags of his devotion 
among the Lansdownes." 

A MUMMY 32s 

He describes a ball : "I saw lots of friends, and 
flirted, as usual, vastly ; chiefly, I think, with the 
Duchesses of Buccleuch and Northumberland and 

Miss ; on revient toujours d ses riches amours. 

I was presented to Lady Salisbury, who is a very 
nice-looking girl, younger than Mildred, and agree- 
able, with fine lamping^ loveable eyes, and a tall, 
good figure — taller than her man." . . . "The 
Queen danced every dance, and very elegantly as 

well as cordially. There was " (an elderly 

nymph) "in all her diamonds, of course, and in 
white, spotless from top to toe, and the roses all 
white about her jet-black wig, so that the rouge 
blazed gloriously. She ran up to the Duke of 
Wellington, but was forced to tell her name, and 
that rather loudly, for he is deaf. I thought ghosts 
only spoke when they were spoken to" — they 
seldom do so even then — " and that mummies fol- 
lowed the same rule." 

His servant Paul now trod the primrose path. 

" When I came back, behold Paul with a horrid 
black eye, which continues most fearful to con- 
template. He said he had struck against his bed ; 
I fear, I fear, there has been a return to unapos- 
tolical proceedings." 

These notes hide his real and pressing anxieties. 

On May 22 he notes, " With Walter at Christie's ; 
not met since spring 1848." His domestic letters at 
this time are so full of Walter's irremediable aflairs, 

* A word from " The Faery Queen." 


that it IS unnecessary to cite a mere series of repeti- 
tions on one unhappy theme. He was unwell all 
through the summer, and had recourse, in Burns's 

" To drumlie Gennan water. 
To make himself look £air and fatter." 

On August 3, he left for the Continent, visited 
Carlsbad, took long walks, accompanied by '' water- 
ing outside and in," as he notes. With his brother 
William he went to Prague, Vienna, Cracow, and 
Berlin, returned to London at the end of the month, 
when he notes "111." I quote a letter, and a frag- 
ment of a letter, to his old and humorous friend 
Lord Robertson. Most people have heard how he 
reviewed Lord Robertson's Poems, and added (only 
in the copy meant for his victim ) : 

" Here lies that prince of Paper Lords, Lord Peter, 
Who broke the laws of God, and Man, and. Metre." 

I cite the version of the couplet which has reached 
me by tradition ; there are various readings at the 
service of the future editor of Lockhart's Poems. 

" Sussex Place, September 23, 1849. 

" Dear Robertson, — Since you bid me, I write 
a line, but have only to say that I go on as favour- 
ably as could well be wished, and have good hope 
of being quite myself in another week. I have now 
got Croker for my guest, and he will abide the week 



— after which the Quarterly Review will be dropt 
and only health thought of. Brougham writes that 
he will leave his castle on the loth, sleep at Walmer 
the 12th, and the 13th cross sea en route for 
his chdteau. 1 have asked him to dine here the 
nth. Guizot writes that he has finished a dis- 
course, "Why was the English Revolution (1688) 
successful?' and is to publish it, both separately 
and as preface to a new edition of his ' History of 
Charles I,' He is to winter in Paris. He says 
France is well aware that she is in an auberge. 
and must by-and-by start again ; but there is 
such disagreement as to the road she should take, 
and her ultimate point of rest, that she hesitates, 
and will for some time hesitate, to terminate her 
halt This is well said. Meanwhile, he goes on 
— Two great movements halt not — one good, one 
evil — I. The slow but decided amalgamation of 
all Monarchist parties ; 1. The corruption of the 
peasantry by the Socialist teachers. Who can pro- 
phesy, he asks, which will have made the greater 
progress when the moment for action arrives.' He 
says of Louis Napoleon, ' This smalt person must 
be greater ere he returns to nothing,' so 1 suppose 
he anticipates either Presidency for life or Empire 
as the next considerable step. I rather wonder at 
his going to winter at the focus of disturbance — 
but a Frenchman out of Paris thinks himself in 
the grave. Old Louis Philippe is in a rage about 
a history of his house by one Dr.. Cook Taylor, 


a Whig prot6g6, who died the other day just after 
appointment to a Professorship in one of these new 
Irish Colleges. He was cleverish — but a wild, un- 
conscientious, ignorant, scrambling Paddy, and his 
line forsooth is to defend Egalit6 throughout or 
nearly so, but give Louis Philippe bones and body 
to the Devil, as the most consistent of scoundrels, 
unredeemed by a single honest quality from his 
cradle to Claremont. "Mr. Smith " ^ is angry 
enough, and talks of prosecuting Bentley! What 
a descent — but Guizot will be sure to stop him. 
Croker was in Ireland when Queen Victoria was 
there, and has little doubt everything is arranged 
for something like a formal establishment of Popery 
in that country. If so, there is an end of 
J. R. and Co. for a season, or I am no prophet 
This will be to him and his at least as costly as 
Corn Law was to Peel of sonnet fame. Your 
sonnets on Kilbryde quite revived my childish 
memory. Very good they are. — Yours affection- 
ately, J. G. LOCKHART." 

The following fragment, of later date, to Lord 
Robertson, illustrates the saying habenti dabitury 
and also that accretion of myths round a celebrated 
name which explains so many things. Lockhart 
himself believed that his own joke was by Sydney 
Smith. His personal beauty survived the years 

^ Louis Philippe. 


*'when youthful faith is fled." Mr. James Traill, 
who knew him at this period, writes : — 

" I used to think him the most wonderfully 
handsome man I ever saw, and that recollection 
still remains. His finely cut classical features, 
his marvellously clear complexion, white even to 
pallor" (an ivory tone, Mrs. Richmond Ritchie 
calls it), "and the jet black hair grouped in the 
clustering curls so dear to the chisel of the old 
Roman sculptors, made a lasting impression on 
me," as on Miss Thackeray, whose reminiscences 
date from her childhood. The fine portrait by Sir 
Francis Grant enables us to see Lockhart as he 
was when "half-grey," like Idomeneus. 

Landseer may well have desired to paint such a 
subject. Lockhart writes : — 

" Landseer says that I was a good-looking chap 
twenty or thirty years ago, and he therefore asked 
me to sit to him, whereto I replied, ' Is thy servant 
a dog, that he should do this thing ? ' The mot is 
universally given to Sydney Smith, but Edwin Land- 
seer swears he never did, nor could have asked 
so ugly a fellow to sit, and thinks it unfair that I 
should have been robbed of my joke in favour of so 
wealthy a joke-smith. If it was mine, I had quite 
forgot the fact and adopted the general creed on 
the weighty point. If Landseer be correct, I fancy 
he must have thought of introducing me into his 
picture of Scott with his dogs in the Rhymer's 


Glen; but if so, I can't imagine why I did not 
accede to the flattering proposal. Here is a good 
illustration of the value of evidence, however. 
Pity the doubt was not raised before Sydney joined 
the majority, that we might have had his say also. 
What I object to is the allegation of his ugliness. 
I always admired his countenance as the most 
splendid combination of sense and sensuality. 
Christie and all his flock are in the Lake country 
for two months. The Doge will go home next 
week — so will the Hape-Scotts — and I shall be left 
alone with Holt,^ powers of attorney, Duchy sub- 
stitutes, thinning of bookshelves, and so forth. — Vive 
et vale, J. G. Lockhart, 

" Lord Robertson." 

This letter to Dean Milman, on his promotion, 
touches lightly on Lockhart's illness : — 

" Sussex Place, October 25, 1849. 

*' My dear Dean of St. Paul's, — For I may 
address you so here, though not yet, I suppose, on 
the outside. I heard days ago that you were to 
have the preferment, which I had quite anticipated 
from the hour of Coplestone's death ; but was not 
aware, until last night, that you had returned to 
England. The Government have done their duty, 

^ Mr. Holt was perpetually busy with the constant troubles of 
Walter's financial embroilment. 


and I am persuaded no appointment could have 
given a more general satisfaction. It gives me 
particular pleasure, among other reasons, because I 
think both Mrs. Milman and you wanted a fillip and 
a change. The Deanery house is not in the best 
of situations, but it is a capital house ; and the 
Cloisters also were rather out of the way, so that 
your horses are accustomed to step out How 
different the dinners will be from our old friend's: 

* Doctors and deans above in solemn row, 
And deans and doctors of like bulk below,' 

as Crabbe, I think, described the scene. I have 
not seen or heard of any newspaper criticism on 
your elevation, except that of the Datfy News, 
which somebody sent me yesterday, and there I 
find the Whigs rebuked for having thus honoured 
a Tory, a High Churchman, and, if not a Puseyite, 
a patron of Puseyism. The Toryism and High 
Churchism, far be it from me to deny or palliate — 
but, I suspect, the third count of the indictment 
rests on a confusion of Harness with Bennett 
The former's theatrical tastes may have induced 
him to adopt flowers, and possibly incense, but 
he is about the last I should have expected to 
find charged with graver participation in the 
mysteries. Howbeit, I heartily wish the Whigs 
would crown their iniquity by giving him your 

** Aubrey de Vere is a very fine fellow, and I like 


his society exceedingly. His cousin I have never 
seen that I know of. 

'' I had a bad inflammatory attack on my arrival 
some weeks ago from the Continent, and am still 
not quite rid of its consequences. But I go on to 
Scotland to-morrow, and hope two or three weeks 
there may bring me back to the vigour becoming 
my youthhood. 

'* Well, the next time we meet you will be Doctor 
and Dean, and most happy I to see you in the garb 
proper to your new dignities.^ Pray tell your lady 
how cordially I participate in her feelings on this 
occasion. — Ever most affectionately yours, 

"J. G. LoCKHART." 

In September Lockhart had a severe illness, 
which he could not disguise. He later visited 
Scotland, saw Wilson, and stayed at Abbotsford, 
which Mr. Hope now rented from Walter. Writing 
from London on November 15, 1849, he announces 
an accident : — " At Dunbar I was all but killed ; a 
tough sandwich stuck in my throat as I was hurry- 
ing into the carriage, and the train moved — I 
unable to speak ! But a young passenger thrust 
himself half out of the window, and roared to stop 
in such a voice that he was obeyed, and a glass of 
water by-and-by relieved me. I really suppose 
that I suffered as much as Mrs. Manning" (the 
murderess), " of whose exit I had just been reading 

* " The Dean in a kilt." So Lockhart in his diary. 


full details in the Scotsman. My helpful neighbour 
turned out to be Sir William Don, and he and I 
were good friends long before London. ... I shall 
always feel an interest in his fate, for he truly saved 
my life. . . . God bless you, my dearest. It did 
me good to see you and Hope so comfortable 
and happy.*' 

Lockhart's health now prevented him from going 
much into the world ; hence the rumour that he 
was blighted by the marriage of Miss Rigby to 
Mr. Eastlake ! 

"All misery about W. S. L.," is his entry for 
November 26-28. On the fly-leaf of his diary for 
the year is a long and learned recipe — " How to 
make Glasgow punch." 


LONDON, 1850-1853 


'' IlL"— The l)lack dag.-*Anecdote by Mr. James TnulL— Deatli of 
Wordsworth. — Lockharfs portrait— Mr. Eiwin. — No dndlist — 
Changes of £Edt!i.-^Letter to Mr. Hope.— L^er to Mrs. Hope. 
— MurchisoxL — Lord John Russell deer-stalldng. — '^A ^NFtnf bit 
body." — Anecdote of 'Lamartkie. — Dinner with Landteei; — 
Rackets by gaslight— Dan<fies ibr the 'Queen.— Jtmfns iaifd die 
Ghost— Lord Lyttelton as Junhis.'^Lettar'to Mrs. Hcfe.-^-ne 
Quartgrfy troubles. — QuarUrfy on. Junius. Stories of the wicked 
Lord Lyttelton. — Mr. Gladstone ** much shocked.'* — ^Thel>andies 
at Windsor.— Eastern and Western Cliurdies. — ^Rum ttid lodftt 
pig. — Mi:. Hope received into Church of Rome. — Lockharfs letter 

to him. — ^To Mrs. Hope. — The Rev. Moses . — French tour. 

— Lord Peter " hot and heavy." — Croker's illness. — Scandal about 
a saint — Birth of Mrs. Maxwell Scott — Walter's illness. — 
** Esmond." — Reconciliation with Walter. — Waltei's deadi. — 
Letter to Mrs. Hope. — Kindness of Mrs. Hughes. — Letters to 
her. — Miniature of Walter. 

The year 1850 opens, in the diaries, with the one 
word " III,*' covering several weeks There are 
few entries of importance, and scarcely any letters 
of much interest. Lockhart's social career was 
practically over, owing to his persistent bad health. 
He had always detested being made a lion of, and 
when this occurred now, the lion was accompanied 
by the Black Dog. Mr. James Traill writes thus : — 
** Lockhart had a great mixture of shyness and 



dislike to be made much of. He was averse to 
displaying himself, and had a certain proud modesty 
about him which made him, above all things, hate to 
be 'shown off.' 

" I remember an amusing instance of this. Our 
uncle William Whately of course knew him very 
well, although they were never, I fancy, very intimate 
or dear friends. 

"At the time I speak of — it was after I left 
Oxford, and I must, I think, have been about twenty- 
four years old — Lockhart rarely dined out in general 
society : but Whately, on the score of old acquaint- 
ance, succeeded with some trouble in persuading 
hun to dine with him one night, promising that 
there would be no party, only my father, if he 
could get him ! who, as you know, never dined out 
of his own house : Mr. Christie, who after all never 
came, and myself. On these conditions Lockhart 
accepted the invitation. You know what a dear 
kind-hearted and hospitable man William Whately 
was, but you will also remember how fond he was 
of rubbing shoulders with great people, and he 
could not resist the temptation, notwithstanding 
his promise, of showing off Lockhart as a lion to 
some of his g^nd acquaintances : so he asked a 
largish party to meet him — some two or three big 
legal guns, and some of his wife's relations of the 

"I came from Blackheath before the appointed 
hour. Lockhart arrived punctually to time. By- 


and-by one and then another guest was announced. 
Lockhart got disgusted — ^took me by the arm and 
led me to the great bow window overlooking St. 
James's Park, and steadily kept his back to all new 

" ' What does all this mean, James ? Whately 
promised there should be no one here. I am very 
much annoyed. Remember you are not to leave 
me, and you are to go down to dinner with and 
sit next me.' When dinner was announced, he 
linked his arm in mine, and we marched down 
together, and he took his seat in the middle of the 
long table : he talked only to me throughout the 
greater part of the dinner, and addressed no one 
else, being evidently much put out At the end 
of dinner, however, he relented, and finally made 
himself very agreeable ; but he never dined there 

This is the last apparition of the Black Dog 
which we have to chronicle, and it must be admitted 
that his coming was not without excuse, as Lock- 
hart had announced his unfitness for society. 

On April 23, he chronicles the death of Words- 
worth. His early admiration for the poet never 
faltered, though he found the Prelude trying, mis- 
doubted Wordsworth's philosophy, and, as early as 
1825, had laughed at the sage's self absorption and 
total disregard of the merits of his great contem- 
poraries. He also records, ''Dies F. M. Reynolds. 
Miserrimus. Host of Hook's window-smash. Cole- 


ridge beginning the smash." In spring he sat to 
Sir Francis Grant, whose portrait of Lockhart is 
at Abbotsford. It has been finely reproduced in 
mezzotint in a private plate. 

Of Lockhart's portraits known to me, this is the 
most pleasing. The mouth, though possibly too 
small, is beautifully modelled, and lacks the curl of 
scorn which many persons observed in it, including 
Mr. James Traill, who says, " it mostly had a sar- 
castic or rather cynical expression." This appears 
in the rather unlovely likeness which hangs, with 
others of the Shepherd and of Professor Wilson, 
in the Old Saloon of Mr. Blackwood in George 
Street, Edinburgh. The sardonic expression is, of 
course, emphasised in Lockhart's caricatures of 

In June he notes, ** Mr. Elwin breakfasts here," 
namely, the learned, and by no means too friendly 
editor of Pope. Mr. Elwin now, or soon after- 
wards, shared with Lockhart the burden of editing 
the Quarterly Review^ and succeeded him in that 
post. It is understood that Lockhart made an 
objection (manifestly humorous), to a clerical aide-de- 
camp^ because a man in orders could not '* go on 
the ground," if necessary. The days of duelling 
editors were over in England, and even Miss Mar- 
tineau does not hint that Lockhart, as editor of the 
Quarterly, was ever challenged to mortal combat 
In his youth a gentleman had a case of pistols just as 
he had a dressing-case. In " Vanity Fair " Rawdon 



Crawley is already almost, but not quite, an anach- 
ronism when he wants to fight Lord Steyne. 

On Au^st 8, Lockhart went to Bingen, where 
he met his son ; nt was one of many fruitless errands. 
The young man was living in various Continental 
towns, occasionally visiting London, as it were in- 

The following letter touches on Walter's affairs, 
and indicates Lockhart's attitude in the difficulties 
of Anglicans at that period. His son-in-law, 
followed by his daughter, was about to go over 
with Manning to the older creed. It cannot 
be denied that, in taking this step, and in this 
alone, Mr. Hope gave pain to his father-in-law. 
But gossip, as in Miss Martineau's essay, has 
immensely exaggerated Lockhart's feelings on the 
subject. He was not prejudiced against the ancient 
faith ; and, in his essay on the Presbyterian Wilkie, 
commends him for a similar want of prejudice. 
When abroad, Lockhart associated a good deal 
with Catholic priests ; he admired their learning 
and took pleasure in their conversation. We shall 
find him, at Rome, procuring a medal of Pio None 
and a rosary for his infant grandchild, of whom 
he was extremely fond, — Mary Monica, now Mrs. 
Maxwell Scott. This is not exactly the conduct 
of a bigot. But Lockhart's motto in these matters 
was Spartam nactus es, kanc exoma. He disliked 
conversions, changes of creed, though — as between 
Presbyterianism and the Church of England — he, 


like most Scots educated in England, and interested 
in the historical suffering loyalty of the Scottish 
Episcopal Church, was fairly indifferent Enfin^ 
he preferred that Englishmen should remain in 
the English communion ; he regretted Mr. Hope's 
difference of opinion, but he respected his motives, 
and, of course, retained in the fullest degree his old 
affection for him. 

These ideas are explicitly stated in the following 
letter : — 

*' Sussex Place, September 28, 185a 

'* Dear Hope, — Please return the enclosed, which 
will show you that I have disbursed abundantly and 
lately. I cannot doubt that Walter received money 
some days ago, at latest ; but I can't help it if he 
has not The letter you sent me is most insane, 
or most wicked, or both. He has kept me in a 
most painful state — but a step of decided rebellion 
now would, I really believe, put an end to all 
further interferences on my part. I wrote to him 
yesterday— the fourth since I had a line from him. 

"I am very sorry to hear it confirmed that H. 
Wilberforce has taken that rash step, and trust 
Manning will not. The Church of England is in 
a most difficult and critical position, but it is not, 
I think, the duty of any individual to act as an 
individual under such circumstances. He should 
abide to the last moment that he does not find 
himself forced to do something which conscience 
forbids, before he declines to take part with the 


body. Surely no private clergyman has a title to 
claim the initiative before so many bishops. The 
clergy and laity, if wise, would understand that 
their ends can be attained in one way only — that 
is, by altering the complexion of the majority in 
the House of Commons ; and, if they would act in 
that direction with the zeal they throw away on 
polemical pamphlets, the power inherent in the 
Church party might, I still believe, effect very 
much — especially conjoined, as it would be in the 
next General Elections, with such a general energy 
of the landed interests,, who now begin to suffer, as 
every Whig acknowledges, in a manner that has 
not been shown in recent times. — Ever affection- 
ately yours, J. G. Lockhart." 

The letter which ensues is a good example of 
the gossip with which Lockhart entertained his 
daughter. Lord John Russell did not shine, it 
seems, as a sportsman : — 

"Sussex Place, October^ 1850, Friday. 

** Dear Cha, — I return the note about dogs,^ 
for which I hope success. I know nothing of the 
channel through which information had reached 
Mr. B. Smith. No word from Germany, and of 
course no news is ill news — very bad indeed they 
3eem to me. I have exhausted my reasonings and 
appeals of every sort — and despair. While this 

^ Probably Dandie Dinmonts for the Queen. 


state of miserable uncertainty continues I can have 
no heart for moving. The only resource I find is 
to try to be busy about something else. 

*• The Christies are here again, and I dined there 
yesterday — only themselves. Murchison called— 
he had been at I know not how many g^eat lords' 
houses, and on mountain-tops without end, in 
Scotland and the North of England, and was going 

to join the s in Hants — I suppose at Lady 

Featherstonehaugh's — the usual winter quarter. 
He gave a funny account of Lord J. Russell at the 
Black Mount. There was such a day for the harts 
as does not come once in thirty years — a still day 
after a storm, when they separate into twos or 
threes, and don't herd as usual. Johnny was alone 
to use the rifle — he had been dressed, by Mrs. 
William Russell's directions, in perfect style, and 
was mounted and attended suitably. The ranger 
took him, without almost any fatigue, within 
twenty-five yards of fourteen fine harts in succes- 
sion, and the result was no harm to one. The old 
ranger told Sir Roderick, 'What could make the 
Queen choose sae wauf a bit body ? If ye could 
tie up a stag by the head and let him come and 
fire away for a forenoon, maybe he might hit at 

last.' Next day * himself killed a fine animal, 

and reports great sulks in the Premier, who would 
not try again. But he seems to have done better 
afterwards at some other place. has, however, 

^ Name indecipherable. 


a g^evance. It seems he wrote to propose himself 
for Drumlanrig, and got no answer. I could only 
suggest accident^ &c., &c., but suppose he had no 
such acquaintance as to warrant an offer, and that 

the good Duke was nettled for once. in dudgeon 

deep meanwhile. Oh, to think of a bearded man 
exposing himself to such chances! — Ever yours, 

" J. G. LoCKHART. 

'' P.S. — Brougham brings this good anecdote. 
Normanby, who worshipped Lamartine in his 
power, has cut him latterly ; but called a week 
ago, and found Monsieur Lamartine seated at his 
writing-table, with a grand portrait of himself over 
the fire en face. Lord Normanby said something 
about the glorious physiognomy. Lamartine paused 
and took snuff, and then said, ' Oui, cest Byron^ 
plus rhomme d'etat' " 

Here is more gossip, following an account, omitted, 
of the old anxieties : — 

"Sussex Yu^c^^ January ii, 1851. 

**Dear Hope, — I trust the supper and ball, and 
Peter's dancing, may be taken as final comfort ; 
but I shall be glad when I see again Cha's hand- 
writing. I have not heard lately from any of the 
western relations, but indeed I seldom do unless 
when there is something to ask. I have no news 
as to Walter. 


'' I dined out once lately with Sir £• Landseen 
He has been building, and, among other things, a 
dining-room, which he is decorating with panels 
of his own work — stag scenes, &c.| in the oblong 
ones, and Highland cataracts in the uprights that 
balance them — all very beautiful, though unfinished 
One day the plaster will be picked off the walls and 
sent to galleries, God knows where. The dinner 
was good, but very queer and conceited, a mixture 
of finery and t/ie fast school Marrow-bones and 
sausages, fried herrings and kidneys, vis-d-vis with 
turtle and Strasburg pdt^. Beer and punch cross 
hands with champagne and Badminton cup. The 
only other plebeian was Swinton. We had Lords 
Abercorn, Ossulstone, Mandeville, and Ed. Russell, 
and they all called the knight ' Lanny,' and he 
called them ' Ossy,' * Many,' ' Ned,' Abercorn only 
'Marquis' — I suppose he being the only one that 
pays. All dog, and horse, stag, and Queen for 
talk ; utter boobies ; awful eaters and drinkers ; and 
when I left them at half-past ten, they were all 
starting for some place where a new American 
game of rackets is played by gaslight, Lanny and 
all How they could play rackets with such loads 
of pie and beer I don't conceive. It used to be 
hard morning work in my day. 

'' I fancy Russell is to bring in a Bill against the 
new English Sees, but not meddling with Ireland." 

The following letter opens with the procuring 


of pups of the famous old Dandie Dinmont breed 
for Her Majesty. 

The letter also contains an unaccustomed wail 
over the difficulties in his Editorship, which bad 
health now made grievous to Lockhart. The 
article on Junius to which he refers is of singular 
interest. It has been erroneously attributed, in 
the •* Dictionary of National Biography," to Mr. 
Croker. The author attempted to show that the 
wicked Lord Lyttelton was Junius. Dates (in my 
humble opinion) do not bear out this theory. 
Junius tells his publisher that he dreads a Bill 
of Attainder, which indicates a Peer rather than 
a Clerk in the War Office, like Francis. But 
this may have been an ingenious blind. The 
reviewer supposed that Lord Lyttelton*s famous 
ghost, with its fulfilled warning of his death in 
three days, was a parting practical joke. Lyttelton 
had startled the House of Peers by a great har- 
angue (November 25, 1779): on the Thursday 
morning he announced to Rowan Hamilton that 
the ghost had warned him during the previous 
night : he died, suddenly, just before midnight on 
the Saturday. The reviewer, like Scott, held 
that he committed suicide, — how is not suggested 
— and that intending to die, he invented the ghost 
and the warning, as a final jeer at the world, and 
a puzzle to Dr. Johnson.* 

* I have examined all the evidence in Blackwoo^s Magazine^ and 
am convinced that there is no case for the theory of suicide. Lyttcl- 


"Sussex Place, February 7, 185 1. 

** Dear Cha, — I return Murray's note. He 
means well, I believe, but in short I am always 
worried near death before I can get out a No. by 
the tempers that are to be managed. The truth 
is that John Murray is sick of Croker, and Croker 
is now in a most impracticable state — exceedingly 
jealous that he is supposed to be falling off in 
his mental vigour, which I see no signs of, though 
his bodily condition is certainly alarming. These 
annoyances are more added to domestic affliction 
than I am well able for — but I am better now 
than I was when J. M. wrote to you. 

** Yesterday I had at dinner here Gleig, who pro- 
posed himself; Fergusson, Sir J. Wilson, William 
and Frank Scott, who slept here, and is also to dine 
and sleep this night. He kindly brought me a pair 
of most charming pepper pups four months old, of 
clear descent from the Abbotsford race and inimit- 
ably varmint. He and I conveyed them this morn- 
ing to Landseer, who is to carry them to Windsor 
to-morrow in person, and so there is an end of that 
bother as far as we are concerned. 

** P.S. — The article Junius in the Quarterly Review 
has made a sort of sensation here, and many are at 

ton's own death-bed wraith appeared, so contemporary testimony 
reports (in the Scots Magasine of the following month and in 
Reynolds's ''Memoirs"), to a friend at a distance. The reviewer 
did not go into the very curious evidence as to the spectres. 


least staggered. I was not convinced, but thought 
the writer showed such research and ingenuity, and 
treated a delicate topic with such inoffensiveness, 
that I ought not to refuse him a fair field. He 
is a Kentish gentleman, by name Coulton} and 
I never saw him till yesterday, when his manners 
made a very favourable impression. Henry Cheney 
remembers well the old Lord Mount Norris, son of 
the wicked Lord Lyttelton's sister. Lady Valentia, 
who was Lyttelton's heir-^t-law, and inherited, inter 
alia, from him an estate near Badger, in Salop. 
Cheney says Lord Mount Norris was full of stories 
about the bad uncle who had been good to him. Lord 
Lyttelton latterly could bear neither solitude nor 
darkness ; often his little nephew, awaking in the 
night, found his uncle by his side on his bed, and 
was told that he could not remain in his own room, 
it was so full of horrors. At all times he had a 
blaze of wax-candles in his own bedroom all night. 
This last circumstance I recollect Sir Walter Scott 
mentioning thirty years ago or more, so he could 
not have had it from the Cheneys, whom he first 
and alone knew at Rome in 1832. It is a shock- 
ing story certainly. Lord Lyttelton and Gladstone 
are both much shocked with the article, and Lord 
Lyttelton has offered access to his family papers. 
I suppose the wicked lord s reputation would, in his 
family's opinion, be mended by his identification 
with Junius, which, in any other man's case, would 

* I read it Carleton ; the copyist, " Coulton." 


come to moral damnation, in his already reached, 
and which here could only add an intellectual pres- 
tige by way of circonstance attenuante. 

** J. G. LOCKHART." 

Psychical observers will admit that Lord Lyttel- 
ton s state of mind, as thus reported, prevents his 
ghost -story from being "evidential." His own 
death-wraith, seen by Mr. Andrews, is a more 
touching example of a familiar phenomenon. 

Here is announced the arrival of the Dandies 
at the Castle, whence Macaulay dated his famous 
letter : — 

^^ February 11, 185 1. 

** Dear Cha, — Sir Edwin Landseer called on 
Sunday. He had taken the doggies to Windsor 
the day before, and on being introduced told the 
Queen that they were in their basket in the cor- 
ridor. She instantly ran out and began to open 
the hamper. Landseer said, 'Take care, Madam, 
they have been dressed with a little oil and brim- 
stone.' * Pooh,' said she, * what signifies that .^ ' and 
so she took them out and caressed both so skilfully 
that they began to run about after her, and she went 
for the children, who joined in the enjoyment of the 
new playthings, as did Prince Albert when he came 
in by-and-by for luncheon. After that the Queen 
said she knew not which to choose, both were so 
charming, and Landseer said it was designed to 
place both at her feet. She said it was too much. 


but she would give Mr. F. Scott in return a couple 
of pups of whatever kind he chose from her own 
stock. I was asked by Landseer to write this to 
Frank, ajid did so yesterday. So ends the little 
play of Pepper and Mustard. We gave them, 
before delivery, the names of Master Ettrick and 
Miss Yarrow. ' Their papa is a handsome dog at 

** I have received lately two or three pamphlets 
about 'the Holy Oriental Church,' which made me 
suspect something like what you mention. But 
there was a very queer article in the Revue des Deux 
Mondes a few months ago, 'On the Ecclesiastical 
Affairs of the West from a Russian Point of View,' 
written by a Sclavon, and asserting the claims of the 
Eastern Church to supersede the Popes of Rome, 
and the likelihood of this being ere long acknow- 
ledged, in consequence of the feebleness of the 
Papacy and the death of Anglicanism, and the worse 
than death of the German schism in all its branches. 
He says that when, for the first time after so many 
centuries, * an orthodox emperor ' knelt at the shrine 
of St. Peter, the effect was felt by the Romans of 
every class so as to prove their sense of Nicholas's 
ecclesiastical position and prospects. 

"In remuneration of my helping her with an 
epitaph for the Colonel, Mrs. Charles Ellis has sent 
me a gift of six bottles of forty-year-old rum, and 
the elder widow has announced as about to arrive 

^ Near Harden. Then the seat of Mr. Elliot Lockhart. 


half of a pig: so much for widows this week — 
nothing like them. 

" Did Hope ever see * The Forester/ by the wood- 
man at Amiston ? A new edition has just come out, 
and my copy is much at his service. I fancy it con- 
tains the best rules about sale of wood in Scotland, 
and might be useful to you. — Affectionately yours, 


On April 6, Lockhart notes, ** Letter from Hope. 
He and Manning have this day been received 
into the Church of Rome." His letter to Mr. 
Hope has been published in Mr. Hope's Biography, 
but cannot be omitted in this place. The affair 
made absolutely no difference in Lockhart's in- 
tercourse with his children, as Miss Martineau, 
that inveterate blunderer, declares in her sketch of 

Lockhart's life. 

" Sussex Place, April 8, 1851. 

"My dear Hope, — I thank you sincerely for 
your kind letter. I had clung to the hope that you 
would not finally quit the Church of England, but 
am not so presumptuous as to say a word more on 
that step as respects yourself, who have not cer- 
tainly assumed so heavy a responsibility without 
much study and reflection. As concerns others, I 
am thoroughly aware that they may count upon any 
mitigation which the purest intentions and the most 
generous and tender feelings on your part can bring. 
And I trust that this, the only part of your conduct 


350 MFE OF J. Gt. 

that has ever given me pain, need not now or ever 
disturb the confidence in which it has be^i of late 
a principal consolation for me to live with my son- 
in-law, — Ever affectionately yours, 

** J. G. LOCKHART." 

To Mrs. Hope, when die followed her husband* 
Lockhart wrote thus : — 

**Sfay 12, 1851. 

*^ Dear Cha, — I shall say nothing more but that 
I hope and pray what you have done may prove 
beneficial to your comfort and happiness. This is 
my only concern. It can in no way affect my feel-^ 
ings to Hope, nor, most surely, towards you. 

** In case you have any country folks that would 
like to see Northumberland House or Syon, I 
send tickets, and have more, if wished for, at 
your command. 

"We had a Protection party — the Stanleys, 
Eglintons, &c., &c., but pleasant enough on the 
whole. The great Lord and Lady themselves 
most kind. — Yours ever affectionately, 

"J. G. Lockhart." 

Here follows a characteristic line to Milman : — 

" Sussex Place, Regent's Park, 
April 26, 1851. 

'* Dear Dean, — I fear you have decidedly cut me 
as Editor of the Quarterly Review. But if not. 


there is a book by the Rev. Moses , which 

would, I think, form a capital subject for you. He 
is a clerk in English orders — a Polish Jew by birth 
— and his book is in letters to all sorts of grandees, 
the Duke of Manchester, Archbishops of Canter- 
bury, York, and Dublin, Bishop of Chester, &c., 
&c. A more impudent, silly, and ignorant book 
never appeared ; and he seems to be, in every 
sense, a lewd fellow of the baser sort. The folly 
of our Ashleys, &c., in patronising hoc genus of 
charlatan, richly deserves a little castigation« In 
short, never was a more thorough humbug. 

*• To do the thing effectively would require learn- 
ing, as well as a sense of the ridiculous. Therefore, 
unless you could handle this Moses, or point out 
some one else able and willing to do so in true 
style, I see no chance of my getting the sort of 
article that is wanted. 

" Have you seen Moses, or shall I send him ? He 
would, at least, amuse an evening hour — if you ever 
spend a quiet evening at this time of the year. — 
Ever yours, J, G. Lockhart." 

On July 15, Lockhart went abroad with his 
friend "Lord Peter." They visited the Loire — 
Blois, Loches, Amboise, Nantes, Tours — and re- 
turned to Folkestone on August 21. In Septem- 
ber Lockhart notes, "Very unwell." In October 
he went to Milton Lockhart, Abbotsford, and 
Ashestiel, returning to town on November i. 


Here is a brief note about the little French 
expedition : — 

"Paris, August i, 1851, 5 p.m. 

"Dearest Charlotte^ — I have just had your 
letter, being the first scrap of writing of any sort 
since my start, as this is the first of my meddling 
with the pen. I am glad that you are so nearly 
done with London, and thank you for all your other 
news. Mine are nothing! I have certainly felt 
much better ever since I got across the Channel — 
eat more and slept fairly, and even enjoyed some 
sights ; but it is all owing simply to the cessation 
of that eternal infernal round of notes and worries, 
amidst which I had been latterly driven, I really 
think, very near the edge of insanity. I left no 
instructions about letters, either with Murray or 
with Martha — in fact, took special care not ; but I 
should like to hear from you again, and think you 
may address Poste Restante, Tours, with a pretty 
considerable likelihood of my receiving the missive 
about the middle of next week. To-morrow we go 
to Fontainebleau — spend Sunday there — get to 
Orleans on Monday, and mean to give two or three 
days to Blois and its environs ; after which comes 
Tours aforesaid. 

" My companion is awfully hot and heavy, and 
will not or cannot walk at all ; nor has he almost 
the slightest curiosity about anything but what he 
is to get for dinner, and so forth. But he is very 


kind always, and now and then very amusing, and 
we shall do very well. 

" I admired two signs to-day : Objets de religion 
et fantaisie^ and Bot tines pour les dames— fabuleuse* 
ment ban ntarch^ ; also, the aristocratic airs of the 
concierge at St. Germain, who was most politely 
communicative about all things included in the 
splendid view, till I pointed to a particular house 
in a particularly fine situation, when he said, with 
a shrug, ^Ah ! quelque chateau bourgeois ! je n en 
scais rien.' This was the palace of some Rothschild 
near Malmaison. — Ever affectionately yours, 


" Peter sends love to you both." 

In London Lockhart found Croker very ill ; he 
had fits of an alarming sort, and spoke of giving up 
his long connection with the Quarterly. So the year 
closes darkly enough, though Croker survived his 
old associates. His temper in illness caused, one 
may surmise, many of the tracasseries of which 
Lockhart complains. 

In January 1852 Lockhart records visits to Mole- 
sey to inquire for Croker. " Croker too ill to see ; 
sad scene." On February 6, "This evening my 
son Walter, I hope, goes abroad again." In March 
Croker was better, as may be gleaned from the fol- 
lowing note :— 

'* March 24, 1852. 

" Dear Hope, — Some years ago I rashly put into 

VOU II. z 

354 LIFB.OP J. G. 

the Quarterly Review (article on Curzon's book) a 
story which Croker had just told at taUe here 
about Madame de Sdvign6's having written that 
St Vincent de Paul was an agreeable man, but 
trichaU aux caries. 

*^ Lately, that odious — — hais re-quoted this from 
the Quarterly Review, and thereupon an anonymous 
Catholic writes very courteously for a reference to 
the p^e in Madame de S^vignd. 

** I applied yesterday to Croker, who I thought 
might have a well-indexed copy of S£vign6. Here 
is his reply. I am a good deal vexed, but if you 
could give me the means, I should be anxious to 
apologise as to St Vincent de Paul, and state the 
real story {valeat quantum) in an exact manner. If 
you or Badeley can't help me I despsdr. — Contritdy 
meanwhile, J. G. Lockhart." 

On May 7, Lockharf s note is — " The Duke of 

Wellington's last ball, and the last time seen by me." 
He had not yet, it is plain, entirely withdrawn 

from society when in fair health. In July he visited 

friends in Scotland, returning on August 23. 

On October 2, he notes — "Charlotte, a girl'* 

(Mary Monica, Mrs. Maxwell-Scott), and, in what 

ensues, he congratulates Mr. Hope : — 

" October 7, 1852. 

** Dear Hope, — I am grateful for your frequent 
bulletins, and very much comforted by them. I 


spare you my daily budget of congratulations, as I 
dare say you have duplicates from Lady Gifford, 
Kathy Morritt, Aunt Anne, &c., &c. 

" I met Monsig^or Manning the other day, and 
he enlightened me about Monsignor Grant, who is, 
it seems. Bishop of, inier cUia, Kent I suppose 
your selection of St, Monica has also reference to 
the history of Kent. At all events, Mary Monica 
sounds charmingly. 

** Though I have seldom made money by a book, 
I have suggested not a few books by which others 
have got lots of cash. I wish you would find some 
steady Catholic, or Puseyite of the deepest shade, 
to do a dictionary ecclesiastical in one thick volume, 
like Dr. Smith s of classical history, &c. I am con- 
fident it would, if well done, be a neat little fortune 
to the artist; and, by-the-bye, he should, like Dr. 
Smith, call in the aid of artists properly so called. 
The ignorance of Mrs. Jameson in her three volumes 
about Sacred Art is quite shocking ; but what else 
can be said of any female historian of any class ? 

*• I am to dine to-morrow, pro miraculo, with the 
Davy, that is, if no blundering kinsman drops in 
from foreign parts. 

*• I hope Cha is well enough to receive my love. — 

Yours, J. G. LOCKHART." 

"Paul^ is gone; but I have not yet seen the 
maiden who reigns in his stead. I had all but re- 

^ The unapostolical with the black eye. 


lented — ^he had showed such sigi^ d grace for two 
or three weeks — but on Sunday last all was as bad 
as ever, so exit Paul I " 

On November 7, Lockhart notes — ** Walter ill/' 
the b^^ning of a malady destined to be £aital. 
Walter was at Versiulles, and his intention was to 
travel, by his father's desire, to Rcmie. On Novem- 
ber 12, Lockhart writes— *'I1L Read Thackeray's 
' Esmond.' " 

He did not appreciate ** Eonond," and makes the 
curious, and to all appearance erroneous reflection, 
*^ His Marlborough is mainly m^tnt for Wellii^ftc^ 
which could never have keen the case, one hopes, 
had he known the Duke would be dead ere the 
book could be published." Greater contrasts in 
manner and conduct than Marlborough and the 
Duke could hardly be. But this is^' How it strikes 
a contemporary." 

Ill as Lockhart was, Walter's malady called him, 
with his brother William, to Paris, on December 23, 
whence he wrote thus to Mrs. Hope : — 

** Paris, December 28, 1852. 

" Dear Charlotte, — I know that Walter wrote 
to you since I saw him first, but I think you will 
like to have my report also. I certainly have been 
much and agreeably disappointed. He walks ill, 
but ascribes this to the remains of the weakness 
caused by the illness at Spa, and it has so rapidly 
diminished during the last ten or fourteen days. 


that he and the doctor both anticipate its disappear- 
ance ere long. He is thinner and darker, but not 
otherwise changed as to physique externally, and I 
think the little oddities of gesture that struck Hay 
and Ellis must have also worn off a good deal. 
From living so much among foreigners he has 
caught some tricks of that nature, and perhaps 
irritability of nerves made them more noticeable. 

" William and I dined at Versailles with him 
yesterday, and we have met either there or here 
every day ; to-morrow he takes for packing, and 
on Thursday will dine with us here, and start for 
Chalons afterwards. His plan of travel is written 
out by Hay, and seems to involve little fatigue — 
all railway or boating or sailing, except, I think, 
some nine hours of diligence. I hope, therefore, 
that the journey may be accomplished without 
damage, and if so, it must have advantages — two 
great ones anyhow — removal to a better climate, 
and emancipation from alarms of a certain sort, 
from which I find he never was free in Belgium 
more than in France. Hay's address is ;i^ Via 
Gregoriana, Rome, and, I daresay, he will have 
provided a lodging not far from that for your 
brother. — Yours affectionately, 

"J. G. LoCKliART." 

Lockhart left Paris, and Walter started for Italy. 
on Old Year's Day. He remarks, " This last a most 
unhappy year. Walter seems better disposed, re- 


pentant and affectionate. Let us hope for a great 
and lasting change." 

The greatest change and most lasting was at 

Here is Lockhart's comparatively hopeful letter : — 

'* Sussex Place, Monday^ January 3, 1853. 

"Dear Charlotte, — I wish all good for you 
and yours from 1853, which figures I now first 

" I arrived here on Saturday night, having left 
William at Hdtel des Bains for a few days of hot 
bath. He will, I believe, go right from thence to 
Milton without pausing here. He was very kind 
indeed about the Paris trip, and his calmness made 
him very useful. Amid the very many troubles that 
perplexed me out of life while there, we at last con- 
trived to see the young man and his attendant off 
in the train for Lyons, at nine on Thursday night — 
he having, as usual, deferred to the very last moment 
what might far better have come off two or three 
days sooner. But the wonder is, that such a pair 
ever did get pff at all ! ! Such confusion — ^all blunder 
about everything ! 

"He is certainly better in health, and to the last 
spoke of his views and purposes in a satisfactory 
way enough — but, alas ! the weakness of character 
is so obvious that hope can find but slender footing ! 
Let us try. We can do no more. 

" I have seen no one here but Joanna A . 


for a moment yesterday, and she had no news but 
politics, in which interest is now dead, and will be 
so, I suppose, until Easter. I think it is generally 
anticipated that Gladstone will be the means some* 
how of breaking up the Aberdeen compound — ^that 
is, people granting him sufficiency of crotchet, grant 
him also some real principle — a high compliment as 
times go. 

" I envy the hearing of Miss M. M 's prattle 

and rattle. 

** Give my respects and wishes of the season to 
old Peter and the rest, and with love to Hope I 
rest — Yours ever, J. G. Lockhart." 

On January 7, Lockhart's diary bears- 

"Walter ill en route, and again at Versailles." 
He himself reached Versailles on January 10, too 
late. His son was dead. 

A letter to Mrs. Hope displays Lockhart's usual 
thoughtfulness for others. He would not let her 
leave Scotland to be with him. There is no need 
to dwell on his emotions in this tragic event. It 
was, happily, the last of his many great bereave- 
ments. He had still much to suffer in the body, 
but his heart was not again to be wrung by kind- 
ness forgot, or by the deaths of his dearest 

''Sussex Place, Wtdnesdt^, January 19, 1853. 

"My dearest Charlotte, — I got home again 
late last night, after a very cold and stormy passage 


from Boulogne. Mr. Hdt went bf the more cafod 
Qoufiie of Calais, as he had tx> be in Wales this 
dajr early — afid what a turbulent life, his is! Bm 
h^: n^^ most kind to me> and most useful ; mdeed 
without him I could never have got through the 
infinite difficulties which the Frmch law imposes 
kh the case (^ a fordgner dying in that country* 
We had several days of most distressing woric 
witibi officials at Versailles, and iny head still swims 
ymih the recollection of those scenes. 

'' Your poor brother sleeps dose by the entrance 
of the Versailles Cemetery^on the left hand at entor^ 
ing, and a modest stone will ere another wedc 
passes mark the spot The very hour of his burial 
was also that of the Mayor^s wife, which all the 
town attended; and when we had just kid the 
coffin in the graven aii the sextons, &&, had to go 
and assist at this lad/s iiMerment I could not 
detain Holt, who had mudi to do elsewhere, and 
therefore was obliged to remain alone by the grave^ 
for two hours in the rain, until the people were at' 
liberty to complete their work. ... 

*' I thank Hope for his very kind notes to me, and 
also to William about me. Be assured that I am 
physically quite as well as I have been for a long 
time past, and that my mind is perfectly calm 
and composed. It is not at the moment that great 
afflictions tell most on me, and at present, so far 
from desiring either to go to Milton, or to have 
William or you here, it is, I feel, much better for 


me that I am alone entirely now, and likely to 
be so for some weeks to come. I would not for 
the world have you leave Scotland on my account 
— by no means ; our meeting is much better to 
be deferred till you come up in your usual course. 
Hope may be forced to come sooner by Holt's 
business matters— but as to that I know nothing. 
I am not desirous to have it known that I am 
here, and shall keep it as secret as I can, except 
as to Christie, Ferguson, and Murray. I have a 
world of letters from old friends, all meant in true 
affectionateness, but which I can't answer now. 

" It is a consolation that forgiveness and recon- 
ciliation preceded the abrupt close of that unhappy 
career. Even during his last delirium he never 
ceased to hold conversation with me as if present, 
and seemed to be constantly drawing comfort from 
the sense that we had exchanged estrangement 
for a renewal of natural feelings. The doctor did 
not suppose him to have suffered much pain. All 
the people of the hotel appeared to have taken a 
very warm interest in his case, and no doubt he 
returned to them as a sort of friends, when he 
found himself smitten at Fontainebleau. 

" My dear and now only child, bear up and learn 
to endure evil, which is the staple of this mortal life. 
Kiss your babe and accept my blessing on her and 
you both. — Ever truly yours, 



There are two letters to the* kindest of women, 
Mrs. Hughes, who had sent him a miniature of 
Walter as he was in his happy and graceful boy- 

''Sussex VIsKCSs^ January 24, 1853. 

''My dear Mrs. Hughes, — I do not need to 
be told of your sympathy in the misfortunes of 
my poor house, but I am not the less sensible and 

'' Accept my cordial thanks, dear friend of better 
days, and when you see your son, give him also 
my warm respects.: — Ever yours truly (and kis)^ 


** Sussex Place, /m^ 24, 1853. 

" My dear Friend,^! haye received your packet, 
and am gratified to have what it contained, for the 
resemblance is strong, and of the best period of 
that short, unhappy life. I beg to thank Miss 
Twining (or whoever has done the copy so skilfully 
under her or your eye), and shall always keep it 
near me. — Very poorly, but very truly yours, 

"J. G. Lockhart." 

The miniature is referred to again here :— 

" Sussex Place, February 24, 1853. 

"Dear Cha, — I have got Mrs. Hughes's pic- 
ture, and am not sorry to have it by me, though 


it breaks my heart to recall the date. It is of the 
sweet, innocent, happy boy, home for Sunday from 
Cowie's ; and really, for a lady, the likeness is fairly 
done. O God ! how soon that day became clouded, 
and how dark its early close. Well, I suppose 
there is another world ; if not, sure this is a 
blunder. ... J. G. Lockhart." 



Cond for Mary Monica.«~Dumer on a herring. — ^Resigns editorshipu 
— Letter to Milman. — Haydon's ^ Memoirs." — Last meeting widi 
Vnison.— Journey to Rome. — Meets Thackeray. — Studies Italian. 
— ^Vbits Horace^s Villa. — Dines out — An invalid in Rome. — 
Letter to Mrs. Hope Scott — Failure of vital powers. — Pio Nona 
— A beatification. — Excavations. — Mrs. Sartoris. — Manning's 
eloquence. — Swathed pictures. — Studying Hebxew and Aralnc. 
— Father William Lockhart — Longs for British £ue. — Spirit- 
rapping. — Letter to Milman. — ^V^^seman and Manning. — ^The 
last poem. — Duchy of Lancaster. — ^Retiring allowance. — ^Dinner 
with Manning. — Return to England. — Medal for Mary Monica. 
— ** Shorn condition." — Last letter to Milman. — Milton Lockhart 
— Pleasant last summer. — ** My wound b deep." — Letter to Bfis^ 
Hope Scott — ** Be good I " — ^Promised visit to Abbotsford. — 
Misunderstanding as to Lockhart's last visit — ^Last letter to lus 
daughter. — Description by an old servant, ''What a beautiful 
face he had I " — His love of his granddaughter. — Takes farewell 
of Chiefswood. — Last hours. — "A soft sleep." — His religious 
ideas. — His poem on immortality. 

With the death of Walter may begin the last 

chapter of a life of sorrows bravely borne. The 

diary, after Walter's death, contains nothing of 

note. On April 14, we find, " Bought a coral for 

Mary Monica," his little grandchild, who received 

all that tender love of babies which had marked 

Lockhart from his boyhood. Mr. Hope now added 

to his own name that of Scott, his wife being the 



last lineal descendant of Sir Walter. Lockhart 
writes thus to Mrs. Hope Scott : — 

" Sussex Place, March lo^ 1853. 

" Dear Charlotte, — I address you by your new 
name, earnestly hoping it may be attended hence* 
forth with more of prosperity than has been the 
case for a long while, and that it may be transmitted 
in your lineage. Every one speaks most rapturously 
of Mary Monica. Uncle Bob says — *a splendid 
baby,' and so on. I have seen nobody lately at 
all except your husband and William, who dined 
here yesterday, and both appeared in good health 
and appetite and spirits, and were, as usual, most 
agreeable company, in the evening both sleeping 
like tops from 8 to 10.30, when, with some diffi- 
culty, having read out my book and the candles 
being nearly done, I contrived to expel them. If 
your new house be like No. 36 (Mrs. Lane Fox's), 
it is a very nice one ; and I trust you will cultivate 
her society for the good of your soul. 

" You see that William Alexander is dead. Boyd 
went over to Ballochmyle some days before, but 
never saw William in life, being forced to go to bed 
as soon as he got there. He had got home before 
the funeral, which Claud went down on Monday to 

On April 30, Lockhart notes that he dined at Mr. 
Hope Scott's. "Sat between Lytton-Bulwer and 

366 LIFE OF J. G» 

the Editor of the . Examiner^ The engagement 
book, once so full of names of good company and 
records of old feasts, is very blank. Mr. Gleig says 
that Lockhart starved himself, living on tea and 
bread and butter ; there is an entry of a dinner ''on 
a herring." Dr. Fergusson persuaded him to return 
to rather more generous &re. On July 5 he notes — 

''Brodie and Fergusson agree tha^ I must not 
attempt next Quarterly Review!^ 

He therefore went to Brighton with his son-in* 
law. On July 16 he notes — 

'' I suppose my last number of the QuarUrly 

His last article, and he only wrote part of it, was on 
Cockbum's " Life of Jeffrey," in 1852.* Henceforth 
that busy pen, which had produced so many volumes 
of " copy^" was to be idle, save for letter-writing. 
In one note he cites a jest of Mr. Hope Scott's 
about certain friends of theirs, '' an excellent family, 
if they could be taken homeopathically." 

From Milman he did not conceal his condition. 
The kindness and justice of Haydon's remarks on 
himself in the Memoirs long ago cited, but only pub- 
lished in 1853, cannot but have given him pleasure, 
which may be detected in this note : — 

" Sussex Place, /h^k 27, 1853. 

" My dear Dean, — I am very grateful to Mrs. 
Milman and you, and hope to profit, ere I go abroad, 

^ No. dxxxL 


by your kind invitation ; but though I am better 
than when you last called here, I am still far from 
being fit for the experiment of a visit even to old 
friends. In fact, I am not able to be much out of 
bed, and my daughter is not at all aware of my con- 
dition in many respects. You shall hear by-and- 
by again, and I am hopeful of amended prospects 
I quite hold to Rome for the winter, supposing 
strength for such a journey, when the proper season 
arrives; and I rather think Murray has already 
made suitable arrangements in that view. At all 
events, I am for the present at least emeritus. 

" You will be entertained, I think, and interested 
with the Haydon Memoirs, which Tom Taylor has 
edited neatly, and, I believe, in a perfectly candid 
spirit. — Yours very truly, 


On August 6 he notes, " Gave up Abbots- 
ford MSS. to Hope and Cha as functus officio!^ 
When in Scotland he " called on Wilson, but did 
not see him." Mrs. Gordon has described the last 
meeting of these old allies. The Professor, too, 
was descending into the Valley of the Shadow. 
Through thirty-seven years their affection, though 
not untried, had lasted unbroken. It has been 
necessary, inevitable, here to illustrate aspects of 
Wilson's character which have been hitherto over- 
looked. He has been represented as a figure of 
light, accompanied by the dark shadow of LockharL 


On Lockhart has been cast blaime which was not 
hisi tboughi indeed, he was far from blameless. 
It is not with pleasure that I have observed and 
chronicled the failings, the capriciousi and, as it 
were, the accidental, rather than essential, less 
happy qualities of Wilson!s large, strenuous, affec^ 
tionate, and usually genial nature. 

Lockhart was advised, too late, to seek southern 
air — ^too late he sought for rest. On September 27 
he was at Abbotsford, on October 4 he left England 
He notes that on October 7 he saw Thackeray in 
the Louvre — Thackeray with years of work and 
&me still before him. The two men do not seem 
ever to have been intimate, though both wane 
'^ Fraserians," nor do I remember to have often 
noticed Thackeray's name as a guest at any table 
where Lockhart was dining. In the separate edition 
of " Theodore Hook," Lockhart adds to some com- 
ments on novels made ten years earlier — "This 
was written long before Mr. Thackeray made a full 
revelation of his talents in ' Vanity Fair.' " That 
immortal work was welcomed, as it should be, by 
Miss Rigby, in the too celebrated review which 
also dealt with " Jane Eyre." 

Lockhart reached Civita Vecchia on October 15. 
It is characteristic of his mental activity that his entry 
for October 18 is — " Dante with Dr. Lucentini." 

Mr. Gleig, in his Quarterly article, quotes Dr. 
Lucentini's appreciation of the most eager and 
acute of his pupils. They would argue together ; 

ITALY 369 

Lockhart, in the fretfulness of pain, would grow 
too eager, and apologise next day, " Do forgive 
me; I was so ill." He wrote long letters from 
Italy to his daughter, and it certainly seems that 
he exerted himself too much. He records a visit 
to Hadrian's Villa, and another, over roads un- 
mended for many centuries, to the supposed site 
of the villa of Horace. " The views were delight- 
ful ; the roads not touched since Horace's time." 

He was often in the society of Mrs. Sartoris, 
of whom he speaks with strong admiration. The 
worst of it was that, being able *'to eat but little 
meat," he was constantly dining out, and the strain 
on a wrecked constitution was needlessly great. 
Lockhart throughout life had shared in the one 
vice of General Gordon — ^he smoked too much. 
Mr. Cadell had remonstrated with him about his 
fondness for the weed long ago, and Sir Walter 
had hinted at it. We do not learn whether or 
not he had limited the number of his cigars, as is 
probable. The loneliness of an invalid in Rome, 
among crowds of busy people of pleasure, or 
students of archaeology, doubtless drove him into 
society, which must have exhausted his nervous 
energies, now sunk very low. He never exagge- 
rates his sufferings in his letters home; these re- 
quire little of comment, thus : — 

"Via Gregoriana, Rome, October 21, 1853. 

"My dear Charlotte, — We arrived here in 

VOL. IL 2 A 


safely last Sattimlay night, akhougfa our passs^ 
from Marseilles had not been smoo^, itsomuch 
that we had to run for shdter to Elba, and I spent 
smfie hours in walking ovter Porto Ferrajo and lis 
environs. The place is sma9 but ^nry strong, and 
(being Italian) very dean — as poor as possible ; the 
market produced nothing that loofced eatable but 
some tomatoes. A garrison of 700 or 800 men to 
watch over many political prisoners and die few 
natives. Napoleon's palace in town not so big as 
Huntly Bum, and its garden abounding only in 
cannon and balls ; a villa across a bay seemed some- 
what more considerable. 

" The Admiral" (he was staying with Mr. Robert 
Hay in Rome) *' has a neat flat of some five or six 
rooms, some of them loc^ng over a latge extent 
of Rome, including St Peter's and many more fine 
things. I have a very tolerable room to the rear, 
and could not have been lodged better, I am sure, 
in this town. No woman servant at all. A man 
comes in to cook twice per day, all the rest done 
by the lad and my courier. Hay very kind indeed. 
As yet few or no fine folks here. Fanny Kemble 
and Mrs. Sartoris are near us, and dined with us 
one day, and Hay has drunk tea twice with them. 
In a short time there will be the Duke of North- 
umberland, Lord Northampton, and a world of 
grandees. At church on Sunday, behold Baron 
and Lady Parker, Lady C. Denison, Mr. D., and 
Dr. Locock, all bound for England fi'om Naples. 

BOME 371 

Miss Parker to be married to Colonel Lowther's 
second son, and miladi enchanted. Jim looked 
very much shrunk, and, I think, generally changed 
for the worse. I have seen Dr. Pantaleone, who 
has, and I believe justly, a high reputation. He, 
after due examination, is of the same opinion as 
Brodie and Co. — ^that I am not suffering from any 
distinct disease, unless irritability of the mucous 
membrane, but rather from a general decadence of 
the vital powers, and I do not think his expec- 
tations of recovery are high; but I am trying a 
prescription of his, and you shall hear again by-and- 
by. Many days I am sick and helpless utterly, 
but on others able to enjoy a walk or drive, and 
yesterday was out for hours with Hay and a capital 
cicerone, Peter, lately our Minister here. The 
appetite much as before — ^that is, nulL 

" I wish you would write to Miss Joanna or 
Mrs. Ellis, and tell my report about myself; also 
to Cousin Kate, for this is the only epistle I ven- 
ture on. — With love to you all, 

^ Rome, November 2, 1853. 

•' Dear Charlotte, — I had yesterday yours of 
October 2 1 , which told me about a ball, &c. I have 
nothing so brilliant, I think, to communicate. Yes, 
on Sunday was the beatification of one Bobola, I 
think, a Polish Jesuit, however, murdered by the 
Russians one hundred years ago, and I then saw, 


fo|: the first time, Pius IX., who looked very com- 
fortable, blessing away right and left, between 
lines of French soldiers, who seemed to pay very 
little attention to the concern. Considerable crowd 
and lots of trumpets. The Pope gave a dinner 
Bt few days ago, which made some sensation. It 
was in a sununer-house of the Vatipan garden, and 
the guests the Grand Dukes of Tuscany, Borghesa, 
and another prince, Wiseman, and anotlier cardinaL 
My ' Professor ' — ^that is, little dominie, who spends 
an hour in the morning to brush up my Italian, says 
the English Cardinal has come to get some dispen- 
sations connected with a late legal dispute about 
votes on monastic property. I have not made 
acquaintance with any Italians, except my doctor, 
who is a very agreeable one, and the Duke of Ser- 
moneta, an accomplished one. They dine sppar- 
endy wherever an English spread occurs, and the 
rest of the company has hitherto been about as 
unvaried. I dine out continually, mostly with Hay 
and Peter; but occasionally with Mrs. Sartoris, or 
her sister Fanny, who are good cicerones as to the 
picturesque points of view in the Campagna. Great 
excavations have been made since I was here on 
the line of the Appian Way, and many fine monu- 
ments revealed. For instance, one to Seneca, with 
a frieze, showing the chief circumstances of his life, 
and, very neatly, those of his death. Another, very 
large, but not near so old, is that of the baker, a 
favourite slave, that is, of some great man under 


Aurelian, and in this all the operations of the craft 
are cut in very bold relief. On either side, for two 
or three miles, you have these works still in pro- 
gress; and the Pope drives out ever and anon to 
inspect, in company with his architect, Canina, who 
publishes, at enormous length, on every new dis- 
covery, a thick tome, for example, about the baker ! 
The photographs of the antiquities are abundant, 
and mostly very excellent, but absurdly dear. 

" I am certainly, since I wrote last, somewhat 
bettered as respects appetite ; with eggs and fish I 
breakfast well, and with soup and fish dine tolerably. 
Meat not yet within my reach exactly, though once I 
did contrive to deal with part of a cold partridge. 
The weather is said to have been unfavourable ; it 
is still as hot as English August, but with occasional 
rains, or rather floods. 

"I will, for sake of Mary Monica, go to St. 
Monica's tomb some day soon. 


His diary g^ves a worse account of his health 
than do his letters. 

*' Rome, Deumber 2, 1853. 

"My dear Charlotte, — Since I had your last 
comfortable letter I indited a reply to one of Kate's, 
and thought she would probably send it on, but it 
now seems long since I heard from or about you, and 
I must not be lazy any longer. Give me good news 
of yourself, your man, and Mary Monica. I am able 


to report very well, on the whole» as to myselt Tlw 
weather is still, with rare exceptions^ beauttfuI-T^-cold 
unless in the sun — but the sun usualy powerful 
most pf the day, the sky as bright as ever Junct saw 
in ij^ngland, and the whole aspect of field and tree 
as fin^ as possible. It is a principal charm of Italy» 
and espedidly Rom^ that Qvery garden and park» 
large or small, abounds in die most luxuriant ajad 
picturesque of evergreensr^^niexes in avenues^-* 
stCMMS-pines in grQves — myrtle h^g^ hy the mile — 
lemon ditto (the divinest fragrance 1)*. What witht 
riding under Hay's orders^ and driving with Mx% 
3artori^ I am becoming an adept in the Campagna 
beauties for seven or ten miles round, and ske prov^i^ 
an inexhaustible fund of entertainment in her talk 
meantime, about anj^hing but poetry and piqtu* 
resques, her course of life having b^n one not ima* 
gined by me, and by her portrayed with a marvellous, 
though not at all harsh or uncharitable frankness. 
In fact, she is a delightful person — worth five hun- 
dred Fanny Kembles, even in talent, which is not 
her forte. You will have inferred considerable im- 
provement in strength : it is certainly so, and the 
surest sign is the appetite, which has now recovered 
itself, I may say, to one's utmost wish. I eat good 
breakfast and fair dinner, and though the hands and 
feet are still cold as before, I may hope that symp- 
tom also will yield by-and-by. 

" Our life is gay — we dine out four or five times a 
week — once always with Duke of Northumberland — 

ROME 375 

and may, if we please, go to dinner every night 
— some lady or other having assumed a particular 
one weekly. The Palazzo Doria is the only great 
Roman house opened yet, and we were at the as- 
sembly t'other night, when I saw some splendid 
beauties, and more red stockings than I perhaps ever 
shall again. The rooms most magnificent, and the 
Shrewsbury princess very courteous. Every day 
comes a new batch of London beau monde. As I 
write I have your short but agreeable epistle of 
Nov. 21. Why do you not continue your report 
about poor Lord Robertson ? I had a line from him 
the day after the attack, but only a line, and am cer- 
tainly not a little anxious, though I think if there 
had been any considerable alarm you could hardly 
have written without alluding to the subject. Last 
Sunday I heard Cardinal Wiseman preach in Eng- 
lish at S. Andrea de' Frati, and capably he per- 
formed — ^a good contrast to the donkeys of our 
Anglican Chapel. I think I saw Manning s skull 
spot in the dark church, and also a gleam of spec- 
tacles very like Mr. AUies's, but no symptom as yet 
of the Carstairs noblesse. Pius IX. is lodged again 
at the Vatican, which he should never have left, as 

it is excellently fortified. At the (.^) there 

might be six or eight French officers, but they 
seemed all generals — certainly not one youngish 
man. The French ambassador is the only diplomat 
that opens his house at all — whence sad complaints 
of our ladies. J. G. Lockhart." 


His health had made but a brief rally, as this 
letter confesses : — 

** RouE,/anuary id, 1854. 

'' Dear Charlotte, — I was well pleased with all 
the news of your last, and quite approve especially 
the kitchen plan, for my recollection of many 
summer evenings poisoned by smells is lively 
enough. I have had rather a bad week, and am 
not yet able to leave my own room ; but I daresay, 
in a day or two, I shall be as well as I have ever 
managed to feel of late. For a new variety T have 
l^een, indeed am, suffering under earache — whence 
a constant misery, steaming, &c, &c Never ex- 
perienced this before. About my last outing was 
to hear Manning preach an Epiphany sermon in 
the S. Andrea della Valle, and, as I had not heard 
him before, I was, of course, greatly struck and 
pleased with his voice and action — the latter I 
think the most graceful I ever saw in a pulpit 
performer. He called since, and made himself very 
agreeable, and is to show me his college, &c., one 

"The Admiral is very happy, as the Dorias, 
Borgheses, and some other princely ones, have 
been inviting him to dine. Borghese, he reports, 
feels confident that the Czar will be in London 
within three years. Well, if so, I calculate Mur- 
chison will not cut his old friend, but, on the 
contrary, patronise us all, to comfort us what he 
can under our woe about the downfall of the Roya 

ROME 377 

Albert — I mean his Siberian doom.* Certainly I 
have now had enough, not of Rome, but of that 
Piazza di Spagna Rome, to which fate at present 
binds me, and which I should suppose might be 
very well matched by any three or four crescents 
of Leamington or Torquay — that is, were such a 
place so lucky as to have booked half-a-dozen real 
grandees for the nonce. Philpotts would do well 
for a Pont Max., and there would be no difficulty 
to fill the place of Monsignor Talbot. I was vexed 
at not seeing the noble Domenichinos of that 
church when Manning held forth, but most were 
covered by the delightful red and yellow petticoats, 
in which it is proper that naves and aisles should be 
wrapped during high festivals, and the grandest of 
all, the altarpiece, by a colossal praesepe or group 
of gigantic wooden dolls, to represent the whole 
company at Bethlehem — not forgetting, in course, 
the angels in the vault, or the three black kings 
and their camels' heads. Manning calmly said the 
praesepe was * for the people,* and he hoped I 
would see the picture by-and-by. To be sure — 
all quite right. 

" Yesterday, a letter from Holt at Paris ; men- 
tions some serious money losses, and that he had 
been over to Versailles, to see a gfrave which some 
one unknown had surrounded with violets. If 
Hope gets to town, I do trust he will show all 
kindness to that little man, and consult with him 

^ The Crimean trouble is referred to. 

37a LIFE OF J. €k liOCKHABT 

somewhat as to^ my own matters; for» arrore 
when I may, I shalL find overwhelmiog bothei:a« 
tion» and the necessity^ neverthelessi, of coming 
to some speedy arrao^^ement as to future locality, 
and so on^ I suppose the end will be a tiny 
cot within two or three miks of town, or a 
aec)uestered flat neajc the Qubs, if such a thing 
be comeatable. It aignifies litde which; but if I 
could find that my Duchy need not at all fetter 
me» as possibly is the fact, then I might take a 
wider circle of my con^^asses, and aspire to a 
garden and a quartee-deck walk of decent ampl^ 
tude in Herts or Surrey. Other things ocanr in 
dreams and visions, of the night occasionally — ^we 
shall see^ I beg my best compliments to Idiss 
Hope Scott, and all other young ladies of Tweed- 
side.. You will smile, but I continue to read a 
good deal, though the most, I own, in bed. Dn 
Pantaleone has a good Ubraryi^ and is most Uberal 
with its stores^ and I have got through a great 
many sound books connected with this town and 
its history. 

** I have also taken up Hebrew with an eye to 
Arabic, that is, in case I should spend a season 
in the East, after all, before settling down at Hamp- 
stead or Watford I find I can easily recover the 
Hebrew I had lost — not very much I own — but 
better than nothing, and I have gone so far at 
least as to get an Arabic grammar from the most 
authentic quarter here, through a Mr, Howard, late 


of the Blues, who is now rigged as reverendly as 
Manning, and probably lodges in the same cloister. 
— Ever yours affectionately, 

**J. G. LOCKHART.'* 

The spirit, courage, gaiety, and energy of Lock- 
hart never shone more brightly than in these days 
of illness and exile. 

" Piazza di Spagna, March 15, 1854. 

" My dear Charlotte, — I was much gratified 
with your last and in all its parts, but in return for 
so many bits of good news I have really nothing 
to say, except that I have settled to take a steam- 
boat at Civita Vecchia on the 29th of this month, 
and it promises to reach Marseilles in twenty-seven 
hours. I need not hurry myself as to the French 
part of my journey, and will probably bestow a day 
or two on objects of interest as yet unvisited by 
me; but I shall soon {D.V.) get to Paris (H6tel 
Windsor, Rue de Rivoli), and I hope to find H. Ellis 
and wife there or thereabouts ; having spent a few 
days with whom, I may expect to cross to Old Eng- 
land and occupy once more, though for the last time 
and not for long, my customary quarters in Sussex 

" I have found that several acquaintances go by 
the boat I mention ; particularly William Osborne 
and his wife, who will to the best of their power help 
me. She was Caroline Montagu of Rokeby, an old 


friend and stalwart beauty — ^a most agreeable woman, 
^nd married to a very agreeable man — a brother of 
Lord Godolphin's. 

" When tolerably well I have made various little 
expeditions to see celebrated places within a day's 
drive, and mostly with the two Kemble ladies, and 
an artist or two of their suite. Next Saturday 
the like is to happen if the sun shines, and before 
I quit Civita Vecchia I shall, I believe, contrive to 
spend three or four days in that vicinity, where 
Etruscan antiquities (Comato, Tarquinii, &c) 
abound. But I am at best very uncertain in 
any arrangements of this nature, for I am subject 
to seizures that lay me quite on my back for two 
or three days. I am to-day better than I have 
usually been for some weeks: but the constant 
recurrence of most wearisome s)miptoms b enough 
to break one's spirit, even if one had any left to 
be broken. I am entirely satisfied that travel is 
insanity for a sick creature; and once established 
again in a home, however humble, I shall not be 
likely to quit it on any such speculation. 

** Hope and you will be sorry to hear that R. 
Monteith and all his family have been laid up with 
* Roman fever,' so called, ending in what we call 
typhus. One little girl died on Saturday, and I 
greatly fear my next intelligence may be the death 
of another of them, with that of poor R. Monteith 
himself. William Lockhart (the monk), known to 
you, sees them hourly, and lets me know daily. 


Yesterday the last Sacraments were to be admi- 
nistered to R. Monteith. This William Lockhart 
came over with Manning, and will return with him. 
He is very near to the Lees, and I knew his father 
well in early life. He seems a most amiable young 
man, and is very kind to me, as, indeed, sundry of 
his cloth here are. I understand I am in bad odour 
with the good Anglicans for going to hear Papist 
sermons pretty often ; but, first, I get Protestant 
ones (or can) readily at home; and, second, the 
specimens here are better bad. 

** You both, I think, were acquainted with the 
Bishop of Salisbury. I am sorry for his death. 
My old master, Jenkyns, too, has dropt. I wonder 
who will be the new Bishop ; but I do not look for 
Milman. More likely Whewell ; Hallam is, I hear, 
mending decidedly. 

" The day I touch a bit of well-dressed cod or 
salmon, with a slice of roast beef or mutton, and glass 
of sound ale or port, I fancy I shall feel greatly 
comforted. There is nothing wholesome or refresh- 
ing to be had in this infernal place for love or 
money. Wherefore, may perdition attend the popu- 
lation, from Pope Pio to the beggar on the stairs. 

"My chief companion and next-door neighbour 
(in the house) is old Lord Stanhope — occupied 
mostly with the spirit-rapping — I fancy a prime 
victim of the mediums. He says there is much 
preaching here on the subject, the tone being that 
the facts are all correct, but the whole the work 


of Satan. Indeedi that is t^at I have picked up 
from my orthodox friends here. — Affectionately 
yours ever, 

^*J. G. LOCKHART.*' 

David Dunglas Home was not yet in Rome at 
this time ; some iiderior medium was at work. 
Lockhart's dislike of Italian (X>okery and of the 
detestable wines of Italy comes out in a letter to 
Milman : — 

"ItOBCE, Casa SeRNY, MarOk^tf 1854. 

''My dear Milman, — I am ashamed of not having 
sooner acknowledged a very kind and inteiiesthig 
epistle from the Deanery ; but s^ I have been quite 
idle, you will readily tmderstand and excuse My 
health has had many ups and downs ; when toler- 
ably well I have tried to do something (occidentally 
and orientally), but in general I have been too 
unwell for such matters. At this hour I am better 
by much than usual, and hope to keep so during my 
homeward travels. I do not, on the whole, think I 
have been improved by foreign drugs, and sigh for 
home comforts — oh, how deeply ! 

"I had only yesterday a complete leave of absence 
as to Duchy of Lancaster, but this does not alter 
my programme, as I must, whatever order I may 
take about future modes of existence, go to Sussex 
Place, for a little while at all events, to settle about 
surrender of house there at Michaelmas, &c. I 
have no notion where I shall plant me, or how 


occupy my time, but if, as I would fain still hope, 
I am to be capable of some work, I know myself 
too well not to attempt to a certain extent a re- 
sumption of the old habits. Many jobs may suggest 
themselves by-and-by for filling up a few hours 
daily in an otherwise objectless existence. I rather 
think the temptation of society, and especially 
friendship, will prevent me from fixing at any 
considerable distance from London : nous verrons. 
Even if you be (as I hope) the new bishop, you 
won't be without a town-house any more than a 
comeatable palace in the country. I am sorry to 
see that good little Jenkyns is no more ; also not 
a little so at the sudden departure of poor Talfourd. 
Manning is poorly in looks, but charming in con- 
verse, and I see a good deal of him very quietly ; 
also of my namesake William Lockhart (son of L. 
of St. Mary's Hall by a Miss Jacob), who has 
given up a fair fortune to be a monk of some new 
order — a fine, handsome, amiable young man ; and 
I may say the same of a Herbert Vaughan, a priest 
too, though secular, eldest son of a rich Welsh 
squire, another handsome, elegant, good-natured, 
young English gentleman, gone the way of New- 
man ! The Cardinal, Manning, and a Dr. English 
preach, it seems, in pretty regfular succession at a 
church near me here, and I have attended them all 
frequently— Manning with real delight as well as pain 
— Wiseman with unmingled aversion and disgust." 
(An extremely severe expression of opinion, or 


prejudice, follows, but need not be quoted) '' My 
tender homages wait on your lady. I quite enter 
into her and your distress on the loss of Lady 
Milman, for whom, though meeting her but rarely, 
I had always a very particular liking as weU as 
respect Truly grieved I am for Sir William, and 
ever yours affectionately, J. G. Lockhart/' 

** Beds black with bugs, 
Monks fkt as slugs. 
Beggars groaning. 
Thieves atoning. 
Leering models, lounging artists, 
Strutting, strumming Bonapartists ; 
Mutton young, and stinking muUet, 
Wine sharp enough for Rossi's gullet 
Fancying these^ make speed to Rome, 
Curse beef and beer, law, truth, and home ; 
For me, I'd jump at once to — — , 
Before returning. 

«J. G. L" 

These are, perhaps, Lockhart's last verses. 

Still from Rome he writes to Mr. Hope Scott 
about his post in the Duchy of Lancaster : — 

^ Rome, March 20^ 1854. 

•* Dear Hope, — I think it very probable that you 
have had some communication, since you reached 
town, with Mr. Strutt, and will therefore hear, with- 
out surprise, what he now communicates to me, viz., 
that my resignation as auditor of the Duchy of Lan- 
caster will be acceptable with reference to certain 


proposed reforms, &c., &c., but that Prince Albert 
desires me to receive a retired allowance equal to 
the salary. This is exceedingly gracious, and I 
have of course written accordingly to Mr. Strutt. 

" This will in no inconsiderable degree lighten my 
diflficulties as to arranging for the future course of 
my domesticities, and I trust William and you will 
bestow some reflection on it with that view. I do 
not wish such matters to be talked of generally, but 
I will thank you to mention the occurrence confi- 
dentially to Holt, Fergusson, and Christie, also to 
Mr. Murray, when you are next passing Albemarle 
Street. I mean to take steamer on the 29th at 
Civita Vecchia, and, D.V., to reach London some 
ten days later. 

"You will be happy to learn that Monteith is 
thought to have decidedly got the turn. He has 
not yet heard of the child's death. Manning has 
just been here with this news, and is to dine with 
me solo at i .30 on Wednesday, which will be a great 
treat to me. I asked him to invite Vaughan or 
W. Lockhart, both of whom I am as fond of as he 
is, but he preferred a two-handed talk for once. — 
Yours affectionately, J. G. Lockhart." 

Lockhart reached Sussex Place again, and those 
comforts which Rome could not yield. He writes : — 

" Tuesday, April ii, 1854. 

"Dear Charlotte, — I am writing in my old 

VOL. n. 2 B* 


chair in my own old room once more. I stood my 
long journey well enough; having pleasant society 
diroughout — viz., William Osborne and his wife 
(Caroline Montagu of Rokeby)i and their niece. 
Miss Fazakerleyi and as far as Paris, the Duke 
of Wellington. The Rhone being dried up, we 
found difficulty in getting the boat retraced, but 
finally hired and posted (five mattres and five 
domestiques) in a solemn cast-off diligence. At 
Lyons we reached running water again, and on 
to Paris so and by rail. I dined one day with 
Ellis, but never saw miladi, she being rrally ilL 
My only other visit was to Versailles-— of which 
when we meet 

*' I have not yet seen Holt, but I hope to do so 
this evening, and anticipate, with his help and 
Woolford's, escaping from this house before that 
month expires. I am to be myself on trial as respects 
climate, &c., and believe my wisest plan will be to 
deposit my books, &c., at the Pantechnicon (all but 
a few boxes full), and hire for the nonce a lodgping 
not far from my clubs ; in which case Hannah might 
sigh a long farewell. 

*' I have a medal of Pius IX. for M. M., with 
sundry rosaries and so on, at your commands. 

**Two\^more very old allies of mine are just 
buried, I see — John Wilson and the Dean of Wells 
(Jenkyns of Balliol). 

*' I am to dine to-day with Murchison, who looks 
doubly august with his increase of fortune, which 

"SHORN- 387 

must atone for my shorn condition in purse and 
person. — Affectionately yours, 


Shorn, indeed, Lockhart was. He had never been 
rich; he had no valuable copyrights; the years of 
a large income had ended with the first flush of 
Murray's Family Library; his expenses in conse- 
quence of Walter's faults had been great. Now he 
had to resign the Quarterly Review, and this is the 
time when Miss Martineau speaks of him as *' opu- 
lent," and owner of a lucrative landed estate ! 

** Sussex Place, April 18, 1854. 

" Dearest Charlotte, — I shall be very happy to 
dine with you on the appointed day, when I hope to 
see M. M.^ in great beauty and attraction, and her 
papa and mamma strong and well. I have seen 
Lady Hope, and was delighted with her vigorous 
looks — also Lady F. H., who seems as jolly as ever, 
all woes notwithstanding. I have nothing to say of 
myself but that I don't feel as if I were at all the 
worse for being here — if anything, the contrary, and 
take what share I can in the great quest of a shelter ; 
but r daresay your arrival will find that still on foot 
It seems to be extremely hard to get at anything 
decent on decent terms anywhere, and actually im- 
possible in the civilised regions of the town. Christie 
is not yet seen by me — he is at Beaumanoir. Lady 

^ M. M. is Mary Monica, his grandchilcL 


Davy is in her white hairs and no roses, but in very 
fair spirits— <iuite herself indeed Oh I on Easter 

Sunday I was good boy and went to the old ^'s ** 

(the family best taken homeopathically), '* with the 
usual cod and pigeon-pie, &c., &c ; he rayther doited, 
I fear — all the rest as of yore. Scotty very nice. 
So is neighbour Dadsy here— ji^vr^. Poor Mrs. 
Grant seems much shaken and aged. Frank 
(Grant) has now finished his i^i^ to his own satis&c- 
tion, and threatens engraving ; but I have not had 
any other opinion. My own is that there is very 
little resemblance to the senior whom I should ^QB:<i^ 
every morning. 

" I am not surprised, but sorry, to hear whispers 

of a separation between and her virtuoso^ 

whose neglects have at last exhausted her patience ; 
but I shaJl have particulars whenever I meet the 
Eastlakes, and till then mumr 

The following brief note is his last to his old 
friend Dean Milman : — 

" i^July 1854 

" Dear Dean, — I have now read your book all 
through, and am very sorry to find myself aty&rw, but 
hope to see more vols, speedily. This is a real good 
history, most learned, instructive, and abundant in 
sense and taste. I beg pardon for praising it — ex- 
cuse the presumptuous habits of an old editor. 

" I think A. Stanley's article a very able and in- 
teresting one — in fact, the best thing he has as yet 


printed — always excepting passages in his ' Arnold/ 
which neither he nor another will readily beat — 

Yours, J. G. LOCKHART." 

In August, Lockhart retreated to his brother's 
hospitable house at Milton Lockhart. His health 
was not mending ; a chilliness in the hands and 
feety and great weakness, were the most notable 
symptoms. "Bob," in the following letter, is his 
brother Robert, then on the point of being married. 

It is pleasant to think that his latest summer, in 
his own country, was happy in warmth, a grateful 
breeze, and the " sheathed " sun, on which he quotes 
Wordsworth. He, like Scott, made a final visit to 
Douglas and its stern monuments ; and he remem- 
bered, we may be sure, that day of dark and 
lowering heat, when Sir Walter, moved beyond 
himself, quoted — 

*'My wound is deep, I fiain would sleep.** 

Deep was Lockhart's wound, beyond all healing, 
and rest was near. How touchingly his words in 
the following letter on youth and health, and on 
people's duty to be **what it is easy to preach," 
recall Scott's "Be a good man, my dear!" But 
he addressed, and he knew it, one to whom it was 
easy to be good: — 

'< Milton, August 29, 1854. 

** Dear Charlotte, — Kate says I should write, 
but I really have nothing to say except what she is 


990 , WFB OF J. Gt. 


SjMre to have $aid to you lately. She and Will^sun 
are both most Idnd, and so is )3ob i(vhen he 
can be spared us for a little), in their attention 
to my ease and comforts. The pony has hitherto 
$CTved me 90 great d^ bec^Mse my bo^es are 
so naked that the surfai;^ gels easily injuredt jlfi^ 
Ae poor man oan't attnnpt reipoiLinting for souM 
while. Otherwise, I j^oiild expect real good from 
^t exercise, and we di^Jl see by*andTby hoir 
things go on. I am not better, I think, on the 
whole, but not worse, and for this jcme sboi^d be 

^* The weather is ddidous-rrwarm, very waniif but 
a gentle breeze keeping the leaves in motion ail 
about, and the sun skeaihedf as Wordsworth hai^i 
St, with a soft grey layer of cloud. To-day I am 
tempted to try the pony again, though, besides 
other griefs, I can get no companion-r-rWilliam just 
once, and yet God only knows what he does all day 
before sleeping hours. 

. "I am glad to fancy you all enjoying yourselves 
(I include Lady D. and sweet M. M.), in this 
heavenly summer season — such a rarity beneath 
our sky. If people knew beforehand what it is to 
lose health, and all that can't survive health, they 
would in youth be what it is easy to preach — do 
you try, I fancy it costs none of you very much 
effort either to be good or happy. — Yours affection- 
ately, J. G. LOCKHART." 

DYING 391 

" Milton, September 9, 1854. 

" Dear Charlotte, — I am probably doing what 
William ought to have done — anyhow, your grouse 
arrived this morning, and will be very useful. I 
have lived on grouse-soup ever since I came to 
Milton, with the addition of some curds and cream, 
lots of butter-milk, and now, behold, a kebbock 
procured from a renowned dairy hard by for my 
special benefit ! I am, in some minor respects, 
rather better, and persist therefore in riding almost 
daily for two or three hours, but the feebleness in 
the limbs, I fear, progresses still. It is with con- 
siderable difficulty I get my legs over the saddle, 
and I never even attempt more than a walk. 

" I suppose I must soon think of moving south- 
wards, and that will include a little visit to you, 
unless you shall have shown yourselves here at any 
rate ; but I don't mean that I don't wish and intend 
to be with you whether you have been here or not. 
If I feel tolerably up to any visiting, I will, if I can, 
go to Bob's wedding,^ but I doubt if I shall be able, 
and suspect the absence of so ghastly a visage and 
form may be much more to the hilarifying of Kate 
(who alone will remember it) than the presence of 
your most obedient. 

" We have the most heavenly weather. Kate 
and I went with William yesterday to Douglas to 
show her the monuments, and that he might call 

^ The wedding of his brother, Mr. Robert Lockhart 


at the castle. Lord D. was not well enough to 
be seen. 

" Lord. Peter is to be here on Thursday ; gmng 
on Saturday to the Bdhavens, who have just re- 
turned from the Rhine. My respects attend all the 
fair, not excepting M. M. 


Lockhart's final visit to Abbotsford has some* 
times been represented as the sudden fi-eak of a 
stricken man to die at home. The foregoing and 
following letters prove that he had always content 
plated and promised a visit to his daughter. Mr. 
Omsby, in his " Life of James Hope Scott," * write3 
thus : '' Mr. and Mrs. Hope Scott went to see him 
at Milton Lockhart, and entreated him to come to 
Abbotsford He at first decidedly refused, and his 
will was a strong one ; but some time after, when 
the house was full of Catholic guests, he suddenly 
announced that he wished to go immediately to 

This makes a rather ungracious impression. 
Lockhart's letters, of course, remove it ; he always 
meant to go to see his daughter and " M. M." 

This is his last letter to his daughter. He jour- 
neyed to Abbotsford, and died among those dearest 
to him : — 

" Milton Lockhart, 29M September 1854. 

" Dear Charlotte, — I am certainly somewhat 

^ Vol. iL pb 147. 


stronger on my poor limbs, but as I have not 
learnt to eat, the difficulty is only protracted by 
such changes. However, I write merely to say 
that your last to Kate greatly surprised and per- 
plexed me; for I had not before had the least 
notion about your two visits, and fully believed 
that Hope would be off for his English trip before 
Monday next. Meantime I had settled in my own 
mind that, if I should feel courageous enough for a 
day of travel, I would quit this place by, at latest, 
the middle day of October — if possible a week 
sooner. As to that point, I have had no letter 
lately from Fergusson ; he has left mine un- 
answered ; so I concluded that in absence he would 
rather not interfere. But as you will no doubt 
come hither on Monday, I need not trouble you 
with more of this to-day. It seems a bit of destiny 
that M. M. and J. G. L. do not meet in a hurry. 
I am very sorry to hear of Lady Davy's new 
attack, but she has a vitality that I may well envy. 
Love to you all. 


The date of Lockhart's arrival at Abbotsford is 

An old servant of Mrs. Maxwell Scott's family, 
Mrs. Doyle, gives this touching description of Lock- 
hart's fondness for his little grandchild, which partly 
deals with his dying days at Abbotsford. 

''She used to be quite frightened at him, as a 


baby« when he lived at Regent's Park Poor gende- 
majkf he used to be so often ill, and when we used 
to go to see him, he would be in his dressing-gown 
and a red cap. She would ay, and I had to take 
her out and walk in the garden. Her mother used to 
be so vexed, and used to talk to her. Mr. Loddiart 
told Dr. Locock what a naughty little giri she was ! 
At last she was good, and pleased to let her grand- 
papa take her in his arms, and he kissed her, and I 
saw the tears run down his cheeks. I remember 
when Mr. Hope Scott came home, how dear Mrs. 
Hope Scott met him on the stair to tell him baby 
had been good to her grandpapa, and let him take 
her in his arms: he came straight to the nursery 
to kiss her, and tell her she had been a good 
baby. When Mr. Lockhart was ill at Abbotsford, 
how he loved to hear her running about the house. 
He said it was life to him. What a beautiful face 
he had I What a dream it all seems : how often I 
sit and think of these days." 

Mr. Omsby, in his ** Life of James Hope Scott," ^ 
says : *' He arrived there hardly able to get out of 
his carriage, and it was at once perceived that he 
was a dying man. He desired to drive about and 
take leave of various places." 

We can imagine his last visits to Chiefswood, 
Huntly Burn, the Rhymer's Glen, Torwoodlee, 
Gledswood, perhaps "the dowie dens of Yarrow," 
— ** displaying, however, a sort of stoical fortitude, 

* Vol. ii. p. 147. 

DEATH 395 

and never making a direct allusion to what was 
impending. To save him fatigue it was important 
he should have his room near the library, but 
he shrank from accepting the dining-room (where 
Sir Walter had died), and it required all Mr. Hope 
Scott's peculiar tact and kindness to induce him 
to establish himself in the breakfast-room close by. 
There he remained until the end. Yet he would 
not suffer any one to nurse him, till, one nighty 
he fell down on the floor, and, after that, offered 
no further opposition. Father Lockhart, a distant 
cousin, was now telegraphed for, from whom, during 
Mr. Lockhart's stay in Rome, he had received much 
kind attention, for which he was always grateful. 
He did not object to his kinsman's attendance, 
though a priest ; and yielded also when asked to 
allow his daughter to say a few prayers by his 
bedside. . . . The end came suddenly. Mr. and 
Mrs. Hope Scott were quickly called in, and found 
Miss Lockhart (affectionately called in the family 
* Cousin Kate ' ) reading the prayers for the dying. 
Mr. Lockhart died on November 25." 

He was buried, by his desire, in Dry burgh Abbey, 
"at the feet of Sir Walter Scott," within hearing of the 
Tweed. Mrs. Robert Lockhart, at that time a bride, 
makes the following extracts from letters of her hus- 
band, who was in attendance on the dying man : — 

"I was in the dining-room during the night, 
which is next the sick-room. It is the room in 
which old Sir Walter died. My thoughts during 


the night I can scarcely describe, thinking of my 
poor brother in his younger days, with the Scott 
family, now all gone." 

"Abbotsford, November 26y 1854. 

" I arrived early this morning, but, alas ! too late 
for the momentary gratification of being with him 
at the last. As Dr. Clarkson had assured us, his 
end was but a soft sleep— no pain, no struggle. The 
change is not great from what he appeared lately, 
and his expression is mild. My poor mother was 
brought before me so perfectly. In death he re- 
sembles her far more than he did in life." 

The biographer of Father William Lockhart in- 
forms me that the Father used to read to Lockhart, 
in his last days, passages from "The Garden of the 
Soul." Mr. Gleig says, touching his religious creed, 
that a clergyman, an Oxford friend (probably him- 
self), used to walk with Lockhart on Sunday after- 
noons in Regent's Park. "With whatever topic 
their colloquy began, it invariably fell off, so to 
speak, of its own accord into discussions upon the 
character and teaching of the Saviour ; upon the 
influence exercised by both over the opinions and 
habits of mankind ; upon the light thrown by them 
on man's future state and present destiny. . . . 
Lockhart was never so charming as in these dis- 
cussions. It was evident that the subject filled his 
whole mind, for the views which he enunciated were 


large, broad, and most reverential — free at once 
from the bigoted dogmatism which passes current 
in certain circles for religion, and from the loose, 
immeaning jargon which is too often accepted as 
•rational Christianity.' . . ." 

Of religion, in his extant letters, Lockhart never 
speaks, save in some brief ejaculation, or in acknow- 
ledging and humbly bowing to that Will which 
so often, and so severely, tried his own. Lockhart, 
in his will, left little memorials to his surviving 
friends, and a sum of one hundred pounds to Mr. 
Christie, "for a purpose which he knows" — veteris 
hand immemor amicitia. 

Mr. Froude, in his "Thomas Carlyle,"^ writes of 
" a poem sent to him (in part) by a friend whom he 
rarely saw, who is seldom mentioned in connection 
with his history, yet who then and always was 
exceptionally dear to him. The lines themselves 
were often on his lips to the end of his own life, 
and will not be easily forgotten by any one who 
reads them." 

These lines came to him who now writes, with 
Lockhart's letter to Carlyle, in an hour of sorrow, 
and will not be forgotten while memory endures. 
They are written in full on a page pasted into one 
of Lockhart's diary books, and are dated June 21, 
1 84 1. They had been seen by Mrs. Norton, who, 
in one of her letters to him — letters singularly 
vivid, but clouded by many torturing anxieties — says 

* Vol L p. 249. 


that ''some good angel must haine cai^ht hkti ih 
a trap." 

<' Wheft youdifiil adfh has flei^ 
Of loving take thy leave ; 
Be constant to the deader 
The dead cannot deceive. 


Sweety modest flowers of sprmg^. 

How fleet your balmy day I 
And man's brief year can bring 

No secondary lilay. 

No earthly bnrst again 

Of gladness out of gloom; 
Fond hope and viinotf vain^ 

Ungrateful to the tomb f- 

But 'tis an old betief, 

That on some solonn shore, 
Beyond the sphdre ot grief, 

Dear friends will meet once mord 

Beyond the sphere of time^ 
And sin, and fate's control^ 

Serene in changeless prime 
Of body and of soul. 

That creed I fain would keep, 

That hope 111 not forego ; 
Eternal be the sleep, 

Unless to waken so." 

So may he have wakened-^out of weakness made 
strong, out of weariness refreshed — to meet the eyes 
of her whom he never ceased to love and long for, 
and of that great soul beside whose mortal ashes his 
own body lies at rest. 



Reminiscences of the Dean of Salisbury. — Lockhart on modern poets. 
— He advocates the republication of Keats. — Lockhart on Tenny- 
son. — Admiration of Byron and Southey. — The Quarterly and 
the Oxford Movement — Kindness to Dean Boyle. — On Scott's 
letter about the death of his first love.— On his friendship for 
Mr. Murray. — The notice of Lockhart's death in the Times, — The 
author's final reflections. 

The Dean of Salisbury, who has already printed 
some charming notes on Lockhart in his delightful 
volume of Reminiscences, has kindly written the 
following recollections. The edition of Keats re- 
ferred to as published by Lockhart s advice, is a kind 
of quarto, in double column. There followed (before 
Lord Houghton s publication of Keats's * Letters 
and Remains) another edition, with a portrait. I 
have elsewhere said that in a letter of Lockhart's of 
1 8 19, which was kindly lent to me by Mr. Enys of 
Enys, he speaks most amiably of Keats, hopes for 
his recovery from an illness, and says that he has 
attempted to write in this sense in Blackwood^ "but 
have been thwarted, I know not well how." It is, 
however, fair to add that, in his early Quarterly 
notice of Tennyson, Lockhart does not show symp- 



toms of conversion as far as Keats is concerned. 
Real appreciation came later. Dean Boyle's re- 
collections follow: — 

''Dear Mr. Lang,-^I do not require to dig 
into my memory for any particulars about J. G. 
Lockhart. Everything that I heard from him» 
from 1844 to 1853, is so strongly impressed on 
my mind that I can bring back at once the times 
that I met him and the utterances that he made. 
Mr. Lockhart unbent himself very freely in the 
house of a relation of mine, and his sayings and 
doings were very faithfully chronicled. When I 
read, very shortly after his death, the excellent 
sketch of his life and character, in the Times of 
December 9, 1854 — a sketch which was attributed 
to Dean Mihnan and Lady Eastlake — I was struck 
with its complete agreement with all that I had 
myself thought about his character, as a critic and 
a man. The real love of letters, which he showed 
in his conversation, gave him an especial charm. I 
have heard him acknowledge freely the mistakes that 
had been made by critics as to Keats, Shelley, and 
Tennyson. From what I have heard him say, half 
in fun and half in earnest, about the fierce attacks 
in Blackwood upon what was thought the Cockney 
school, I drew the conclusion that he greatly re- 
gretted all that had been said about Keats ; and 
I feel sure that Lockhart was never guilty, as 
Mr. Colvin thinks in his Memoir of Keats, of 


betraying his knowledge of the poet's life to the 
author of the article in Blackwood. I know, on 
the authority of the Rev. Thomas James, a con- 
tributor to the Quarterly^ much valued by Lockhart, 
that the republication of Keats's poetry in 1840-41 
was strongly advocated by Lockhart, who was 
always willing to repair injustice. I heard him ex- 
press great satisfaction that John Sterling's review 
of Tennyson, in the Quarterly, had created a great 
demand on the part of the public ; and I remember 
his strong praise of the 'Morte d'Arthur' and the 
' Lord of Burleigh.' Of Shelley, too, and especi- 
ally his Letters and Essays, he said much that 
dwells in my memory. One of his pieces of advice 
to me was to cultivate a catholic taste in poetry. 
'Milton, above all things, Pope, Scott, Byron, and 
Crabbe — I am afraid Southey is not such a favourite 
with you young gentlemen as Shelley and Keats 
— but " Kehama " and " Thalaba " you ought to 
read, and don't forget Wordsworth's ** Churchyard 
among the Mountains."' I was often struck with 
his magnanimity. When Macaulay's ' Essays ' 
were becoming very popular, he spoke of them 
with great admiration ; and when some one was 
running down Jeffrey, I heard Lockhart say very 
much what he wrote afterwards, in a most in- 
teresting article in the Quarterly. He treated me 
with extreme kindness, and asked me to make 
use of him if I wanted any particular information 
about books. He had a very warm heart, often 

VOL. II. 2 c 


concealed by a cold, reserved msoiner, and my 
old cousin used to say to me, ^Lockhart treats 
you with great kindness on account of what your 
father did for him in his Edinburgh days.' He 
took great interest in the battle of the Churches 
in Scotland after the Disruption. An article by 
Gleig on Dr. Chalmers made him talk very firedy 
about religious opinion in Scotland, and the attitude 
taken by Walter Scott. 'If I had to write my 
" Life of Scott *' over again now, I should say more 
about his reli^ous opinions. Some people may 
diink passages in his novels conventional and 
commonplace, but he hated cant, and every wofd 
he said came from his heart' One day in his 
own house he read me a letter, written , by Scott 
to a friend who had lost his wife, full of beauty; 
and he then added, 'The lady was Scott's first 
love.' I think this letter, or a copy of rt, must 
have been given to Lockhart by Sir John Fcwrbcs, 
the son of the banker who married the lady in 
question. There was an enthusiasm about Lock- 
hart, when he expressed his views about poems 
he admired, such as I have never seen except in 
Matthew Arnold. It may seem strange to some 
to hear that the two poems I heard him admire 
most were Byron's ' Isles of Greece,' and some 
very fine verses of Fanny Kemble's, which he g^ve 
in the Quarterly in his review of her poems. May 
I venture to mention a personal matter ? He was 
going to take a short tour on the Continent with 


his friend Lord Robertson, and he said to me, 
* If you can come with us, I will frank you. You 
would hear about Scott and Wilson to your heart's 
content.' But I was an undergraduate at Oxford, 
and the kind scheme could not be thought of. I 
venture, however, to think that there are not many 
men in Lockhart's position who would think of 
doing such a kindness to a youth. I know that 
there had been from time to time grave questions 
and difference of opinion between Lockhart and 
the head of the firm in Albemarle Street, but Lock- 
hart was fond of speaking of the generous treatment 
many authors had had from Mr. Murray, whom 
he called the prince of publishers. I have heard 
him say that he had often wished Sir Walter had 
had more dealings with the house. The line taken 
by the Quarterly as to the Oxford Movement has 
been much misunderstood. Lockhart was fond of 
quoting a famous sentence of Home Tooke's, about 
Hounslow and Windsor : * I went a certain way 
from Oxford, but I was not going to Rome.' I 
should like to say that when he was last at Rome, 
he wrote a warm appreciation of the poetry of 
Dante, and said he had been deepening his ac- 
quaintance, under the guidance of Lucentini, *a 
man much to be commended.' Lockhart used to 
quote a famous passage of Sir F. Palgrave, of the 
value to be gained from 'one dear book.' I could 
write at some length of the value to be gained from 
knowledge and acquaintance of one dear man. — I 
am, very truly yours, G. D. Boyle." 


We may add an extract from the article in 
the Times ^ attributed to Dean Milman and Lady 

From the " Jimes^'' Dec. 9, 1854. 

" It is not in the first few days of regret for Mr. 
Lockhart's loss that the extent of it can be best 
defined. . . . Although his reputation has been 
confined to literature, and although, by early amassed 
knowledge and long-sharpened thought, he had 
reared himself into a pillar of literary strength, yet 
the leading qualities of his mind would have fitted 
him for any part where far-sighted sagacity, iron 
self-control, and rapid instinctive judgment mark the 
born leader of others. Nor did he care for literary 
triumphs or trials of strength, but rather avoided 
them with shrinking reserve. 

"He entered society rather to unbend his powers 
than to exert them. Playful raillery, inimitable in 
ease and brilliancy, with old friend, simple child, or 
with the gentlest or humblest present, was the re- 
laxation he most cared to indulge ; and if that were 
denied him, and especially if expected to stand 
forward and shine, he would shut himself up 

** Reserve indeed — too often misunderstood in its 
origin, ascribed to coldness and pride when its 
only source was the rarest modesty, with shyness 
both personal and national — was his strong external 
characteristic. Those whose acquaintance he was 

THE "TIMES" 405 

expressly invited to make, would find no access 
allowed them to his mind, and go disappointed 
away, knowing only that they had seen one of the 
most interesting, most mysterious, but most chilling 
of men, for their very deference had made him retire 
further from them. Most happy was Lockhart 
when he could literally take the lowest place, and 
there complacently listen to the strife of conversers, 
till some dilemma in the chain of recollection or 
argument arose, and then the ready memory drew 
forth the missing link. ... And there were occa- 
sions also when the expression of the listener was 
not so complacent — when the point at issue was one 
of right and wrong ; and then the scorn on the lip 
and the cloud on the brow were but the prelude to 
some strong speech, withering in its sarcasm. 

• a ... . 

•* Far remote was he from the usual conditions of 
genius — its simplicity, its foibles, and its follies. 
Lockhart had fought the whole battle of life, both 
within and without, and borne more than his share 
of sorrows. So acute, unsparing, and satirical was 
his intellect that, had Lockhart been endowed with 
that alone, he would have been the most brilliant 
but the most dangerous of men ; but so strong, 
upright, and true were his moral qualities also that, 
had he been a dunce in attainment or a fool in wit, 
he must still have been recognised as an extraor- 
dinary man. . . . All knew how unsparing he was 
to morbid or sickly sentiment, but few could tell 


how tender to genuine feding. All could see how 
he despised every species of vanity, pretension, or 
cant ; but few had the opportunity of witnessing his 
unfailing homage to the humblest or even stupidest 

" It was characteristic of Lockhart's peculiar indi- 
viduality that wherever he was at all known, whether 
by man or woman, by po^, or man of business, or 
man of the world, he touched the hidden chord of 
romance in all. No man less affected the poetical, the 
mysterious, or the sentimental ; no man less affc 
anything; yet, as he stole stiffly away from the 
knot which, if he had not enlivened, he had hushed, 
there was not one who did not confess that a being 
had passed before them who stirred all the pulses 
of the imagination, and realised what is generally 
only ideal in the portrait of a man. To this im- 
pression there is no doubt that his personal appear- 
ance greatly contributed, though too entirely the 
exponent of his mind to be considered as a separate 
cause. . . . 

" As in social intercourse, so in literature, Lockhart 
was guilty of injustice to his own surpassing powers. 
... No doubt he might have taken a higher place 
as a poet than by his Spanish Ballads, as a writer 
of fiction than by his novels. These seem to have 
been thrown off by a sudden uncontrollable impulse 
to relieve the mind of its fulness, rather than as 
works of finished art or mature study. . . . They 

THE " TIMES •' 407 

were the flashes of a genius that would not be 
suppressed : none esteemed them more humbly than 
Lockhart. ... So, too, with his other writings of 
the period. The ice once broken, the waters went 
dashing out in irresistible force ; his exuberant spirits, 
his joyous humour, his satiric vigour, his vehement 
fun, when the curb was once loosened, ran away 
with him. . . . These outbursts over, he retired 

again into himself. 

• . • . • 

" Lockhart was designated at once, for none else 
could be, the biographer of Scott. . . . But while 
his relation and singular qualifications gave him 
unrivalled advantages for this work, they involved 
him in no less serious and peculiar difficulties. The 
history must tell not only the brilliant joyous dawn 
and zenith of the poet s fame, but also the dark sad 
decline and close. It was not only that Lockhart 
• . . enjoyed the closest intimacy with Scott, saw 
him in all his moods, with veneration which could 
not blind his intuitive keen judgment of human 
character: in some respects there was the most 
perfect congeniality between the two. 

*' In outward manner no two men indeed could 
be more different. Scott frank, easy, accessible, the 
least awful great man ever known. • • • Lockhart, 
slow at first, retiring, almost repelling, till the thaw 
of kindly or friendly feelings had warmed and 
kindled his heart. But in tastes, in political prin- 
ciples, in conviviality, in active life, in the enjoy- 



ment of Scottish scenery and sports, in the love of 
letters for letters' sake, with a sovereign contempt 
for the pedantry of authorship, warm attachments, 
even in the love of brute beasts — there was the 
closest sympathy. . • . But stem truth, honour, 
and faith with the public commanded the disclosure 
of the gloomier evening. .. . . 

*' There was one thing which set Lockhart far 
above all common critics: high over every other 
consideration predominated the general love of 
letters. Whatever might be the fate of those of 
more doubtful pretensions (even to the lowest, the 
humblest of authors, there was one kind of gene- 
rosity in which Lockhart was never wanting — ^if his 
heart was closed, his hand was always open), yet if 
any great work of genius appeared, it was one to 
him — ^his kindred spirit was kindled at once, his 
admiration and sympathy threw off all trammels. 
We have known, where he has resisted rebuke or 
remonstrance, to do justice to the works of political 
antagonists — that impartial homage was at once 
freely, boldly, lavishly paid." 

The tale is now all told, and we may look back 
on it and briefly review our impressions. Of no 
human character can another venture to be the 
judge, least of all when the character is so strong 
and so complex as that of Lockhart He has been 
spoken of as cold, heartless, incapable of friendship. 
We have written in vain, and his own letters are 


vainly displayed, if it be not now recognised that 
the intensity of his affections rivalled, and partly 
caused, the intensity of his reserve. Garrulous lax 
affections and emotions are recognised and praised : 
ready tears, voluble sorrows, win sympathy, — and 
may have forsaken the heart they tenanted almost 
in the hour of their expression. Lockhart felt too 
strongly for words, and his griefs were ** too great 
for tears," as the Greek says. His silence was not 
so much the result of a stoical philosophy, as of that 
constitutional and ineradicable ply of nature which, 
when he was a child, left his cheeks dry while others 
wept, and ended in a malady of voiceless grief. He 
was born to be so, and to be misconstrued. 

The loyalty of his friendships, and the loyalty of 
his friends to him, is not of common example. His 
great devotion to Sir Walter Scott, so unaffected, 
so enduring, coloured all his life and thought. To 
have won the entire trust and love of Scott, the 
singular affection of Carlyle, who saw him so rarely, 
yet who remembered and regretted him so keenly, 
— having ** fallen in love with him," as it were, — is 
no ordinary proof of extraordinary qualities in heart 
and brain. His generosity in giving, even beyond 
his means, is attested by Mr. Christie. His affec- 
tion, within his family, was tender, and perhaps, in 
one instance, even too considerate. In society it is 
obvious, from the circle of his acquaintances, and 
the houses which were open to him, that he could 
both take and give pleasure. But instances of shy- 


ness, petulance* and coldness, in society strange or 
uncongenial, were unforgotten and unforgtven by 
those who had never met Lockhart where he was 
himself and at home. That he was strenuously in* 
dustrious and conscientious in his editorial and other 
literary duties, courteous and punctual, has been 
proved. His editorial work involved, as we have 
heard him state, the conciliation of several t^npers 
and interests ; he had to shine in compromise, and, 
on the whole, he succeeded. Reviewing all that I 
know of him, my own impression is one of respect, 
admiration, affection, and r^pret. The close of his 
days, so admirable for courage, kindness, endurance, 
sweetness of temper, and considerateness, is like a 
veiled sunset, beautiful and sad. He might speak 
of himself (Mrs. Gordon says that he so spoke) as 
** a weary old man, fit for nothing but to shut myself 
up and be sulky." ^ The gay fortitude of his letters 
proves that he did himself injustice. Sorrows in a 
succession and severity almost without parallel, dis- 
appointed hopes, frustrated ambitions, the censures 
which pursued his great and immortal work, did not 
sour him. In spite of a retreat which was forced on 
him by his bodily health, he mellowed under years 
and griefs, like upland corn ripened by the frost. 
His end was fitting and beautiful, a continuation, in 
a softer key, of the close of the life of Scott. The 
presence of his dust at Dryburgh, the consciousness 
of his repose there, after a warfare so weary, makes 

1 "Christopher North," ii. 352. 


the place doubly sacred. His lesser light is blended, 
for all time, with the warmth and radiance of the 
man he loved. 

Lockhart's errors have not been concealed. No 
** white alabaster image" of him has been, or could 
honestly be, erected. These errors, so unamiable, 
were mainly the faults of his conduct in criticism. 
The worst of them have whatever excuse youth, 
ignorance, the heated political and literary passions 
of a small town, and the example of an elder 
comrade, can supply. In his later years, every one 
who had, or fancied that he (or she) had, a griev- 
ance against the Quarterly Review, cried out upon 
the Editor. Among the festering vanities of a 
generation of scribblers was developed a legend 
or myth of Lockhart. On this point enough has 
been written, and it has been made clear that, 
whatever were Lockhart 's early deeds in bitterness 
of comment, he was not absolute in the control of 
the Review. His own essays, many as they are, 
contain not many phrases which deserve censure. 
On politics he did not write a single article. 

Lockhart was not, through all his life, a man of 
sweet and placable temper in private. On this 
point let me quote an anecdote, handed on by his 
friend Mrs. Norton to Lord Dufferin. Lockhart 
said to her — 

'* To-day it is as if I had seen a ghost. My wife, 
whenever I got cross and spoke sharply, had a trick 
of putting her two hands together, and placing them 


with the palms over my moutb The other day my 
little daughteK" (at this time about sixteen) **came 
across the room when I was angry about something, 
and, using exactly the ssCme gesture as her mother, 
placed her hands over my mouth." 

Unfortunate in so much, Lockhart was most 
happy in a wife and a daughter who inherited the 
sweetness of spirit of their &ther and their grand- 
father. To their influence, in part, we may trace 
the admirable qualities which, in his later years, 
contrasted with the acerbity of his early manhood. 
To adapt the noble phrase of the Greek historian^ 
"Being a man, he bore manfully such things as 
mortals must endure." 







Abbotsford, its disposition at the 
marriage of Major Scott, iL 156, 
161 ; its debts extinguished, 298 

Abercorn, Lady, is informed of Miss 
Sophia Scott's engagement, L 250 ; 
letters from Scott, 344, 346, 348 

Abercorn, Lord, at dinner at Land- 
seer's, ii. 343 

Abercrombie, Dr., consulted in Lady 
Scott's illness, i. 403 

Aberdeen, Lord, ii. 54, 359 

Adam, Mr., of Blair Adam (the 
*' Chief Commissioner"), iL 115; 
on Scott's relations with the Bal- 
lantynes, 149 fufte, 164, 166 

Adam, Dowager Lady, ii. 164 
Adam Blair," Lockhart's best novel, 
i. 259 ; analysb of the work, 297 ; 
contrasted with Sir W. Scott's 
romances, 301 

Addison, W. Innes, cited for Lock- 
hart's matriculation at Glasgow 
University, i. 20 

Adolphus, Mr., visits Scott at Abbots- 
ford, ii. 72 

Ainsworth, Harrison, one of the staff 
of Fraset's Magaziru^ ii 79 

Aitken, Mr., of Dunbar, i. 199 

Aitken, Miss Carlyle, ii. 224 

Albert, Francis Charles Augustus 
Emmanuel, Prince Consort of 
England, ii. 204, 293, 347, 385 

Aldersons, the, ii. 78, 81 

Alexanders, the, ii. 82 

Alison, Sir Archibald, historian, ii. 
187 ; Lockhart's epigram on his 
** History of Europe," 320 

Allan, George, his unauthorised Life 
of Scott, iL 106 ncU^ 133 

Allan, (afterwards Sir) William, 
painter, project for assisting him, 
L 209; visited by Haydon the 
painter, 248 

Allies, Mr., iL 375 

Ambrose's tavern, Edinburgh, L 221 

*' Ancient Spanish Ballads," by Lock- 
l^^urt, L 313; characteristic speci- 
mens of the work, 315 

Anderson, Rev. John, cited, L 5 

Andrews, Mr., sees Lord Lyttelton's 
death-wraith, iL 347 

Apuleius cited, L 415 

Aristotle as a critic, L 169 

Arnold, Matthew, on the position of 
Wordsworth and Byron among the 
poets of the day, L 71 noU\ his 
English hexameters, 335, 338; 
cited, 404, iL 402 

Ashburton, Lord, iL 223 note 

Ashburtons, the, iL 300, 312 

Ashley, Lord, ii 181, 191 

Assembly, General, of the Church of 
Scotland, Lockhart on the, i. 223 

Aurelian, iL 373 

Austen, Jane, dted for successful novel- 
writing in youth, L 308 ; iL 310 

Austria, Archdukes John and Louis, 
visit Glasgow in 1816, L 100 





BADSLBY9 Mr^ contributor to the 
QtiarUrfy, it 307. 309» 354 

BaOejTt Philip James, i 63 ; his ac- 
ooant of Lockharf s share in the 
attack on Keats, 196 

Baillie, Covenanter, his ^'Letters 
and Journals," iL 229 

Baillie, Joanna, dted, i 284 

Ballantyne, James, suggested by Scott 
as editor of a new T017 paper, L 
227 ; business relations with Scott, 
39^ 394; adverM opinion of Scott's 
*< Napoleon,''iL x i ; squabbles with 
Caddl over the magnum tfsu^ 60 ; 
as Scott's critic^ 64, 135 ; condemns 
*< Count Robert of Paris," 70 1 first 
acquaintance with Scott, '134 ; 
established as a printer in Edin- 
burgh 135 ; "habitual deference" 
to Soott's oinnion, 136; on his 
brother John's budness capacity, 
14OS his bill transactions with 
Constable, 140; character of his 
work in the printing-oflke, 144; 
retrieves his fortune, 158 

Ballantyne, John, introduced in ** The 
Chaldee Manuscript," L 161 ; visits 
Abbotsford with Lockhart, 210; 
at the Rhymer's Glen, 230, ii. 
1 16 ; appointed manager of Scott's 
publishing company, 137; early 
life, 138; warned by Scott as to 
his business irregularities, 141 ; his 
bill transactions with Constable, 
143, 145 ; death, i. 284, ii. 144 

Ballantynes, the history of their 
relations with Scott, ii. 124 ef 

Balliol College in 1809, i. 34 

Baring, Mrs., ii. 67 

Banow, Sir John, on the feud 
between Blackwood and the Edin- 
burght i. 188; opposed to Lock- 
hart's appointment as editor of the 
Quarter fyt 371 ; on Canning's sus- 

I^dons of Lockhart, ii 9; agnest 

of Lockhart, 78, 192 
Bayley, Bir., Scott's Vtgjd agent, iL 

X49 uaU^ x6i, 163, X64, 166, xyo 
Beattle, Dr., his '*Life of Thomas 

CampbeU," ii. 273 
Bedfoid,Gro«veno r ,ci t ed lor SaaSdbef% 

wdneat fax a new Qoarteriy, L 359 
Begbi^ the murdered bank poitcf, i* 

Beke, Charies Tilstone, his "^Oiigiiiet 

BibUoe," iL IQ3 
Belhaven, Lord, IL 292, 392 
Bdsoni. Giovanni Pf tttiirfn. vlrfts 

Lockhart, L 56 
Bentham, Jeremy, iL 99^ 278 
Bentinck, Lord Georgie^ IL 313 
Bentley, hir., publisher, iL ^ 
Berketey* Hon. Grantky, VL 318 
Biblical criticism, Lodduut 00, fi. 

Burrell, Dr., dted lor rrofcsaor 

Leslie's Hebrew, L 252 mti 
** Black Dwar( The," condemned bf 

BCr. BbdLwood, L X2i 
Blackstones, the Gredc and Latin, 


Blackwood, William, pays Lockhart 
;^30o for a translation of Schlegel's 
" Lectures on the History of Litera- 
ture," i. 1 18 ; starts his magazine, 
119; his relations with Lockhart 
and Wilson, 120; condemns "The 
Black Dwarf," 121 ; communicates 
with Lockhart in Germany, 128 
note\ quarrels with the editors of 
his magazine, 145; inserts **The 
Chaldee Manuscript," 155 ; intro- 
duced therein, 158 ; his character, 
221 ; his attitude towards Lock- 
hart's "Valerius," 292, 356 noU\ 
his own editor, 380, iL 78, 80; 
death, 81, 103 

Blackwood* s Magaxine^ inception of, 
i. 112; its production, 119; early 



contributors, lao; its early years, 
126 ; attacks Coleridge, 146 ; way- 
wardness, 148 ; onslaught on Leigh 
Hunt, 152 ; article on " The Cock- 
ney School," 154 ; not Cavalier in 
politics, 163 ; attack on Keats, 195 

Blessington, Lady, ii. 80 

Bobola, Polish Jesuit, his beatifica- 
tion, ii. 371 

Boileau, cited for the classical prin- 
ciples of his school, i. 172 

Boissy, Madame de. Set Guicdoli. 

Bonaparte, Louis Napoleon, ii. 199 ; 
in the Revolution of 1S48, 319, 

Bonaparte, Napoleon, his death- 
struggle with Europe, i. 61 

Borthwickbrae, his sudden death, 
ii. 71 

Boswell, Sir Alexander, his opinion 
of T%e Btacon newspaper, i. 283 ; 
killed in a duel, 294 

Bothwell Brig, the battle of, i. 9 

Bower, Johnny, the guide of Melrose 
Abbey, L 232 

Boyd, Dr. (of St. Andrews), on Walter 
Scott Lockhart, ii. 177 

Boyle, Dr. (Dean of Salisbury), his 
recollections of Lockhart, ii. 400 

Bradley, A. C, cited for Lockhart 's 
matriculation at Glasgow Univer- 
sity, i. 20 

Breadalbane, Lord, iL 187 

Brewster, Sir David, writes for 
Blackwood^ i. 145 ; introduced in 
" The Chaldee Manuscript," 159 ; 
threatened by "Calvinus" in 
BlcLckwood^ 166; visits Lockhart 
at Chiefswood, ii 78 

Brewster, Lady, i. 341 

Bridges, Robert, on Keats, i. 247 

Brighton, Lockhart's description oU i. 

Broderick, Mr., contributor to the 
Quarterly^ ii. 192 

Brodie, Sir Benjamin, Lockhart's 
medical adviser, ii. 206, 299, 300, 

Bronte, Charlotte, opinions of her 
"Jane Eyre," ii. 307 

Brougham and Vaux, Henry Brough- 
am, Lord, ii. 294 ; his attachment 
to Lola Montes, 324, 327, 342 

Browne, Mr., his ** History of the 
Highland Clans," ii. 55 

Browning, Robert, il 254 

Bruce, King Robert, knights Simon 
Locard of Lee, L 4 

Brysson, Mr., concerned in the Pent- 
land Rising, i. 8, 9 

Buccleuch, Duke of, guarantees a 
loan of ;i"40oo to Scott, i. 393 ; iL 
141, 143 ; in London society, 78 

Buccleuch, Duchess of, ii. 325 

Buchanan, Mr., i. 114, 116 

Buckland, William (Dean), ii. 103 

Bulwer. See Lytton-Bulwer 

Bunsen, Christian Charles Josias, 
Baron von, ii. 262 

Burgon, Dean, assigns to Patrick 
Fraser Tytler the authorship of 
*'The Songs of the Edinburgh 
Troop," 227 HoU, 334 

Bume, the minstrel, quoted, i. 32 

Bumey, Frances (Madame d'Arblay), 
cited for successful novel-writing in 
youth, i. 308; detection of the 
imposture about her age, ii. 214 

Bums, Robert, his alliance with the 
** Moderates *' in religion, L 174; 
dted for hw** Holy Fair," 181, 223; 
anecdote as to his being offered 
employment on the Morning 
Chronicle^ iL 12; Lockhart's Life» 
25 ; difficulty of writing on him, 
26 ; names his mare after Jenny 
Geddes, 230 

Bums, Mrs. , receives a pension from 
Maule of Panmure, L 215 

Bums, Captain, iL 80 

3 D 



Biimsy Colond Glencaim, introduced 

at Abbotsford, u. 73 
Buy, Lady Charlotte, iL S4 
Byron, Lord, his literary work abont 
1813, L 61, 73 ; Blackwood refoaes 
Ikfa^^'s article attacking him, 
133; an admirer of Coleridge's 
" Christabel," 140 ; fiivonrably im- 
pressed with the works of Matorin, 
148; parodied in the ^'Luctns," 
256; joins Leigh Hant in producing 
Tks LOenU, 311 ; his use of the 
cttatfarimOf 329 ; on John Murray's 
seal of his profi^Le, 37a ; attacked 
fay Leigh Hunt, iL 82 ; value of his 
correspondence, 273 ; protected fay 
Lockhart from the assaults of 
Maginn, 275 

Cadell, Mr., publisher, dted, i. 383 
note; preferred fay Scott to Con- 
stable, 389; diitrnsts the success 
of a new edition of Shakespeare, 
396; desires Scott to continue it, 
it 13; suggests the completion of 
his introductions and notes to the 
mqgnum opuf, 58; his squabbles 
with James BaUantyne regarding 
the work, 60; makes Scott a 
formal offer for "Reliquiae Trot- 
cosienses," 64 ; condemns "Count 
Robert of Paris," 70, 73, and note ; 
dines with Lockhart, 80, 90; 
advances ;^30,ooo on the security 
of Scott's copyrights and literary 
remains, 100, 114; assists Lock- 
hart in his Life, 115; urges him to 
write a book of Reminiscences of 
Scott, 119; on Scott's relations 
with the Ballantynes, 131 ; his 
evidence as to the relation between 
Scott and the Ballantynes, 132 
€t seq. ; correspondence with Lock- 
hart on the Ballantyne '* Refuta- 
tion," 159; his proposed pictorial 

edition of the Waf«rley Novels^ 

202 ; boys Uie ramaining shares of 

the copyiii^ts in the noiveli^ 297 ; 

remonstrates with Lockhart as to 

excessive smoking, 369 
Caldeioii, compared willi Goetb^ L 

Cambridge, Duke o( ii. 306 
Campbell, Dykes, his abortive 

attempt to unravel the Scott- 

Ballantyne tangle, il 169 
Campbdl, Thomas, poet, dted, L 278 

noUi a guest ol^ Lodcharfs, fi. 

78 ; hisaverdon to general society, 

82; Life o( fay Dr. Beattie, 273 ; 

his cocrespondenoe of little morit, 

Campbell of Blythswood, iL 78 

Canina, Italian ardiitect, iL 373 

Canning, Geoige^ meets Loddiait, L 

346> 347> 3$5 ; s«id to firaoor liim 
for the editorship of die Qtmritrfy^ 
366; supposes Scott to appeal to 
the populace in his "Mala^owtiier 
Letters," 40Z ; meets him at a 
dinner at Croker's, 413; his aos- 
(ucions of Lockhart, iL 6 ; )iis i^y 
to Scott's letter on behalf of the 
latter, 7 ; convinced of the erro- 
neousness of his suspidons, 8 ; his 
death, 18, 193 
Canning, Miss Stratford, one of Miss 
Charlotte Lockhart's bridesmaids, 

ii. 300 

Canning, Sir Stratford, iL 300 

Carlyle, Alexander, iL 224 

Carlyle, Thomas, dted for the char- 
acter of Wilson ("Christopher 
North "), i. 94, 237 ; his sympathy 
with Lockhart, 124 ; his hatred of 
sceptidsm, 174; compared with 
Lockhart, 218, 220, 346; on the 
staff of Fraser^s MagastirUt ii. 79 ; 
thinks Lockhart *' dandiacal/' 82, 
91, 124 ; his review of the tatter's 



"Life of Scotl," 119; dtcd for 
literary style, 123; 153, 183, 185; 
his attachment to Lockhart, 223, 
409; his review of the latter's 
** Life of Bums," 223 ; description 
of Lockhart, 223 ; urges Mr. Elwin 
to write a Life of the latter, 224 ; 
offers *' Chartism " to Lockhart for 
the Quarterly f 227 ; in search of 
books for a work on the Cove- 
nanters, 229; on Jenny Geddes, 
230; on the great Montrose, 231 ; 
on the Quctrterfy article on copy- 
right, 232; on the death of his 
wife's mother, 233 ; on Scotch 
thrift, 236 ; on servitude, 237 ; his 
••Past and Present," 238; char- 
acter of his correspondence, 240; 
on the gifted Gilfillan, 240, 249; 
as an essayist, 258, 273 ; kindly 
treated by the Quarter iy^ 287, 

Camithers, Dr., dted, i. 277 note 

Carterhaugh, i. 210 

Castillo, Ferdinand de, his '•Can- 
donero" consulted by Lockhart 
for his •• Spanish Ballads," L 314 

Catholic question, the, ii. il, 32 

Catlin, Mr., his proposed expedition 
to the Rocky Mountains, ii. 193 

Cavaignac, Louis Eugene, ii. 242 

Cay, John, his collection of Lockhart's 
drawings, i. 339 ; ii. 81 

Cervantes, Lockhart on, i. 307 

Chaffin, Mr., his "Cranboume Chase," 
L 404, 406 

••Chaldee Manuscript, The,*' article 
in Blackwood, its authorship claimed 
by Hogg, i. 155 ; Lockhart's state- 
ment regarding, 157 ; analysis of 
the article, 158; commotion in 
Edinburgh on its publication, 161 ; 
withdrawn by Blackwood, 162 

Chalmers, Dr. Thomas, L 164; at- 
tacked in BUukwood for his con- 

nection with the Edinburgh^ 182 ; 

and the Contessina, ii. 188 
Chambers, Robert, iL 233 
Chamfort as a critic, L 169 
Changamier, Nicholas Th^odule, in 

the Revolution of 1848, iL 322 
Chantrey, Sir Francis Legatt, ii. 37, 

Chapelain, M., i. 416 

Charles L, Carlyle on, ii. 231 

Charles II., dted, i. 153 

Charles Edward, Prince, proclaims 
in Edinburgh James VIIL, L 230 ; 
ii 69 note 

Cheney, Henry, ii. 346 

Christie, Jonathan H., college friend 
of Lockhart at Oxford, i. 34, 36 ; 
on the estrangement between Lock- 
hart and Sir William Hamilton, 
35 ; his description of Lockhart as 
an undergraduate, 36; affection 
existing between him and Lockhart, 
59 ; his projected novel, 71 ; londy 
position among lovers of poetry, 
73 ; hears tales to Professor Wilson's 
disadvantage, 94 ; adopts the law 
as a profession, 1 10 ; his distaste for 
Mr. Blackwood, 119, 250; meets 
Keats, 198 ; consulted by Lockhart 
as to the editorship of a Tory paper, 
226; congratulates Lockhart on 
his approaching marriage, 231 ; his 
conduct in the quarrel between 
Lockhart and John Scott, 259 et 
seq, ; his duel with the latter, 274; 
why he fought, 281 ; acquitted at 
the trial, 282; visits Lockhart at 
Chiefewood, 285 ; on Lockhart's 
love of children, 292; on Byron 
and Leigh Hunt, 31 1 ; on "Reginald 
Dalton," 312 ; visited by Lockhart 
in London, 346, 382; ii 209, 341 ; a 
guest of Lockhart, 77, 78, 81, 181, 
293; goes to Commemoration at 
Oxford with the latter, 183, 274; 



aeoomponiet Lockhart to the Con- 
tinent, 319, 330, 335, 385, 3S7, 

Christie, Mifs Sophia, one of Miss 

Charlotte Lockhart's bridesmaids, 

ii 300 

<« Christopher North." Set Wilson, 
Professor John 

Cicero, iL 273 

Clarence, Duke o^ iL 20, 32 

Qarkson, Dr., iL 396 

Qeghom, Mr., editor of the Edm" 
btirgk MonAfy Magmnt^ L 143 ; 
quarrels with Blackwood, 145, 
149 ; introduced in *' The Chaldee 
Manuscript," 158 

Clergymen, Scottish, anecdotes o( i. 

Qerk, Mr., sketched by Lockhart in 
BUukwood^ L 209; iL 115 

Clottgh, Arthur Hu^, quoted, L 59 ; 
on Lockhart's son, iL 293 

Clowes, Messrs., iL 317 

Cochrane^ Mr., publidier, iL xii noU 

Codcbum, Lord, dted for the politics 
of bis time, L 122 ; accuses Scott 
of encouraging the malignant 
attacks in Blackwood^ 194; on 
Jeffrey as a critic, 224 ; a volun- 
teer, 227 

"Cockney Schoor* of poets, the, i. 

Cocquerel, M., French Protestant 

preacher, ii. 320 

Colbum, Mr., ii. 24 

Coleridge, Henry, his work on 
Homer, ii. 93 ; on the authorship 
of "The Doctor," loi 

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, borrows 
money from Byron on the strength 
of "Christabel," L 62; cited for 
the literary spirit of the age, 8x ; 
publication of "Christabel" and 
<'Kubla Khan," 139; attacked 
by the Edinburgh^ 141 ; and by 

BlaekwQod^ 146; his criticism of 
Bfaturin's "Beitiam," 147; on 
his journal 7%i Friend^ 209 ; de- 
fended by Lockhart, 220; dted 
by John Scott in the attadc on 
Lockhart, 255, 258; compared 
with the latter, 317; Lockhart's 
estimate of him, 346; sogg^edby 
Soathey as editor of the Quarteriy^ 
359; appointed editor, 360; dk- 
approved of by Manay, 366^ 369 ; 
superseded as editor by Lodchart, 
371 ; attada the unity of Homer, 
iL 28; on Mrs. Lockhart, 29; on 
Hook, 29 ; on the staff of Frmt^s 
Mttgaaim^ 79, 82, 87; on die 
anthorriiip of *' The Doctor," loa ; 
00 Shaknpeare's use of a villain, 
IG4; story of a revd in whidi 
he figured, 268, 336 ; his ''Table 
Talk," 285 % negUgenoe of his own 
genius, 286, 287 

Coles, Rev. Mr., L 177 

Colonsay, Lord. Su M'NeiU, Duncan 

Cohrin, Sidney, dted for the dad 
between Christie and John Soott, 
279 note ; thinks Lodchart lietmyed 
Keats to the author of a Blackwood 
attack upon the latter, iL 400 

Condorcet, his theories denounced by 
the Edinburgh^ i. 174 

Confudus, dted, ii. 290 

Connell, Professor, quoted for life at 
Oxford, i. 59 ; dted, 69, 97 

Connor, Mr., L 103 

Constable, Archibald, written to by 
Lockhart regarding a Scottish 
novel, L 72; in opposition to 
Blackwood^ 128 note^ 149 ; accepts 
the services of the first editors of 
BUtckwoody 145 ; introduced in 
**The Chaldee Manuscript," 158; 
his shop in Edinburgh, 221 ; pub- 
lishes Lockhart's *' Don Quixote," 
307 ; his scheme for the issue of 



cheap literature, 352 ; doubts as to 
his financial stability, 373 ; failure, 
387; his struggle to raise money, 
387; abandons hope, 390; his 
sanguine temperament, 392; his 
bill transactions, 393 ; how treated 
in the "Life of Scott," ii. 124; 
his relations with Scott and the 
Ballantynes, 126 et seq. 
Constable, Thomas, quoted for the 
origin of Scott*s "Life of Na- 
poleon," i. 352; for his father's 
temper, 388; for his bill transac- 
tions, 390^ 393 note ; cited for the 
&te of Scott's *' Shakespeare," ii. 


Conyngham, Lady, iL 20 

Cooke, Miss Louisa, dted in the 

Edinlmrghf i. 178 
Cooper, James Fenimore, Lockhart's 

estimate of him as a novelist, i. 415 ; 

adversely reviews the *'Life of 

Scott," iL 125 
Coplestone, Dean, ii. 330 
Copp^, M., quoted, L 322 
Copyright Bill of 1842, the, iL 

Correggio, ii. 188 

Cousin, Victor, i. 171 note 

Coutts, Miss Burdett, becomes ac- 
quainted with Lockhart, ii. 183 

Covenant, Lockhart's ancestors under 
the, L 7 

Cowan, Mr., ii. 61 

Cowper, William, L 337; value of 
his correspondence, iL 273 

Crabbe, George, visits Scott in Edin- 
burgh, i. 304 ; on Lockhart, 305 ; 
an occasional guest of the latter, 
iL 78, 99 ; on Scott's imitation of 
him, 264 ; quoted, 331 

Craig, Sir James Gibson, on Con- 
stable's bill transactions, i. 393 

Craik, Henry, CB., winner of a 
Blackstone, i. 26 

Cranstoun, Mr., dted, L 209, 238 

Criticism, Lockhart on the German 
method of, ii. 263 

Croker, John Wilson, dted for the 
editorial quarrel with Blackwood, 
L 146, 185 ; tries to enlist the 
services of Lockhart and Wilson 
for a new Tory paper, 226 ; cited 
for the authorship of " Valerius,** 
291 ; opposed to Lockhart's ap- 
pointment as Editor of the 
Quarterly y 371 ; his interest in 
that review, 379, 381 ; cited by 
Scott, 401 ; breakfasts ^ith the 
latter, 413; his interest in the 
Quarterly, ii. 2 ; recondled to 
Peel, 19 ; attempts to connect 
Lockhart with ** the Reptile Press," 
50; reports on the Stuart papers, 
55 ; takes part in the debate on 
Reform, 66; attacked by Disraeli 
in ** Coningsby,*' 77 ; in the House 
of Commons, 97 ; asks Peel for 
preferment for Milman, 105, 191 ; 
190, 192 ; depicted in "Coningsby," 
199; attacked by Macaulay, 214; 
on Milman's Quarterly artide on 
the Oxford Movement, 218, 246; 
his interpolations in Lord Stan- 
hope's article on the French 
Revolution, 250, 254 ; on Donald- 
son's ** Comparative Anatomy of 
Language," 260; his **Boswell," 
^5> 307 ; offended by the second 
review on Tennyson, 287 ; a guest 
of Lockhart, 293, 304, 315, 326, 
328 ; Uhiess, 353 

Cromek, Mr., iL 270 

'* Crossing," the practice of, at Oxford, 
i. 46 

Cruikshank, George, iL 182 

Cumberland, Duke of, ii. 57 

Cunningham, Allan, Lockhart's 
"Bums" dedicated to him and 
Hogg, iL 26, 107 ; his biography 



of Sir Dftvid WiUde, 270; his 

death, 194, 290 
Curtis, Sir WiUiam, at the visit of 

Geoige IV. tp Edinbnigh, L 503 
Cavier, it 99 

D'Alkmbbrt, described by the Edin' 
burgh as a " penudons writer," L 

Dalyell, Graham, attacked in **The 

Chaldee," in Blackwood^ L 10; 

receives compensation therefor, 16a, 


Dalyell, Tom, at the battle of Both- 
well Brig, L 9 

Dante, compared with Goethe, L 
172; Lodchart's appreciation of 
his poetry, iL 403 

D'Arblay, Madame. Su Bumey, 

Darling, Dr., attends John Scott after 
his dnel with Christie, t 276 note 

Davison, husband of Miss Duncan 
the actress, L 66 

Davy, Rev. D., ridiculed by Lock- 
hart, i 50 

Davy, Sir Humphrey, his '*Salmonia," 

Davy, Lady, ii. 301, 302, 31 1, 388, 393 

Defoe, Daniel, Lockhart on, i. 116 

De Maistre, ii. 222 

Denison, Lady C, ii. 370 

Depping, consulted by Lockhart for 

his "Ancient Spanish Ballads,'* i. 

De Quincey, Thomas, described by 

Lockhart, i. 97 ; on Hogg and 

**The Chaldee," ISS; cited, 213; 

writes to Lockhart on literary 

schemes, iij. 46 ; suspected of being 

the author of " The Doctor," loi ; 

described by Dr. Moir as the greatest 

master of language, 278 

Derby, Lord, cited for the use of the 

Englbh hexameter, i. 337 

Desart, Earl and Countess of, iL 312 
De Stael, Mme., asserts the greatest 

freedom she has found to be in the 

Bastille^ iL 237 
De Vere, Aubrqr Thomas, poet and 

political writer, iL 331 
Didcens, Charles, meets Lockhart, iL 

182, 310 
Dilke, Charles Wentworth, attributes 

the Blackwood artkde on ''The 

Cockney School" to Lockhart, L 


Disraeli, Benjamin, his project for a 
new daily paper, 363; goes to 
Scotland on a visit to Scott and 
Lockhart, 364 ; represents to Soott 
the objections raised to Lockhart 
as editor of the Quarterfy^ 369^ 
372 ; christens Murrajr's new paper 
the H^n^Htatioe^ 586; attacks 
Croker, iL 77; on Loddiart, 77; 
his '* Coningsl^," 199 

Disraeli thfe elder, a guest of Lode- 
hart, iL 77 

Don, Sir V^liam, saves Loddiait's 
life, iL 333 

Donaldson, Mr., his QuarUriy artide, 

D'Orleans, Madame, in the Revolution 
of 1848, ii. 322 

D'Orsay, Alfred, Comte, ii. 80 

Douglas, Lord James, slain fighting 
the Saracens in Spain, i. 4 

Douglas, Mr. David, ii. 118 note 

Douglas, Scott, on Lockhart*s "Life 
of Bums," ii. 27 

Douglas, the Black, i. 4 

Dow, Mr., ii. 278 

Doyle, Mrs., on Lockhart*s fondness 
for his grandchild, ii. 393 

Drummond, Home, of Blair Drum- 
mond, L 192 ; iu 278 

Dudley, Lord, ii. 77 

Dufferin, Lord, ii. 411 

Dumergues, the, ii. 78, 81 



Duncan, Miss, actress, L 66 
Dundas of Amiston, at the farewell 

dinner to Lockhart, L 375 
Dunlop, Mr. George, il 287 note 

Eastlakb, Mr., ii. 333 

Eastlake, Lady, on Lockhart, L 169 ; 
the latter's sketch of her, 342 ; the 
obituary notice of Lockhart in the 
Tj'm^r attributed to her and Dean 
Milman, iL 400, 404. See sdso 
Rigby, Miss 

Eastlakes, the, ii. 388 

Edgeworth, Maria, visits Abbotsford, 
i. 309; assists Lockhart with the 
" Janus'' magazine, 356; letters 
from Lockhart, ii 173, 181, 185, 

29s. 297, 301, 3«o 
Edinburgh booksellers, Lockhart on, 

I 221 

Edinburgh, its brilliant literary 

character in 18 15, i. 63, 92 ; its 

physical aspect, 91 
Edinburgh Monthly Magaune^ its 

features, i. 143 
Edinburgh Review^ the, as viewed 

by the Edinburgh Tories, I 122, 

149 ; derides Wordsworth, 123 ; 

its review of « Christabel," 141 ; 

on religion, 173 
Edward L, i. 4 
Eglinton, Earl of, iL 312 
Eglintoun Tournament, the, iL 211 
EildonHiU, L 211 
Ellenborough, Lord, iL 221 
Ellice, Mr., concerned in the negotia* 

tions as to Lockhart's prospective 

editorship of the Qwirttrly, L 366, 

Ellis, George, ii. 30 

Ellis, H., iL 304, 357. 379, 3^6 
Ellis, Mrs. Charles, ii. 348 
Elmsley, Mr., of Cambridge, i. 87 
Elwin, Mr., urged by Carlyle to write 

a Life of.Lockhart,iL224; editor 

of the Quarterly, 337 
English, Dr., ii. 383 
Enys, Mr., of Enys, ii. 399 
Erasmus, ii. 273 
Erskine, Henry, assists in establishing 

the Scotsman newspaper, i. 122 
Erskine, William (Lord Kinnedder), 

one of the literary coterie at Chiefii- 

wood, i. 285 % his death, 304 
Escott, Mr., iL 318 
•* Ettrick Shepherd, The." See Hogg, 

Everett, Edvrard, his description of 

Miss Sophia Scott, L 231 
Ewald, German critic, iL 261 
Exeter, Marquess of, ii. 312 

Faed, his picture of Sir Walter Scott 
and his Friends, iL 278 

Falconer, C. M., finds some corre- 
spondence of Scott, L 239 note ; iL 

Fanshawe, Miss, her imitations of 
Wordsworth, L 104 

Fazakerley, Miss, ii. 386 

Featherstonehaugh, Lady, ii. 341 

Ferguson, Sir Adam, introduces 
Colonel Glencaim Bums at Abbots- 
ford, ii. 73; in Wilkie's painting 
of Scott with his Family, 272, 278 ; 
kind treatment of Lady Scott, 298 

Ferguson, Lady, ii. 304 

Fergusson, James, Court of Session, 

»• 349, 352 
Fergusson, Dr. (afterwards Sir) 

William, L 194; iL 82, 213, 345, 

3^, 385. 393 
Fergusson, Mrsi^ iL 194 

Ferriar, James, Qerk of Session, L 

350. 352 
Ferrier, Professor, on the authorship 

of *'The Chaldee Blanoscript," L 

157 ; dted, 166 

Fichte, sketched by Lockhart, L 1x9 



Ftemingp Rev. Mt.» of Ra]fris« I 

Fletcher, Mr., aa^tts in ettabUihiBg 

the S<oUmaH^ i. xas 
Forbes, Sir John, iu 401 
Ford, Mr., oontribotor to the Qmat' 

Urly^ ii. 19s 
Forman, Mr., dted for the anthonhip 

of the Bkukm^ad aitide on "The 

Codmejr School," i 154 
Forty-fi^e, the pait taken by Lode> 

hart's ancestors during, Lit 
Foster, Mr., craniologist, L 107 
Fox, Mn., iL 174 
Fox, Mrs. Lane, 11 365 
Fraser, Mr., Carlyle and Lockhart 

meet at a dinner at his hoose, &• 

223, 239 
I^huer^s Maganntt its first contri- 
butors, it 79 
Fhoer, Sir William, quoted, i. 349 
Frere, John Hookham, suspected of 

being the author of " Hie Doctor,*' 

il lox 
Fxoissart, L 414, 415 
Fhmde, James Anthony, quoted, L 

219$ dted for his "Carlyle,'* iL 

126 ; and for Carlyle's attachment 

to Lockhart, 224, 243; quoted, 


Galignani pirates Scott's "Lives 
of the Novelists," i. 414 

Gait, John, character of his novels, i. 
75 ; his romance of " The Omen " 
suspected by Scott to be by Lock- 
hart, 348, 397 ; meets Lockhart in 
London society, ii. 77 ; on the staff 
of Fraser' s Magazine^ 79 ; his " Life 
of Byron, "96 

Garden, Mrs., ii. 107, III note 

Gaskell, Mrs., ii. 307 

Gautier, Th^ophile, compared with 
Lockhart, i. 319 ; cited, 348 

Geddes, Jenny, ii. 230 

Geikie^ Mt;, his ^'Ufe of Mmdiisoii** 
dted, IL 187 

GeU, Sir WlUiain, died for SMf s 
last days in Italy, L 207 

George IV. proclaimed in Edinbuigfa, 
I 230; visits that dty, 903; In 
possession of the Stnait pftpeis, & 
54 % his death expected, 61 j ijffsoit* 
rous behaviour to Sir Davkl WUkie, 

Gibson, Rev. John, Lodchart's mater* 
nai grandfiither, i xx 

Gibson, John, ii. X63 

Giffixrd, Lord, fi. 77, 8x 

Gifford, Lady, IL 78 

Giffofd, Miss Caroline^ one of Miss 
Oiartotte Lodchart^ bridesmaids, 

Gifford, William, Lockhaif s estknate 
of him as a critic, L X69; attached 
by Hazlitt, 254; on Lodduut'a 
"Andent Spanish Ballads,** 319; 
meets Loddiart in London, 546; 
dedining health, 359 ; as edtttdr of 
the Quariitfy^ 252, 281 

Gilbert, W. S., quoted, L 3x5 

GilfiUan, his estimate of Lockhart, fi. 

Gillies,' R. P., assists in establishing 
the Scotsman^ i. 1 22; cited for 
"Faust" translations, 245, 330; 
his ''Recollections of Sir Walter 
Scott." ii. 12 

Gladstone, W. E., thought of by 
Lockhart for a Quarterly article on 
Newman, iL 219 ; supports the re- 
moval of the Jewish disabilities, 
309 ; " shocked " at the Quarterly 
article on Junius, 346; thought 
likely to cause the break-up of 
Lord Aberdeen's Coalition Govern- 
ment, 3S9 

Glasgow, its sordid ignorance in the 
time of Lockhart, L 78 ; description 
of a ball in 1815, 81 



Glasgow College at the beginning of 
the nineteenth century, 20; the 
Greek and Latin Blackstones, 25 ; 
the Snell Exhibitions, 26; specimen 
of a college edict, icx> 

Gleig, G. R., cited for Lockhart's 
childhood and youth, i. 14, 18, 22, 
23. 25, 43» 48, 57 ; a college friend 
of Lockhart, 34; cited for the 
latter's German tour, 118 and ncU; 
for the responsibility of the Blatk- 
wood attacks on the Lake poets, 
137 ; for the attack on Keats, 197, 
198; quoted, 329; his " Subaltern*' 
reviewed by Lockhart, 416; an 
occasional guest of the latter, ii. 
78 ; on Lockhart's position in 
London society, 81 ; on his sup- 
posed neglect of old friends, 83, 
179, 183, 209 ; his article on Lock- 
hart in the Quarterly dted, 248, 
318, 345, 368 ; avers that Lockhart 
starved himself, 366; on Lock- 
hart's religious ideas, 396, 402 

Gleig, Colonel, ii. 248 note 

Glover, Dr., ii. 55 

Goderich, Lord (afterwards 1st Earl 
of Ripon), ii. 193 

Godolphin, Lord, ii. 380 

Goethe, dted, i. 192; admired by 
Lockhart, 219, ii. 99, 273 

Gooch, Dr., ii. 54 

Gordon, Sir A., ii. 85 

Gordon, General, smoking his one 
vice, ii. 369 

Gordon, Watson, his picture of Pro- 
fessor Wilson, ii. 28 1 

Gordon, Mrs. (daughter of Professor 
John Wilson), quoted for the rela- 
tions existing between Blackwood 
and Wilson, i. 121 ; errors in her 
** Life of Christopher North," 134 ; 
dted for the quarrel between 
Blackwood and his editors, 145, 
146; for the supposed attack of 

the Edinburgh on religion, 186; 
for the amenities of the Scotsman^ 
239; on Wilson's lines on Lock- 
hart, 329; cited for the original 
idea of "Janus," 356 note\ on 
Lockhart's supposed neglect of old 
friends, il 83, 179, 367, 410 

Goulbum, Henry, statesman, receives 
a piece of Scott's composition from 
Croker, i. 146 

Grahame, Mr., assists in establishing 
the Scotsman^ i. 122; the '*Cal- 
vinus " of Blachuoodf 166 

Grant, Sir Francis, his portrait of 
Lockhart, ii. 329, 337 

Grant, (afterwards Sir) Frands, ii. 

278, 388 
Grant, Mgr., ii. 355 
Grant, Mrs., ii. 388 
Grant, Miss Isabella, one of Miss 

Charlotte Lockhart's bridesmaids, 

ii. 300 

Gray, poet, value of his correspond- 
ence, ii. 273 

Gray, Mr., iu 278 

Greenshields, Mr., sculptor, ii. 41 

Grimm, Mr., German antiquary, fol- 
lowed by Lockhart in his ** Spanish 
BalUds." i. 314 

Guest, Mr., his '* History of English 
Rhythms " dted, I 334 

Gtticdoli, Countess (Lord Byron's mis- 
tress), dines with Louis Napoleon 
Bonaparte, iL 320 

Guizot, dines with Lockhart and 
Croker, ii. 315 ; on political pros- 
pects in France, 327; on Louis 
Napoleon, 327 

Gustavus, Prince, of Sweden, present 
at the proclamation of George IV. 
in Edinburgh, L 230 

"Guy Mannering," its authorship 
attributed by Lockhart to Sir 
Walter Scott, i. 80 ; sold to Messrs. 
Longman, 143 







Hagbn, PirofesBor Charles, L 31 

Haggaid, Rider, cited, ii. 194 noie 

Hall, Captain Basil, his Journal, L 
3^ ; an occasional guest of Lode* 
hart's, iL 78; dted for Scott's 
confidence in Mr. Caddl, 133 mete ; 
his pugnacity where the United 
States were concerned, 323 

Hall, S* C, on the H^resetUative 
paper, 1386 

Hallam, Henry, protests against the 
Quartirfy review of his " Constitu- 
tional History," L 379 ; as a writer, 
ii 191, 381 

Hamilton, Sir Robert, conunander of 
the Covenanting army at Bothwdl 
Bridge, i. X09 

Hamilton, Rowan, and the story of 
Lord Lyttelton's fiunous ghost, iL 

Hflimilton, Thomas, gives a collection 

of Lockhart's drawings to Lady 
Brewster, L 341 ; his death, ii 194, 

Hamilton, Sir William, a Snell Ex- 
hibitioner, i 26; at Oxford, 33, 
34 ; his kindness to Lockhart, 43, 
92 ; studies magic, 56 ; with Lock- 
hart in London, 65 ; and in Glas- 
gow, 66 ; in Edinburgh, 75, 1 16 ; 
declines to stand for the Humanity 
Chair in Glasgow, 78; becomes a 
member of the Antiquarian Society 
of Edinburgh, 83; "Aristotle the 
Second," 87 ; collaborates with 
Lockhart in doing into English 
"the Relation" of the battle of 
Waterloo, 96 ; an elder of the 
Kirk, 105 ; his baronetcy, 109 ; at 
Leipzig with Lockhart, I18 notei 
introduced in "The Chaldee Manu- 
script,*' 161 ; his review of Cousin, 
171, 218; estrangement between 
him and Lockhart, 204; his can- 
didature for the Chair of Moral 

Philosc^iliy, 237 1 Lodchait^ oari- 

catuxesofhim, 341 
Hamiltoiis, the, their fend with the 

Widcetshaw Loddiaxts, i 6 
Hannay, Mr., his success at a bar- 
rister, i 84, 97 
Hannay, David, fovouxafaly impteswd 

with Lockhart's " Andent Spanish 

Ballads," i 3x4 
Hardwicke, Lord, ii 311, 313 
Hastang, Ridiard, asks the lands of 

Simon Locard from Edward L* 

Hawthorne, Nathanid, his ^'Scarlet 
Letter" compared with Loddmt's 
<« Adam Kahr,** 301 
Hay, Robert WOliaa, ii 249 
Hay, Mr. Robort, ii 357. 370t 371. 

37*1 374. 376 

Haydon, Benjamin Robert, painter, 
on the personal aspect of Lodchait, 
i i6b 248; dted for Lodchaifa 
love of misdiief, Z20b 249 ; com- 
plains of the tatter's critidsBis in 
the Edmhttrgk^ 127 ; attacked by 
Blackwood, i^ 150; dted, 63, 
382 ; on the Life of Scott, ii 182 ; 
his Memoirs dted, 366, 367 

Hayward, Abraham, dted for the use 
of Lockhart's "Valerius" as a 
handbook in America, i 289 naie ; 
on the relations of rank and litera- 
ture, ii. 84, 183 ; Lockhart's interest 
in him, 191 

Hazlitt, William, unfitted for sodety, 
i. 17 ; suspected of the authorship 
of the Edinburgh review of Cole- 
ridge's "Christabel" and "KubU 
Khan," 140; as viewed by Lock- 
hart, 203; attacks Giflbrd, 254; 
credited as one of the causes of 
John Scott's fatal duel, 278 ncU\ 
cited, 63, 131, 150, 209, 320; ii 

Heath, the artbt, ii 22 



Heber, Reginald, publishes the 
Whippiad, L 88 ; cited, 319 ; his 
" Narrative of a Journey through 
the Upper Provinces of India" 
reviewed by Lockhart, ii. 21 ; his 
•« Life," 94 

Heber, Mrs., her "Life of Bishop 
Hcber," ii 94, 96 

Hemans, Mrs., cited, L 338 note 

Henley and Henderson, Messrs., 
their edition of Bums, ii. 27 

Henry V., ii. 67, 322 

Heraldry, Lockhart's essay on, L 98 

Herschel, Sir John Frederick William, 

Hertford, Lord, depicted in "Con- 

Hexameters, English, used in trans* 
lations of Homer, i. 334 

Hodgson, Mr., i. 112 

Hogg, James ("The Ettrick Shep- 
herd"), on Lockhart, L 117, 203; 
claims the authorship of "The 
Chaldee Manuscript," 155, 157; 
introduced therein, 160 ; described 
by Lockhart in " Peter's Letters," 
216 ; cited in John's Scott's attack 
on Lockhart, 252, 258; distin- 
guishes himself at St. Ronan's 
Games, 309; at Abbotsford, 310; 
on Moore, 375 ; attempts made to 
serve him, ii. 14, 17 ; Lockhart's 
"Bums" dedicated to him and 
Allan Cunningham, 26, 270 ; his 
relations with Lockhart, 78, 107 ; 
visits London, no; his extra- 
ordinary proposal to Lockhart, 112; 
publishes "Domestic Manners of 
Sir Walter Scott," 113, 277 

Holden, Mr., Walter Lockhart's tutor, 
ii. 196 

Holland, Lord, ii 121 

Holland, Lady, on the quarrel be- 
tween Lockhart and John Scott, i. 
277 note 

Holroyd, Lady Susan, one of Miss 
Charlotte Lockhart's bridesmaids, 
ii 300 

Holt, Mr., ii 330, 360, 377, 385, 386 

Home, David Dunglas, spiritualistic 
medium, ii. 382 

Home, John, his works reviewed by 
Scott, ii 13 

Homer, ii 138 

Homeric criticism, Lockhart on, ii. 

Hook, Theodore Edward, dted as a 
parallel to Lockhart for his early 
literary escapades, i. 131 ; detects 
the pen of Lockhart in ** Valerius," 
190; meets the latter in London, 
346; an idol in society, 373 ; break- 
fasts with Scott, 413 ; declared by 
Coleridge "as trae a genius as 
Dante," ii 29; an associate of 
Lockhart, 78, 82 ; suspected of 
being the author of "The Doc- 
tor," 102; death, 185; domestic 
relations, 193 ; Lockhart's essay on 
him, 265 ; story of a revel in 
which he figured, 268, 336 

Hope, Charles, President of the 
Court of Session, described in 
"Peter's Letters," i. 217 

Hope, J. R. (afterwards Hope-Scott), 
ii 183 ; his marriage to Charlotte 
Lockhart, 290; rents Abbotsford, 
332 ; his conversion to Catholicism, 

338, 349; letters from Lockhart, 

339. 342, 349, 353, 354, 3^4 ; adds 
the name of Scott to his own, 364 ; 
at Lockhart's death, 395 

Hope, Mrs. J. R. (daughter of Lock- 
hart), her conversion to Catholi- 
cism, ii. 338 ; at Lockhart's death, 
395 ; letters from her fother, 293, 
304, 305, 306, 308, 309, 3", 312. 
319. 321. 33a, 340, 345, 350. 352, 
356, 358, 359, 365, 369. 373. 376, 
379, 387, 389. 391. 392 



Hope, Mr. and Mn,, thdr anweaiy- 
ing kiodnesft to Waiter Soott 
Lockhart, U. 317 

Hope, Lady, iL 304, 387 

Hope, Mary Monica. See Soott, 
Mrs. Maxwell 

Hope-Scott, Mr. See Hope, J. R. 

Houghton, Lord, cited, i i^; iL 

Howard, Mr., iL 378 

Hughes, Dr., meets Scott in London, 

L 412 
Ho^es, Mr., a disinherited levlewer 

of Pepys's Journals, L 376, 412 
Hughes, Mr. (a BaUantyi^ trustee), 

cited, ii. I45» »4^ "47f I49 

Hu^es, Mrs., L 355 ; her interests 
on behalf of Lockhart beH^keh 
by Scott, 374; meets the latter 
in London, 412; the confidante 
of Sottthey, ii. 5; anecdotes of 
''Johnnie" Lockhart, 19; on the 
relations of Soathey and Lodchart, 
36; on the family of Mike Lam- 
bourne in " Kenilworth,** 50 n^ie ; 
an intimate associate oi Lockhart, 
78, 82 ; sends the latter a miniature 
of his son Walter, 362 

Hume, David, esteemed by Lockhart 
a representative of Scottish intellect, 
i. 224 ; ii. 1 1 

Hume, Joseph, on Lord John Russell's 
scheme of Reform, ii. 68 

Hunt, James Henry Leigh, im- 
prisoned for libelling the Regent, 
i. 61 ; cited, 63, 99 ; his sonnet on 
the poets, 103 ; the cause of the 
B/acJkwood Siti2icks on Haydon, 127 ; 
personally unknown to Lockhart, 
131; a Liberal in politics, 139; 
attacked by Blackwood^ 146, 150, 
280; his " Literary Pocket-Book," 
151; his ♦'Tale of Rimini," 152; 
believes Scott to be his Blackwood 
assailant, 154, 195; his relations 

whh KeatSy 196, tf9; as miNsdIigr 
Lodchart, 103; Ktalt oouitoed 
by Shdley to be his imitator, 1416 ; 
joins ByiOB in the pvodnctioii of 
The JUbertd paper, 311; sttadES 
Byron, iL 22; and Seott, 24; le* 
▼ei^es himsdf on Moove, 659 v^t 
243; his ''Lord ^lon and lis 
Contemporaries," 285 
Hnrst and Robiiiioii, Meases., pub- 
lishers, their demands on Coastabkb 

'^ 3S7t 39X ff^ 
Httsldnon, Wflliam, statesman, meets 

Seott at a dinner at Croker'a, L 413 

Hyndman, Mr., accompanies Sir W. 

Hamilton and Lockhart on a Oev* 

man tour, L xi8 

Inglis, Vk>let, of Cordioiiseimafriea 

VriX&am Lockhart, L 10 
Innes, Mr., L 97 ; made an elder of 

the Kirk, 106 
Ireland, Jade, dted, i. 88 
Ireland, Miss, L 86 
Irving, Edward, Lodcbart^ estksatie 

of him, L 346 
Irving, G. V., and A. Murray, dted» 


Irving, Washington, suggested by 

Scott as editor of a new Tory 
paper, L 227 ; his '* Abbotsfbrd and 
Newstead Abbey " cited, 233 fwU ; 
advised by Lockhart to try novel- 
writing, 246 ; an occasional guest 
of Lockhart, ii. 78 

James, Rev. Thomas, a contributor 

to the Quarterly^ ii. 401 
Jameson, Anna, writer on art, ii 355 
Jamieson, Professor, introduced in 

"The Chaldee Manuscript," L 159 
"Jane Eyre," Lockhart on, iL 307, 

Jardine, Professor, i. 100 note 
Jeffrey, Francis (Lord), his famous 



dictum in reviewing, i. 62 ; dted 
in a letter of Lockhart's, 69 ; assists 
in establishing the Scotsman^ 122; 
his relations with Coleridge, 139, 
140; tries to enlist the services of 
Wilson for the Edinburgh^ 146; 
as a critic, 149 ; Lockhart*s estimate 
of him as a reviewer, 169; Mr. 
Saintsbury's verdict on his critical 
&calty, 171 ; on Goethe, 172 ; de- 
fends the Edinburgh against the at- 
tacks of Blackufood^ 186 ; sketched 
in " Peter's Letters," 209, 214 ; on 
Sir W. Hamilton's essay on Cousin, 
218 ; his letter of advice to Carlyle, 
219 ; ridicule thrown upon his duel 
with Moore, 264 ; Lockhart's verses 
on him, 320 ; dines with Lockhart, 
81 ; in the House of Commons, 97 ; 
his habit of interpolating contri- 
butions, 247; as editor, 252; on 
Southe/s conceit, 277 

Jenkyns, Dr. (Master of Balliol), his 
influence on the coll^^e, i. 27, 32, 
34; on "Peter's Letters," 225 
note\ examines Lockhart's son at 
Balliol, 209; death, 381, 386 

Jerdan, Mr., ii. 82 

Jerome, St, cited for the story of 
Scotch cannibals, iL 53 

Jobson, Mrs., ii. 78 

Johnson, Samuel, his home at Lich- 
field, i. 30; on the *' merriment of 
parsons," 179 ; quoted for education 
in his day, 216 ; ii. 82 ; as a critic, 
89 ; the flaw in his character, 129, 


Johnstone, Sir A., ii. 187 

Jomandes, cited, i. 215 

Jowett, Dr. (Master of Balliol), 
quoted for the meaning of shyness, 
i. 15; makes his advent at Oxford 
in a round schoolboy's jacket, 27 ; 
the modem activity of Balliol largely 
due to his exertions, 34 

Junius, the question of his identity, ii. 

Kant, Immanuel, cited, L 171 

Kean, Edmund, performs in Edin- 
burgh, i. Ill 

Keats, John, quoted, i. 62 ; a Liberal 
in politics, 139 ; on Leigh Hunt, 
I5'> 154; attacked by Blackwood^ 
154, 195 ; nature of his attachment 
to Leigh Hunt, 197 ; as viewed by 
Lockhart, 203 ; his *' Hyperion," 
246 ; his '* Isabella," 329 ; the re- 
view by the Quarterly ^ iL 87 ; Lock- 
hart's changed opinion of, 401 

Kemble, Frances Anna (Fanny), dines 
with Lockhart in Rome, iL 370, 
372; compared with her sister, 
374 ; her poems, 402 

Ker, Andrew, one of Rizzio's mur- 
derers, ii. 58 

Kestin, Mr., i. 178 

Kingborough, Lord, iL 193 

Kinglake, Alexander William, in 
London society, ii. 86 

Kingsley, Charles, quoted for his use 
of the English hexameter, i. 337 ; 
on the works of Charlotte Bronte, 
iL 307 

Kinneder, Lord. See Erskine, 

Kirkton, Sharpens edition of his 
" History of the Covenant," L 159 ; 
attacked in Blcukwood^ 164 

Knight, Mr., i. 69 

Knighton, Sir William, ii. 18, 36, 

Knowles, James Sheridan, his '* Vir- 
ginius," L 251 

Kreuser, German critic, iL 94 

Lafayette, Jean Paul Roch Gilbert 
Motier, Marquis de, in the Revolu- 
tion of 1830, iL 67 

Laidlaw, Will, cited for Scott's grudge 




againit Mr. Blackwood, L 134, 194 
miii Scott's chief link with ^iSool^ 

. wood, x6o, 877 ^*^» snggcits to 
Scott a novel on Mehose* 309 ; at 
Kaeiide, iL 569 64; warns Lock- 
hart not to alarm Scott in his cor- 
respondence, 66; visits Lockhart 
at Chie&wood, 78 ; early acqadm- 
ance with John Ballantyne, 138; 
anecdote regarding Hogg and 
WiUde, 872; letters from Lock- 
hart, no, 178, aoi 

Laing, Mr., Edinburgh bookseller, L 


Lamartine, anecdote oi, ii 342 

Lamb, Charles, L 63; his "Speci- 
mens of English Dramatic Poets " 
&voiirably regarded by Lockhart, 
77; Edinburgh Whig opinion of 
him, 2x9 

Landor, Walter Savage^ iL 106, 278, 

Landseer, Sir Edwin Henry, on Lock- 
hart's permnal appearance, L 92 ; iL 
329 ; a dinner with him described, 
343 ; presents the Qneen with some 
Dandie Dinmonts, 345, 347 

Lane, Mrs. Fox, ii. 309 

Lange, German critic, ii. 94 

Lardner, Dr. Dionysius, anxious to 
secure Dean Milman's work on 
•• Early Christianity," ii. 92 

La Rochefoucauld, i. 17 ; ii. 285 

Lawrence, Sir Thomas, compared 
with Raebum, i. 222 

Layard, Sir Austen Henry, his 
"Nineveh," ii. 317 

** Lee penny," the, acquired by Simon 
Locard, i. 4 

Leslie, General, at Philiphaugh, i. 21 1 

Leslie, Professor (afterwards Sir) 
John, introduced in "The Chaldee 
Manuscript," i. 161 ; on the attacks 
of Biackwood, 189; his action 
against Mr. Blackwood, 252, 257 

Lessing as a critic L 169 

"Life of Scott," begmi by Loddwit, 
iL 1x4 ; pnUicatkm of the fisat sb 
volames, xx8s criticisms thereon, 
xx8; diaracter of the work, X2if 
its liteiaiy merits, 122 1 oomptsed 
with BoMvdl's " Life of JofaBsoQ,** 
123; demcfits of the woric, 124; 
oatoy caased hj the references to 
the Ballantmes and to Coaslafale. 

126 ^M^. 

Liverpool, Loid, modeiatkMi of Can- 
ning daring Ws Ulness, iL X2 

Llangollen ladies, Loddiart's skctdi 
of the, L 354 

Locard, Simon, of the Lee, knigjhted 
by King Robert Brace, L 4; fights 
against the Saracens in Spain, 4; 
acquires the femoQs " Lee peoDy,'*4 

Locards, the, assmne the name of 
Lockhart, L4 

Loccard, Symon, lord of the paridi 
of Symington, L 3 

Lockhart, Sir Allan, of Qeg^ioin, L 

Lockhart, Mr. ElUot, il 348 

Lockhart, Charlotte (afterwards Mrs. 
Hope-Scott), her birth, iL 77; at 
school in Calais, 196; married to 
Mr. J. R. Hope, 290, 30a See 
also Hope, Mrs. J. R. 

Lockhart, Rev. John, D.D. (father of 
J. G. Lockhart), L 11 ; his char- 
acter, 14; refuses permission for 
Lockhart to join the army, 48 ; his 
death, ii 194, 290 

Lockhart, John Gibson, pedigree of 
his femily, L 2; on the fight for 
the Covenant, 10 note; his de- 
scent from James Nimmo the 
Covenanter, 12; character of his 
parents, 13; birth, 14; shyness, 
15 ; schooldays, 18 ; stoicism, 19 ; 
matriculates at Glasgow Univer- 
sity, 20 ; on Professors Young and 


43 » 

Richardson^ 23 ; success at college, 
24; wins the Greek Blackstone, 
26 ; offered a Snell Exhibition, 26 ; 
goes up to Balliol, 27; on the 
journey to Oxford, 28; first im- 
pressions thereof, 32 ; and of Balliol, 
33 ; college friends, 34 ; constancy 
in friendships, 35, 200; as an 
undergraduate, 36 ; on Sir William 
Hamilton, 39; on Sl Andrew's 
Day at Oxford, 44 ; "crossed," 46; 
desires to join the army, 48; 
linguistic studies, 52 ; in the 
schools, 57 ; gets a First Class, 
58 ; dinners at Godstowe, 59 ; 
acquirements on leaving Oxford, 
59; effects of early disadvantages 
in life, 60, 62 ; knowledge of the 
literature of the time, 61 ; loneli- 
ness, 64, 81 ; on the theatre, 65 ; 
on Wordsworth, 70, 73 ; on Byron, 
70* 73 ; on Christie's projected novel, 
71 ; his proposed romance based 
on Scottish manners, 72 ; on the 
double authorship of " Waverley," 
74; postpones the production of 
his novel, 75 ; neglect of his poeti- 
cal powers, 76 ; on the Drama, 77 ; 
on a Glasgow ball, 81 ; dines with 
Count Pulltuski, the dentist, 82; 
scheme of an '* Oxford Olio," 88 ; 
description of a holy fair, 89 ; goes 
to Edinburgh to study law, 90 ; on 
the physical aspect of the dty, 91 ; 
on its society, 92 ; on the character 
of John Wilson, 93 ; on De Quincey, 
97 ; his essay on Heraldry, 98 ; study 
of Wordsworth, 102; parodies of 
Wordsworth, 104; on Kean*s act- 
ing, III; literary projects, 112; 
called to the Bar, 113; criticism 
of "Old Mortality," 114; lour in 
Germany, 1 18 ; becomes attached 
to Blackwood^ s Magaxim^ 119; 
loyalty to Blackwood, 120; his 

estimate of the latter's character, 
121 ; politics, 122 ; on Whig "ignor- 
ance," 123 ; on the early years of 
Blackwood, 127 ; made the scape- 
goat for the Blackwood satires, 128 ; 
regrets for early criticisms, 129; 
his prospects ruined thereby, 130; 
his share in the editorship of Black* 
wood, 133; denies receiving pay- 
ment for supervising the periodical, 
134 ; not the assailant of the Lake 
poets, 135 ; essays on Greek 
Tragedy, 143 ; on the Blackwood 
attack on Coleridge, 147 ; criticism 
of the Edinburgh Review ^ 149; on 
Leigh Hunt, 152; on the author- 
ship of " The Chaldee Manuscript," 
157; introduced in " The Chaldee," 
160; attacks clerical contributors to 
the Edinburgh, 166; on the Re- 
views, 167 ; on Shakespeare, 167 ; 
on Je&ey and Gifford, 169; on 
Napoleon, 170; on Goethe, 172, 
219; his defence of Christianity 
against the Edinburgh, 173; on 
Bums's"Holy Fair," 181 ; personal 
attack on Professor Playfair, 182 ; 
attacked anonymously in "Hypo- 
crisy Unveiled," 184 ; origin of his 
relations with Scott, 191 ; visits the 
latter at Abbotsford, 193 ; accused 
of being the author of the attack 
on Keats, 197 ; on Keats, 199, 
246 ; on Leigh Hunt and Haxlitt, 
203; quarrels with Sir William 
Hamilton, 204; writes "Peter's 
Letters," 206 ; revisits Abbotsford, 
210; rides with Scott, 210; sup- 
posed irony, 217; compared with 
Carlyle, 218, 220 ; on Je&ey as a 
critic, 218 ; defence of Coleridge, 
220 ; description of the Edinburgh 
booksellers, 221 ; on Raebum the 
painter, 221 ; description of Scott 
at Abbotsford, 222 ; on the Kirk 




itttd Geneiml AnonUyy aaa ; aeeks 
«n editor for a new Tory paper* 
aas; at a yeoman, aay; baUads 
attribnted to him, t87 ; betrothed 
to BCiit Sq)hm Soott, 239; mar- 
riage, «35s 9eeke Scott's aid on 
bdialf of Profesior Wilmi, 256; 
his <«Testimooinm.'' 238; transhi. 
tioos from Goethe's " Faust,** 245 ; 
meets Haydon the painter, 24S; 
attacked by John Soott in BM* 
fMs MagoMMm^ 250; character of 
the charges, 253 ; his de&noe^ 257; 
challenges Scott to a dnd, 258; 
account of the events fbUowing the 
quarrel, 259 «r iss^. ; life at Oitefii- 
wood, 2S3; publishes ^'Vakrins," 
286; and **Adam Blair," 295, 
297 ; as a novelist, 296 s as a man 
of letten, 297; partic^fiates in the 
festivities in honour of George IV.'s 
visit to Edinbuigfa,3P3; onCrabbe, 
306; his "Don Quixote," 307; 
assists Scott with an edition of 
Sbakespeare, 308 ; publishes ''Ra- 
nald Dalton,** 309 ; success c^ his 
"Ancient Spanish Ballads," 313; 
verses on Jeffrey, 320; on Edin- 
burgh and Holyrood, 321 ; char- 
acter of his comic verse, 331 ; his 
incomplete translation of the Iliad, 
334 ; his use of the English hexa- 
meter, 334 ; caricatures, 339 ; con- 
trasted with Thackeray, 340 ; pub- 
lishes "Matthew Wald," 346; 
consulted as to a scheme for cheap 
literature, 352; goes on tour in 
Ireland with Scott, 354; meeting 
with Wilson, Canning, and Words- 
worth, 355 ; tired of Blackwood^ 
356; collaborates in the production 
of "Janus," 356 ; offered the editor- 
ship of the Quarterly^ 359; sug- 
gested as superintendent of a new 
daily paper, 364; visited by Ben- 

jamin I>isiaeli, 364; oMidredttor 
of the QuarUrfy^ 569; terns of 
engsgemcptf 37' % leaves Chient* > 
wMd for LooidoHf 375 ; eogni» 
Soott to vrrite on Pei^ Joiuaali, 
376 s his first number of the Qwsr- 
ifriy, 376 1 nature of his fdalioiis 
with Mnnay, 3791 posilion in 
London society, 381 ; ii. 81 ^ his 
one gieat work his biogmphy of 
Seott, L 382 s domestic tiosbleB, 
385 ; refnses to aid Coostafak la 
his financial sdiemes, 388; aorprise 
at Scott's trading enterprto, 391 ; 
defence agjainst CoosttkUe's bio- 
grapher, 392 s the fitfa of his 
edition of Shakespeare a literary 
mystery^ 39^ S birth of his son 
Waiter, 4Q3; reviews for the Qmr- 
Urfyt 404, 413; dtoppointmenti» 
410; on novels, 414; oondnet of 
the Qmarteriyf U. i $ suspected by 
Canning, 7; ooovinees die faster 
of his error, 8; resentment at 
Canning's message, 10 ; on Soott's 
** Napoleon," xo ; attempts to hdp 
Hogg, 14, 17, 107 ; joins Scott at 
Portobello, 18 ; on Ludan, 21 ; 
his *'Life of Bums," 25; on the 
Catholic question, 32, 35 ; on Bulwer 
Lytton, 37 ; disinclination to make 
the most of himself, 41 ; a moderate 
Tory, 43; literary schemes, 44; 
asked to be a *' reptile " journalist, 
50; prospective employment on the 
Stuart papers, 54 ; thinks of enter- 
ing Parliament, 62 ; attends the 
debates on Reform, 66; distrusts 
Croker, 67; as biographer, 70; 
social relations in London, 76 ; his 
kindness to Maginn, 79 ; on litera- 
ture and rank, 84 ; his review of 
Tennyson, 87 ; granted a doctor's 
degree by Oxford, 90 ; edits Scott's 
works, 90 ; his relations with Mil- 



man, 91 et seg, ; fondness for bio- 

g'Aphyf 99> ^55 > 00 ^^^ authorship 
of "The Doctor/' 100 ; bad times, 
105; his **Life of Scott," 107; 
troubles with Hogg, 107 ; method 
of work, 114; his theory of the 
relations between Scott and the 
Ballantynes, 127 et seq, ; his reply 
to the Ballantyne pamphlet, 167 ; 
its defects of taste, 168 ; his recep- 
tion of the Ballantynes' rebutter, 
171 ; on the death of his wife, 175 ; 
retires to Milton Lockhart, 177 ; 
on his children, 178, 203 ; meets 
Dickens, 182 ; on a Chartist demon- 
stration, 186; his position in the 
Oxford Movement, 189; on copy- 
right, 195; on Disraeli's "Con- 
ingsby," 199; granted the Auditor- 
ship of the Duchy of Lancaster, 
200; on the Queen and Prince 
Albert, 204 ; visits Italy, 206 ; re- 
turn to England, 209; assists 
Maginn's fomily, 209 ; on Peel, 
215 twU\ first meeting with Carlyle, 
223 ; suggests the latter should write 
a novel, 226; unable to accept 
Carlyle's "Chartism," 228; poem 
on "an old belief," 235 ; on 
Carlyle's '*Past and Present," 238; 
as a journalist, 246, 283 ; as a 
politician, 252 ; varied character of 
his articles in the Quarterly^ 255 ; 
their want of permanency, 256; 
reason thereof, 257 ; conception of 
his duties as reviewer, 257 ; on 
Homeric and Biblical criticism, 
259 ; satire of German vagaries in 
criticism, 263 ; his essays on Hook, 
265; on Sir David Wilkie, 270; 
on Crabbe, 273 ; on Campbell, 273, 
284; on Southey, 274; his esti- 
mate of Wordsworth and Southey 
as men, 274 ; gloomy character of 
his diaries, 289 ; anxiety about his 

son, 291, 313 ; admiration and re- 
gard for Mr. J. R. Hope, 299, 301 ; 
growing infirmities, 299 ; on "Jane 
Eyre," 307, 309 ; on revolutionary 
Paris, 319; epigram on Alison's 
** History of Europe," 320 ; dislike 
of being lionised, 334 ; his attitude 
towards the Catholic Church, 338 ; 
on a dinner at Landseer's, 343 ; on 
his son-in-law's conversion to the 
Church of Rome, 349 ; French 
tour, 351 ; on "Esmond," 356; 
reconciliation with his son, 356 ; 
resigns the editorship of the Quar* 
ttrly^ 366 ; last meeting with Pro- 
fessor Wilson, 367 ; leaves for Italy, 
368; meets Thackeray in the 
Louvre, 368; at Rome, 369; on 
Pius IX., 372; studies Hebrew 
and Arabic, 378 ; longs for British 
fare, 381 ; on Manning and Wise- 
man, 383 ; last poem, 384 ; resigns 
the Auditorship of the Duchy of 
Lancaster, 384 ; returns to Milton 
Lockhart, 389 ; last visit to Abbots- 
ford, 393; his love of his grand- 
daughter, 393; last hours, 395; 
buried in Dryburgh Abbey, 395 ; 
his religious ideas, 396; his poem 
on immortality, 398; on modem 
poets, 399; advocates the republi- 
cation of Keats, 401 ; the Timti 
notice of his death, 404 ; final im- 
pressions of his life, 408 ; hb devo- 
tion to Scott, 409 

Lockhart, John Hugh (first son of 
J. G. Lockhart), i. 4; his birth, 
277; childhood, 292; delicate 
health, 344; affected by spinal 
disease, 385, 412; iL 18; anec- 
dotes regarding him, 19; Scott's 
anxiety on his account, 28; his 
criticism on civilisation, 50; ill- 
ness, 63 ; death, 74 

Lockhart, H. F. M., quoted, 18 

2 E 



Lockhart, Mn. J. G. {mA Sophk 
SooUX her life at Chie&wood, L 
286 ; illness, 385 ; iL 173 ; her dq^ 
macy in a question of Lockhart's 
preferment, 7; on the health of 
Hugh littlejolm, 28 ; on her fether's 
grief at the death of Tom Pnrdie, 
56 ; on Lockhart's method of work, 
114; death, 174 

Lodchart, *<Kate" (sister of J. G.« 
Lockhart), reads the prayers for 
the dying at Lockhart's deathbed, 

a. 395 
Lockhart, the Rev. Lawrence (brother 

of J. G. Lockhart), on Lockhart's 

studies at Glasgow, L 25 ;, on the 

estrangement between Lockhart 

and Sir \^iam Hamilton, 35, 

204 iM^; cited, 117, 224, 409 

Lockhart, Richard (brothor <^ J. G. 
LodchartX drowned in India, L 
4xx;ii* 17 

Lodkhart,Robert,ofBirkhill,L7; in 
the Pentland Rising, 8; leads the 
Lanarkshire Whigs at Bothwell 


Lockhart, Robert (brother of J. G. 
Lockhart), iL 389^ 391; at his 
brother's deathbed, 395 

Lockhart, Mrs. Robert, iL 395 

Lockhart, Sir Stephen, of Cleghom, 
the direct male ancestor of Lock- 
hart, L 5 

Lockhart, Violet (sister of J. G. Lock- 
hart), i. 410; present when Scott 
was stricken with apoplexy, ii 59 ; 
in ill health, 184 ; death, 322 

Lockhart, Walter Scott (second son 
of J. G. Lockhart), his birth, i« 
403 ; progress of his education, ii. 
177 ; advice from his £ither, 196 ; 
his indiscretions, 201 ; " plucked," 
209 ; becomes laird of Abbotsford, 
291 ; gazetted, 293 ; his extrava- 
gance, 293, 313; his debts, 314; 

snffiers from biain fever, 315; iU 
at VefsaiUes, 356 ; joucnqr to Itafy» 
357; letnms to VeisaiUes, 359; 
death, 359 

Lockhart« William (brother of J. G. 
Lockhart), i. 410 ; accompanies his 
brother to Paris^ iL 356, 358 

Lockhart, Father William, ii 380^ 

Loddiart, William (giaiidfether of 

J. G.), his runaway maniagje, L 

Lodcharts of Lee^ souoe of the Lock* 

hart femily, L 2, 5 
Loddiarts, the \^ncketsliaw, their 

feud widi the Hamiltons, L 6 
Locock, Dr., iL 370^ 394 
Long£^low, Henry Wadswotth, bb 

use of the En^^ish hexameter, L 

Longmans, Messrs., L 346 nUt ; par- 
chase " Guy lyfannering," iL 143 
Lougus, dted, L 415 
Lonsdale^ Lord, iL 281 ; his house 

described, 308 
Louis XIV., iL 2 

Louis Philippe, anecdote o( iL 67 
Lounsbuiy, Professor, his **Ltfe of 

Cooper " dted, ii. 125 
Lowther, Lord, ii. 200^ 294 
Lowther, Colonel, ii. 371 
Lucentini, Dr., meets Lockhart in 

Italy, ii. 368, 403 
Lushington, Professor, Glasgow C^- 

lege, i. 25 fwie 
Lyell, Sir Charles, his two books on 

America, ii. 323 
Lyndhurst, Lord,^ii. 216, 294 
Lyttelton, Lord, the wicked, as 

Junius, iu 344; stories of him, 

Lyttelton, Lord, "shocked" at the 
Quarterly article on Junius, ii. 

Lytton, Bulwer, Scott's criticism of 



his " Pelham/' ii. 36 ; dines with 
Lockhart, 37, 365 

Mably, French philosopher, his 
theories denounced by the Edin- 
burgh, i. 174 

Macaulay, Thomas Babington, cited 
for Scott's " rapacity," i. 409 ; takes 
part in the debates on Reform, ii. 
68 ; cited for literary style, 123 ; de- 
scribes Scott as "rapacious," 125 ; 
defined by Sydney Smith as "a 
Book in Breeches," 184; attacks 
Croker, 214, 250; as an essasrist, 
256, 258 ; value of his correspond- 
ence, 273 

MacCaul, Gordon, L 86 

M'Crie, Dr. Thomas, dted for Lock- 
hart's Covenanting ancestors, i. 9, 
10; writes for Blackwood, 145; 
introduced in "The Chaldee 
Manuscript," 160 ; attacked by 
"Calvinus" for contributing to 
Blackwood, 164 ; defends the Cove- 
nanters, 165 

M'Culloch, John Ramsay, attacks 
Professor Wilson in the Scotsman, 

i. 239 

Macfarlane, Mr., assists in establishing 
the Scotsman, i. 122 

M*Ghie, Mrs., Hugh Lockhart's 
governess, ii. 19 

Mackay, Mrs., ii. ill 

Mackenzie, Henry (**The Man of 
Feeling"), editor of the Mirror, 
L 22; befriends Maturin, 148; 
introduced in " The Chaldee Manu- 
script 159 ; described in "Peter's 
Letters," 214; favourably impressed 
with " Adam Blair." 302 

Mackintosh, Sir James, ii 68, 78, 

Macleod, The, ii. 78 

Madise, Daniel, his portrait of Lock- 
hart, ii. 86 

M *Nee, Mr. , his portrait of Dr. Ward- 
law, ii 282 

Macneil, Sir J., ii 187 ; alarmed for 
the folly of Walter Lockhart, 313 

M'Neill, Duncan (afterwards Lord 
Colonsay), consulted as to Lock- 
hart's reply to the Ballantyne pam- 
phlet, ii. 167 

Macpherson, Brewster, i. 341 note 

Macpherson, James, his accidental use 
of the English hexameter, i 336 

Maginn, Dr., Irish writer, i 133 ; 
attacks Professor Leslie in Black- 
wood, 252 ; meets Lockhart in 
London, 346; asks the tatter's 
assistance on John Bull, 356 ; ii 
266 ; Lockhart's association with 
him deprecated by Scott, i 373; 
Paris correspondent of the Repre- 
sentative, 386; an associate of 
Lockhart, ii. 78; befriended by 
the latter, 79 ; his death, 194 ; his 
assaults on Byron, 275 

Maginn, Mrs., ii 78, 194, 266 

Maginn Fund, the, ii. 209 

Mahon, Lord (afterwards Lord Stan- 
hope), ii 78, 82, 83, 191, 324. Su 
Stanhope, Lord 

"Malagrowther" letters, Scott's, i 


Man in the Iron Mask identified in 
the Quarterly, ii. I 

Mandeville, Lord, at dinner at 
Landseer's, ii 343 

Manner, Mr., Edinburgh bookseller, 
i 221 

Manning, Henry Edward (Cardinal), 
his importance as a convert, ii 277 ; 
impending conversion, 338; re- 
ceived into the Church of Rome, 
349» 355. 375 ; h» eloquence. 376, 
383 ; dines with Lockhart, 385 

Manning, Mrs. (the murderess), ii. 

Manu, dted, ii 290 



Marie Antoineteck ber memoiy derided 
by the Whig^ i. 337 

Mamst, Bl, iL 319 

Murtmeauy Harriet, on the fitienddilps 

of Loddiart, L 35 mUf; on the 

satire of the Utter and Profimor 

Wilson, 129; on the rdatioos of 

Lockhart and Croker, iL 3; on 

Lodcharf s criticism of the Balka- 

tjne% ty2f on his malevolsnoef 

247; cited, 292 iM^, 337, 338, 

Mary, Qoeen, iL 252 

Mathews, Charies, dines with Soott 

in Bdinbnigli, L 294 
«" Matthew Wal4" Loclchart^ fourth 

novel, Scott on, L 346 
Bfaturin, hte tragedy of ^' Bertram,^ L 

Manle^ Mr., of Panmnre, settles a 
pension npon the widow of Robert 
Bums, L 3x5 

Maxwell-Scott, Mrs^, h^ birth, iL 

354; cited, 359, 364, 373, 3^. 390^ 

Meade, Riduod, L 107 

Meadowbank, Lord, iL 131 . 

Melville, Lord, visits Soott at Abbots- 
ford, L 193 ; meets the latter at a 
dinner at Croker's, 413 

Merivale, u. 323 

Mettemich, ii. 305 

Michael Angelo, cited, i. 71 

Miles, Mr.y ii. 311 

Millar, Mr., of Dalswinton, cited for 
an anecdote of Bums, ii. 12 

Miller, Mr., Edinburgh bookseller, L 

Milman, Henry Hart (Dean of St. 
Paul's), desires to see " new blood " 
in the Quarter/y, iL 44 ; his friend- 
ship with Lockhart, 76, 246 ; his 
relations with the latter, 91 ; his 
Quarterly article on Newman, 222 ; 
" the only extensive scholar on the 

actual list of the Qjmartarfy!* 261 ; 
the ohitnaryartideoiiLodchartin 
the Tm€s attributed to him and 
Ladv Eastlake. dOOk 4oa: letten 
from Lockhart on QuarUrfy and 
other matters, 186, 189, 191, 212, 
213, 214, 2x7, 218, 2x9, 220b 292, 

31^ 3i7f 3^ 330b 3SQ^ 3^ 3S2. 

Milmans. the. iL 82 

Minto^ Earl o( sent to the Qidrinal 
by Wellhigtcm, & 305 

Mohr, Dr., cited for the character of 
Loeidiart*s poetry, L 338 natti his 
lectures on the Literatore of tiie 
Age, iL 278 

Moncrei^ Sir Henry, character of 
his sermons, L 175 ; fitvonrabfy im- 
pressed with '* Adam Bbdr,"* 302 

Monmouth, Duke of, iL 2 

Monsegnano, Prince^ iL, 303 

Montague, Lord, iL 77, 82 

Montage, dted, L 76 ; iL 62 

Montdth, R., iL 380^ 385 

Montes, Lob^ iL 324 

Montrose^ tlie great, Gariyie on, & 
23X ; atPhiliphangh, L 2x1 

Moody, Rev. James, stocy d his con* 
version, i. 177 

Moore, Thomas, receives £31000 for 
his " Irish Melodies," L 62 ; dted 
for John Scott's hostility to Byron, 
256; ridicule thrown upon his 
duel with Jeffrey, 264 ; his Life of 
Sheridan, 404 ; ii. 22, 65, 77 ; his 
" Byron," 96 ; his " Sheridan," 285 

Morehead, Robert, on the religious 
dispute between Blackwood tJid the 
Edinburgh^ L 187 ; attacked by 
Professor Wilson, 252 

Morier, Mr., his novel ** Zohrab^" iL 77 

Morritt, Mr., of Rokeby, deprecates 
the attacks of Blackwood^ i> 184; 
iL 28, 78, 125 ; on the Ballantyne 
pamphlet, 154 



Motteux, i. 308 

Mount Norris, Lord, ii. 346 

Mulgrave, Lord, the story of his 
being sent to Tangiers in a leaky 
ship by Charles II., L 153 

Murdiison, Sir Roderick, i. 188 ; ii. 
37, 82, 187. 188, 316, 341, 376, 

Mure, Colonel, his '* History of 
Greek Literature," L 334 ; iL 256 ; 
character of the work, 259 

Murray, Mr. (of the Times), invited 
by Lockhart to become editor of 
an Edinburgh Tory newspaper, i. 

Murray, Mr., Professor of Hebrew in 
Edinburgh University, i. 50 

Murray, Mr., theatrical manager, i. 

Murray, John, of Broughton, L I12 

Murray, John, publisher, cited for his 
liberality, i. 72, 79, 1 13 ; his connec- 
tion with Blackwood les/dndit^ 134 ; 
purchases Coleridge's " Christabel '* 
for a small sum, 139; cited in 
'•Hypocrisy Unveiled" as a de- 
tractor of Lockhart and Wilson, 
185 ; cited for his luxurious estab- 
lishment in Albemarle Street, 221 ; 
offers Lockhart the editorship of the 
Quarterly, 359 ; induced by Benja- 
min Disraeli to join a project for a 
new daily paper, 364 ; selects Lock- 
hart as editor of the Quarterly, 369 ; 
extends his hospitality to him, 375 ; 
nature of his relations with him, 
379 ; failure of his new paper, 385 ; 
protests against Constable's bill 
transactions, 393 note; declines to 
lend the originals of Southey's 
letters to the latter*s son-in-law, ii. 
3 ; raises Lockhart*s salary, 44 ; 
ready to take up Scott's Shake- 
speare, 59 ; at odds with Benjamin 
Disraeli, 77; his opinion of the 

Ballantyne Press, 137 ; dted, 82, 92' 
98, 104, 105, 106, 178, 186, 195. 
215, 216, 246, 251, 316, 323, 34Si 

367. 38s. 403 
Murray, Mrs., of Albemarle Street, iL 

Murray, the Misses, iL 311 

Napier, Macvey, introduced in "The 
Chaldee Manuscript," L 161, 171 
note ; suspected of being the author 
of "Hypocrisy Unveiled," 186; 
editor of the Edinburgh Review, 
218 ; ii. 77 

Napoleon I., Lockhart's estimate of 
his place in history, L 170 

Napoleon, Louis, ex-King of Holland, 
his pamphlet against Scott's " Life 
of Napoleon," iL 37 

Nemours, Louis Charles Philippe 
d'Orl^ns, Due de, anecdote of, 


Newman, John Henry (Cardinal), his 
conversion, iL 217, 222 ; his im- 
portance as a convert, 277 

Newton, Sir Isaac, i. 71 

Nicholas, the Czar, iL 348, 376 

Nicholson, his portrait of Miss Sophia 
Scott, i. 23s 

Nicoll, Alexander, college friend of 
Lockhart at Oxford, i. 34, 53, 55, 
86, 116 ; death of his wife, 108 

Nimmo, James, a Covenanting ances- 
tor of Lockhart, L 12 

Normanby, Lord, ii. 342 

Northampton, Lord, ii. 370 

Northumberland, Duke of, ii. 78, 

370. 374 
Northumberland, Duchess of, ii. 325 

Norton, Mrs., iL 183, 397, 411 

** Old Mortality," Lockhart*s criti- 
cism of , L 1 14, 1 16 
Oliver and Boyd, Messrs., L 356 
Opie, Mrs., iL 78 



Omtby, Mr., died for fab '' Life of 

Jamet Hope Soott," iL 392, 394 
Osborne, Mr. and Mrs. ^TIHlliani, iL 

Ossnlstone, Lord, at a dinner at 

Landseer's, ii. 343 
Oxford, Lockhart's impressions o( in 

i8o9^L33;no Fellowships for Scots^ 

42; '* crossing,'' 46 
Oxford Movement, the, iL 189 

Palgravb, Sir F., ii. 77, 218; 4P3 
Palmerston, Lord, "drops his bottle 

and brush," iL 206 
Piantaleone, Dr., iL 371, 378 
Paris in 1848, described bf Loekhart, 

5i. 3«9. 3*1 
Ptois, Comte de, in the Revolution of 

1848, iL 322 

Parker, Baron and Lady, iL 370 

Parker, BCiss, iL 371 

Parker's, Oxford booksellers, L 221 

Pkurr, Dr., iL 278 

Pluseval, M., L 415 

Parsons, Dr., Master of Balliol, L 34 

Pkter, Mr., his *" Marios the Ei^- 
cnrean" compared with Lockhart's 
** Valerius," L 289 ; dted for literary 
style, ii. 123 

Patmore, Peter George, his first esti- 
mate of Hazlitt as a critic, L 204 ; 
contributes Xo BUukwood, 251 ; acts 
as intermediary in the quarrel 
between Lockhart and John Scott, 
268, 274 ; seconds the latter in his 
duel with Christie, 275, 282 note 

Peden, Alexander, the Covenanting 
prophet, i. 8 

Peel, Sir Robert, meets Scott and 
Lockhart at a dinner at Croker's, 
L 413; recondled to Croker, ii. 
19 ; Scott's opinion of his con- 
duct on the Catholic question, 49, 
78, 105 ; in 1841, 191 ; the Copy- 
right Bill, 195 ; suggests preferment 

for Lockhait, 215, 242, 250^ 2S3 1 

the Irish Omrdi Ml, 992 
Penn, Mr., iL 3G4 
Penrose, Misses* their description of 

Miss Sophia Scott, L 232 
Pentland Risin|^ the, L 7 
Peny, Mr., of the Mtmktg CJkrmdeit, 

dted for an anecdote of Bums, iL 

"Peter's Letters," by Lodchait, L 

206 ; analysb of the work, 2x3 
Pettigrew, Mr., sugeon, present at 

the duel between Christie and John 

Scott, L 276 mii 
Philiphaugh, battle of, L 2xx 
Philippe, Louis, iL 327 
Hiilpotts, Henry (BSshop of Enter), 

u. 68. 31% 377 

Pickec^gill, Mr., his picture of Woids- 

Pitcaim, Mr., on the bewitdwd giri 
who founded the Renfirew Uiread 
industry, iL 60 

Pius DC, iL 30s, 372, 375 

Pisarro, iL 193 

Pbiu, Mr., German merchant, L 31 

Pbiyfiur, Professor, assists in estaUish- 
ing the Scotsman, L 122 ; introduced 
in *• The Chaldee Manuscript," 161 ; 
attacked by Lockhart in Blackwood^ 
166, 182 

Poe, Edgar Allan, i. 317 

Polwarth, Lady. See Scott, Mrs., of 

Pope, Alexander, dted for the classi- 
cal principles of his school, L 172 

Powles, Messrs., their relations with 
Benjamin Disraeli, i. 364, 386 

Pringle, Thomas, editor of the Edin^ 
burgh Monthly Magazine, i. 142 ; 
quarrels with Blackwood, 145, 149 ; 
introduced in "The Chaldee Manu- 
script," 158; visits Scott and the 
Lockharts in London, 412 

Pringle of Torwoodlee, L 12, 13 



PuUtuski, Coant, the dentist, i. 82 
Purdie, Tom, Scott's forester, L 339 ; 
ii 32 ; his death, 56 

Quarterly Rernrw, negotiations re- 
garding Lockhart's becoming editor 
thereof, i. 359 et seq, ; mythical 
character of its supposed secrets, 
iL I ; its attitude in the Oxford 
Movement, 222, 403 

Quillinan, Mr. (Wordsworth's son-in- 
1*^)» »• 355 ; »»• 275, 282 

Rab, Mr., actor, L 65 

Raebum, Sir Henry, compared with 
Sir Thomas Lawrence, i. 221 

Rainy, Professor, becomes acquainted 
with Lockhart, i 22, 24 

Ramsay, Professor, Glasgow College, 
i. 25 note 

Redding, Cyrus, quoted for the char- 
acter of Lockhart, i. 16; for the 
duel between Christie and John 
Scott, 278 not€\ for Southey's 
grievances with the Quarterly^ iL 4 

" Reginald Dalton," Lockhart's novel, 
cited, i, 28, 33, 44, 310 

Reviewers, Lockhart's conception of 
their duties, iL 257 

Reynolds, Frederick Mansell, iL 23 ; 
story of a revel at his house near 
Highgate, 268 ; his death, 336 

Reynolds, John Hamilton, friend of 
Keats, L 62, 198, 221 ; suggested 
as editor of a Tory paper, 226 

Rice, Mr., i. 63 

Richardson, Professor, of Glasgow 
College, L 22, 23, 100 note 

Richardson, Mr., of Kirklands, iL 78, 

Richmond, Duke of, ii. 312 

Rickman, Mr. (correspondent of 
Southey), L 360, 361 

Riddel, Mr., L 103 

Rigby, Miss (afterwards Lady East- 

lake), iL 21 1 ; her Quarterly review 
of "Jane Eyre," 307, 310; and 
" Vanity Fair," 368 ; her marriage 
to Mr. Eastlake, 333. See Eastlake, 
Ritchie, Mrs. Richmond, on Lock- 
hart's complexion, iL 329 
Roberts, Mr., i. 178 ; ii. 282 
Robertson, Patrick ("Lord Peter") 
(afterwards Lord), i. 18, 93, 216 ; 
consulted as to Lockhart's reply to 
the Ballantyne pamphlet, iL 167, 

326, 328, 35>. 375. 392 

Robertson, Thomas Shute, wins a 
Blackstone, i. 26 note 

Robinson, John, L 178 

Rochefoucauld, La, cited, L 235 

Rogers, Commodore, i. 69 

Rogers, Samuel, meets Lockhart, L 
346; and Scott and Coleridge, iL 
28 ; on the relations of Scott and 
Lockhart, 70, 120 ; his great vivacity 
in old age, 319 

Rome, ii. 369 

Rose, W. S., L 291 

Rose, Mr., opposed to Lockhart as 
editor of the Quarterly ^ L 371 

Ross, Charles, Sheriff of Sutherland- 
shire, L 350, 352 

Rossetti, William, on Walter Lock- 
hart, ii. 178 

Roubillac, i. 71 

Rousseau, his theories denounced by 
the Edinburgh, L 174 ; iL 323 

Ruskin, John, cited for literary style, 
iL 123 ; a contributor to the Quar^ 
terly^ 287; Lockhart's host at 
Denmark Hill, 299 

Russel, Miss, of Ashestiel, i. 232 

Russell, Lord Edward, at dinner at 
Landseer*s, iL 343 

Russell, Lord John, his scheme of 
Reform, ii. 68 ; attacked by Croker 
in the House of Commons, 97, 251, 
254. 3»8, 343 ; as a sportsman, 341 





Rntidlf Mrs. Wilikm, U. 341 
RndieKloid, Kr., iL 277 
Rotlindy Duke o^ IL 993 

St. ALBANSy Duchets of, u* 82 

St AlbMi% Dnke and Dttdiev o^ iL 


Stintsbiuy, Mr.» on Jeffrey as a 
diticy L 171 ; on the met^>li3FBical 
creed of Uie Edinbni]^ Academy 
of Physics seventy yean ago, 182 ; 
on**Hypatia,"286; on Lockhart's 
olijection to "romantic poetiy,** iL 
89; on Hogg, 113, Z13 Motti his 
estimate of Lockharfb '*Life of 
Scott," 123 

St Vincent de Panl, iL 354 

Salisbury, Bishop of, his death, il 381 

Salisbuy, Lady, iL 78, 82, 249^ 269^ 

Sandon, Lord, iL 187 
Sartoris, Mn. {tUt Adelaide Kemble), 

ii. 369. 370. 372. 374 

Scarron, M., L 348 

Scotsman^ its foundation, L 122 

Scott, Alexander, college friend of 
Lockhart at Oxford, i 34; his 
death, 5$ 

Scott, Anne (daughter of Sir Walter), 
i. 196 ; her confirmation, 235 ; on 
tour in Ireland, 354 ; visits London 
with her father, ii. 28; present 
when the latter was stricken with 
apoplexy, 59 ; her death, 78 ; the 
original of Alice Lee in "Wood- 
stock," 79 

Scott, Chatles, Lockhart's portrait of 
him, i, 341 ; ii. 60, 177, 181 ; death, 
185, 232 

Scott, Dr., of Balliol, modem activity 
of the College partly due to hb 
exertions, 34 

Scott, Dr. ("the Odontist"), L 80 

Scott of Harden, the source of Sir 
Walter Scott's family, L 2 

Scott, Ftukf iL 345, 348 

Scott, Hope, on LodghaitfiCJiafctwy 

Scott, John, editor of the C^m^fimt^ 

L 226$ reviews tiie Waveilqr 

Novels, 229 ; attada Loddiart in 

Baidmrn*! MagiBuimt 250 ii stf. ; 

his accoont of the events following 

fhisqtiarrd, 260; dhid wi& Christie, 

275 ; death, 279 
Scott, Lady, her health ondenained, 

L 385 ; her death, 407 ; iL 107 
Scott, Lady (danghter-in-law of Sir 

Walter), iL 295, 296, 298 
Soott, Mis., of Harden (Lady Fol* 

warth)^ her anecdotes of Soott, iL 


Scott, Sophia, betrothed to Lodduurt, 

L 229 ; descriptions of her, 231, 
232 ; confirmation, 235 ; marriage, 
235. S^ Lockhart, Mis. 
Scott, Sir Walter, his interest in his 
ancestors, L i; on the name 
** Lodduurt,'* 4 ; offered patronage 
in the Kirk, 13; on Lockhart's 
modesty, 16; produces '*Waveriey" 
and "The Lord of the Isles," 61 ; 
on the literary prospects of Lock- 
hart, 75 ; his " Guy Mannering," 
80, 84; "Old MortaUty," 114; 
his attitude to the Ballant]rnes a 
mystery to Lockhart, 1 19 ; dis- 
approves of the latter's connection 
with Blackwood, 119; on the 
Scotsman, 122 ; on Wilson's con- 
nection with Blackwood, his grudge 
against Mr. Blackwood, 134 nctei 
acknowledges his indebtedness to 
Coleridge's '* Christabd," 139, 140 ; 
praises Maturin*s " Bertram," 147 ; 
believed by Leigh Hunt to be the 
tatter's assailant in Blackwood, 153 ; 
introduced in '* The Chaldee Manu- 
script," 159; makes Blackwood 
withdraw the artide, 162; dis* 



approves of Lockhart's attack on 
Professor Playfair, 184; origin of 
his relations with Lockhart, 191 ; 
discourages the iniquities of Black- 
wood, 194 ; bequeaths his baton to 
Lockhart, 207, 327; hb politics, 
208; on Allan the painter, 210; 
illness, 210; praises "Peter's 
Letters," 212 ; his life at Abbots- 
ford described, 222 ; consulted by 
Lockhart as to the editorship of a 
Tory paper, 225 ; his Buccleuch 
Legion, 227 ; his satisfaction at 
the betrothal of Lockhart and his 
daughter Sophia, 230; supports 
Wilson in his candidature for the 
chair of Moral Philosophy, 237; 
remonstrates with Lockhart for the 
latter's " Testimonium," 241 ; at- 
tacked in BcUdwin^s Magazine, 253 ; 
on the duel between Christie and 
John Scott, 277 ; his view of Lock- 
hart's behaviour in that quarrel, 
278 ; his visits to Chiefswood, 284 ; 
on "Valerius," 286; arranges the 
festivities at Holyrood in honour 
of George IV., 303 ; his edition of 
Shakespeare, 308 ; on " Matthew 
Wald," 346, 348 ; tries to procure 
preferment for Lockhart, 349 ; con- 
sulted as to a scheme for cheap 
literature, 352 ; on tour in Ireland, 
354 ; meets Wilson, Canning, and 
Wordsworth in the Lake country, 
355 ; denies suggesting Lockhart 
as editor of the Quarterly, 361 ; 
visited by Benjamin Disraeli, 364 ; 
writes to Murray regarding Lock- 
hart, 370 ; advice to the latter on 
his entering London society, 373 ; 
rumours as to Constable's stability, 
373; farewell to the Lockharts, 
375 ; on Croker as a critic, 376 ; on 
Moore, 377 ; his financial ruin, 385 ; 
loses confidence in Constable, 389, 

392 ; on James Ballantyne, 392 ; at- 
titude in this crisis of his life, 395 ; 
his " Malagrowther '* letters, 396 ; 
suspects Lockhart to be the author 
of "The Omen," 397; poUtical 
predictions, 399; work for the 
Quarterly, 404; death of Lady 
Scott, 407 ; in London, 412 ; dines 
with five Cabinet Ministers, 413 ; on 
Canning's suspicions of Lockhart, 
ii. 6, 8 ; writes to Canning on be- 
half of the latter, 7 ; congratulated 
by Lockhart on his "Napoleon," 
10; receives a gold medal from 
the Royal Society of Literature, 
13; on Hogg, 15; conceives the 
idea of his "Tales of a Grand- 
father," 18; welcomes the Lock- 
harts at Portobello, 18; attacked 
by Leigh Hunt, 24 ; on a visit to 
London, 28 ; on the Catholic ques- 
tion, 33 ; his confidence in the 
Duke of Wellington, 34; always 
aims at the juste milieu^ 35 ; on 
" Pelham," 35 ; advice to Lockhart 
as to his relations as editor of the 
Quarterly, 39; on Peel, 49; on 
the gentlemen of the Press, 51 ; 
his distrust of Croker, 52 ; 
his opinion of his "Anne of 
Geierstein," 53 ; his grief at the 
death of Tom Purdie, 56 ; his 
energies waning, 58 ; stricken with 
apoplexy, 59; his ** Letters on 
Demonology and Witchcraft," 60 ; 
on Lockhart's idea of entering 
Parliament, 62 ; begins the "Re- 
liquiae Trotcosienses," 64; writes 
" Count Robert of Paris," 65 ; re- 
views Pitcaim's " Criminal Trials," 
65 ; illness, 65, 69 ; distrusts Croker, 
67 ; last days at Abbotsford, 72, 87 ; 
gives literary aid to Dr. Lardner, 
92; dying, 99; his debts, 100; 
history of his relations with the 



BaUaatyneSy 196 ^ seq, ; the fla^w 
in his character, 129; contradk- 
tions thcfein, 131 ; early relatkms 
with the Ballantynes, 154; extxaim- 
gance in businessy 136 ; establishes 
a publishing company* 137; his 
imitation of Crabbe, 264 ; value of 
his conespondence, 273; suggests 
to Lockhart moderation in sm6king» 
369 ; his religious views, 402 

Scott, Sir Waiter (son of Sir Walter), 
iL 156, 180 ; in India, 202, 203 ; 
death at sea, 290 ; buried at Diy- 
burgh, 295 

Scott, William, ii. 345 

Scott, Mr. and Mrs. Hope, iL 283 

Sedgwick, Professor, ii 78 

Sellar, Professor, a Snell Exhibitioner, 
i 27 

S^eca, his monument at Rome, ii 

Senior, Mr., ii 318 

Sermoneta, Duke of, ii 372 

Severn, Joseph, painter, on the attack 
on Keats, i 196^ 203 

S^vign^, Madame, ii 354 

Seward, Miss Anna, i 30 

Sewell, Rev. Mr., a contributor to the 
Quarterly, ii. 189, 192, 227 

Shairp, Mr. (afterwards Principal of 
St. Andrews), meets Lockhart at 
Oxford, ii. 209 

Shakespeare, Lockhart on, i. 167, 172, 
308, 396 ; his indifference to fame, 

Shandon, Captain, i. 1 10 

Sharp, Archbishop, his murder, i. 9 

Sharpe, Charles Kirkpatrick, cited 
for the relations of Blackwood with 
his editors, i. 133, 145 ; introduced 
in " The Chaldee Manuscript," 159 ; 
edits Kirkton's <* History of the 
Covenant," 159 ; attacked in Black- 
wood^ 163 ; iL 68 ; on Jenny Geddes, 

Shaw, Christian, of Baigarcan, iL 60 

Shaw Stewart, Lady, ii 78 

Shelley, Ptercy Bysshe^ attadced in 
Bladmood^ i 131; his letter to 
Le^h Hunt on Keats, 199; re- 
gretted by Hunt, 203 ; on Keats's 
" Hyperion," 246 ; as a poet, 404 ; 

Shelley, Sir Jnii 67 

Shepherd, Sir Samuel, ii 78 

Shepherds, the, ii 82 

Shorter, Mr. Qement K., ii 308 

Shortrede, Andrew, ii 171 

Shortrede, Robert, ii 171 

Sidmouth, Lord, dted for his inten- 
tion to promote Bums, ii 30 

Simond, Mr., i 225 

Simpson, Miss Violet A., i 188 nUt 

Sinclair, Sir John, his sympathy widi 
Scott in bereavement, i 407 

Skene, Mr., of Rubislaw, i 392 ; ii 

Smiles, Dr. Samuel, quoted for 

Hazlitt's pamphlet against Giffoitl, 
L 254 ; for the R^^resittiaikn news- 
paper, 386 

Smith, Adam, gains a Snell Exhibi- 
tion, L 27 ; esteemed a representa- 
tive of Scottish intellect, 224 

Smith, Mr. B., iL 340 

Smith, Dr., his dictionary of classical 
history, ii. 35$ 

Smith, Horatio, on the quarrel be- 
tween John Scott and Lockhart, L 
259« 263, 276 noU^ 278 note ; ii. 22 

Smith, Rev. Dr., his reminiscences of 
Lockhart, i. 23 

Smith, Rev. James, of Ecclesmachan, 
ii. 222 

Smith, James, his imitation of Crabbe, 
ii. 264 

Smith, Sydney, his flippancies in the 
Edinburgh, i. 177 ; on Macaulay, 
ii. 184, 196, 328, 329 



Smollett, Tobias, cited for the con- 
dition of the Scotch Kirk in hb 
early days, i. 72 

Snell Exhibitions, the, i. 26 

Snell, John, founder of the Snell 
Exhibitions for Glasgow students, 
L 26 

Somerton, Lord, ii. 309 

Somerville, Mrs., ii. 2i6 

Sotheby, Mr., his **Iliad,'» ii. 68; 
an occasional guest of Lockhart's, 


Soult, Marshal, in the Revolution of 
1830, ii. 67 

Southey, Robert, his rooms at Balliol, 
i. 27 ; publishes " Roderick," 61 ; 
meets Coleridge and Jeffrey, 139 ; 
his Biblical parody on the latter, 158 
note ; on Hazlitt, 254 ; declines to 
review works of poetry, 319; pro- 
mises to notice favourably a work 
edited by himself, 346 noU\ pro- 
poses a scheme of cheap literature, 
353 noi€\ meets Scott and Lock- 
hart in the I^ke country, 355 ; 
desires Coleridge to be editor of 
the Quarterly^ 359 ; rejoices at his 
appointment, 361 ; chagrin at his 
supersession by Lockhart, 371 ; his 
review of Hallam's '* Constitutional 
History," 379; disagreement with 
Murray, 381 ; a recluse, 383 ; char- 
acter of his correspondence, ii. 4 ; 
his grievances, 4; on the tone of 
Lockhart's correspondence with 
him, 5; "lives much with the 
lawn-sleeved,** 31 ; on the Catholic 
question, 32 ; an occasional guest 
of Lockhart's, 78; assists Dr. 
Lardner, 92 ; on the authorship of 
**The Doctor," 100; fixes it on 
Theodore Hook, 102 ; diminution 
of literary remuneration, 105 ; on 
the death of Scott, 106 ; his ideas 
of editorship, 248 ; value of his cor- 

respondence, 273 ; his vanity, 274, 
277, 284; compared with Words- 
worth, 279, 280 

Stafford, Lady, written to by Scott on 
behalf of Lockhart, i. 349 ; il 82 

Stafford, Lord, ii. 77 

Stanhope, Lord, on Lockhart, ii. 248 ; 
his displeasure at Croker's interpo- 
lations in his Quarterly article on 
the French Revolution, 251 

Stanhope, Lord, a victim to spirit- 
rapping, ii. 382 

Stanhope, Lady Wilhelmina, ii. 205 

Stanley, Dean, ii. 388 

Stanley, Lord and Lady, it 312 

Stephens, Mr., ii. 193 

Stevenson, Robert Louis Balfour, on 
M*Crie's " Knox," i. 353 note ; cited 
for literary style, iL 123 

Stewart, Dugald, said to have derived 
his ideas of Greek philosophy from 
secondary sources, i. 122 

Steyne, Marquis of, ii. 77 

Stoddart, Dr., advises Lockhart in 
his quarrel with John Scott, L 

Strutt, Mr., ii 384 

Stuart, Prince Charles Edward, at 
Derby in 1745, i. 29 

Stuart, Mr., of Duneam, kills Sir 
Alexander Boswell in a duel, i. 

Stuart, Sir James, ii. 41 
Stuart, Lady Louisa, ii. 78 
Stuart papers, the, ii 54, 68 
Suckling, Sir John, his ** Session of 
Poets " imitated by Leigh Hunt, L 

Sumner, Charles, on the friendships 

of Lockhart, i 35 note ; ii 125 
Surtees of Mainsforth, ii. 270 
Swift, cited for literary style, ii 123, 

Symington, Lanarkshire, the ancient 

home of the Lockbarts, i 2 



Tacitds, dted Ibr the «ie ol the 
henemeter fay RanMUi wisteis» L 

Talbot, Mgr., iL 377 

«lUet of a Giu&d&ther," iL 18 

Talfonid, Sir Thomas Noon, hk 
death, u. 383 

Talkjnuod, iL 67 ; on MacauUiy, 184 

Tqrior, Principal, of Glasgow Uni- 
Ternty, L 100 naiit 

Taylor, Sir Henry, iL 276 

Tkylor, Dr. Cook, his lUsloiy of the 
house of Lotus FhUippe, iL 327 

Taylor, Tom, edits the Haydon 
Memoirsi iL 367 

Teignmouth, Lord, iL 187 

Tennyson, Alfred (Lord), chaiacter 
of his blank yerse, L 338 ; reviewed 
in the QuarUrfy^ iL 87, 854, 285, 

Teny, Mr., actor, L 147 1 meets Soott 
in London, 4I8 ; iL 77 

Thackeray, WOliam Makqpeaoe, con- 
trasted with Lockhart as a cari- 
catniist, L 3401 on the staff of 
Ftasif^s M^gemmi, iL 791 his 
uneasiness as regards persons of 
> rank, 83, 92; dted for literary 
style, 123, 2g| ; an associate of 
Dr. Maginn, 266; value of his 
correspondence, 273, 324; meets 
Lockhart in the Louvre, 368 

Thackeray, Miss Anne Isabella. S^ 
Ritchie, Mrs. Richmond 

Thiers, Adolphe, in the Revolution 
of 1848, iL 322 

Thiersch, German critic, ii. 94 

Thomson, Thomas (the "Tividale 
poet "), i. 307 ; on the character of 
Moore's poetry, 376 ; ii. 81, 278 

Thomson, Dr. Andrew, warned by 
**Calvinus," L 164, 165 

Thorwaldsen, his medallion of Scott, 
iL 311 

Thurlow, Mr., iL 31X 

TTtma, the» its notice of Lockhart^ 
death, iL 404 

Tooke, John Home, his translation 
of Lndan, iL 20^ 403 

Tories, Edinbnigfa, their attitnde to- 
wards the Wl^gs m Loddiarfs 
time, L 122 

TkaiU, Mr., at BaUiol with Lock- 

I»rt, L 34, 36, 66, 69^ 75« 79; 
passes his chril law trials, 83, ill, 
114,258; acts as second to CSiristie 
in his dud with John Scott, 274, 
281 ; acquitted at the trials 282, 
302 ; iL 81, 183, 258, 299 ; Mr. 
James on Lodcharf s personal 
appearance, 329; on his dislike 
of bdng lionised, 334 

Tkaill, Tom, L 97 

Trevomen, Miss, L 232 

TroUope, Anthony, iL 310 

IVickwell, Mr., L 88 

T^lius, dted, iL 236 

Turner, Sir James, L 8 

Turn^, Joseph MaUord William, 
R.A., artist, visiU Scott at Abbots- 
ford, iL 72; dines with Loddiart, 

Turton, Dr., iL 220 

Twining, Miss, iL 362 

Tytler, Patrick Fraser, historian, in- 
troduced in *' The Chaldee Manu- 
script," i. 159; the authorship of 
**The Songs of the Edinburgh 
Troop" assigned to him by Dean 
Burgon, 227 noU, 334 ; his " His- 
tory of Scotland " dted, iL 252 

Valentia, Lady, ii. 346 

" Valerius," its production, i. 286 

Vargas, Barnabas Moreno de, cited, L 

Varnhagen, ii. 225 

Vaughan, Herbert, ii. 383 
Veitch, Professor John, on the rela- 
tions of Lockhart and Sir William 



Hamilton, L 35 ; cited for the date 
of their German tour, 118 note ; ii. 

Vestris, Madame, ii. 182 

Victoria Alexandrina, Queen of Eng- 
land, receives an address from Ox- 
ford, ii 204 ; on Watson Gordon's 
picture of Professor Wilson, 281, 
305; in Ireland, 328; presented 
with some Dandie Dinmonts, 347 

Volcker, German critic, ii 94. 

Voltaire, described by the Edinburgh 
as a "pernicious writer," i 174; 
u. 273 

Voss, Johann Heinrich, cited for his 
translations from Homer, i 334 

Vyvyan, Sir R., ii. 304 

Wallace, Colonel, on the Covenant- 
ing ancestors of Lockhart, i. 7, 9 

Wardlaw, Dr. Ralph, his portrait, ii 

Wardrop, Mr., i. 87 ; ii. 57 

Warrender, Sir G., ii. 300 

Wartcr, John Wood (son-in-law of 
Southey), quoted for the belief in 
the supposed secrets of the Quar- 
terfyt ii. 2 

Watteau, ii. 308 

" Waveiley," supposed double author- 
ship of, i. 74 

Webb, Cornelius, mentioned in "The 
Cockney School," i 150, 154, 155 

Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, Duke 
of, on the qusurrel between Lockhart 
and John Scott, i. 277 ; meets Scott 
and Lockhart at a dinner at Croker's, 
413 ; ii. 29; confidence reposed in 
him by Scott, 34; his duel with 
Lord Winchilsea, 50 ; on the rows 
in Paris, 67 ; presents an Oxford 
address to the Queen, 204 ; mobbed, 
253; sends Lord Minto to the 
Quirinal, 305 ; at a ball, 325, 

Welsh, Mrs. (Carlyle's mother-in- 
law), her death, ii 233 

Whately, William, anecdote about 
Lockhart at his house, ii 335 

Whewell, William, ii. 381 

Whigs, Edinburgh, their attitude to- 
wards the Tories in Lockhart's 
time, i 122 

White, Blanco, sets up an opposition 
to the Quarlerfy, ii. 32 

White, Lydia, ii 77 

Wilberforce, H., his conversion, ii 

Wilkes, John, i 69 

Wilkie, Sir David, meets Lockhart 
in London, i 346 ; ii 269 ; anec- 
dote of his introduction to Hogg, 
272 ; his painting of Scott with his 
Family, 272, 289 

WiUiam IV., his ill-health, ii 61 

Williams, Archdeacon, with Lockhart 
at Oxford, i 34, 36. 55, 66, 72, 80 ; 
appointed Head Master of Edin- 
burgh Academy, 353 ; suggests the 
idea of ** The Betrothed," 354 ; in 
a scholastic quandary, ii 31 

Wilson, Professor John (" Christopher 
North "), i. 84, 87 ; described by 
Lockhart, 93, 97 ; associated with 
the latter on Blackwoadf 119; 
regrets his articles therein, 120; 
his unbalanced g^enius, 124 ; seeks 
Lockhart *s literary assistance, 128 ; 
his share in the editorship of Black' 
woodt 133 ; denies receiving pay- 
ment for its supervision, 134 ; how 
far responsible for the attacks on 
the Lake poets, 134 ; and for ** The 
Chaldee Manuscript," 156; has a 
leaning to Covenanters, 159; intro- 
duced in "The Chaldee," 160; 
attacked anonymously in "H]rpo- 
crisy Unveiled," 184 ; visits Scott 
at Abbotsford, 193 ; obtains the 
Chair of Moral Philosophy, 194, 



ao4; libcaodiclatiiietlieiefor,236; 
described by Lodduurt in ** Peter's 
Letten," 215 ; oonsolted as to the 
editofship of a Toiy paper, 225 ; 
attacks the Rev. Robert Mordiead» 
252 ; imi^icated in the Blackwood 
trouble with Leig^ Hunt in XS23, 
280; offers Christie refoge in his 
honse aftn the dad with J<^ Scott, 
280; on Lockharty 329; attacks 
Wordsworth, 354 noU ; collaborates 
with Lockhart in the production of 
"Janus," 356 ; iL 7 ; his literary 
schemes, 44 ; aguestat Chiefrwood, 
78; **dinesonthe/0dU^,"8i,88; 
on Hogg, X09; attacks Soott, 109, 
178 ; despair at the death of his 
vdfe, 179, 194 ; abstains £rom strong 
drink, 202, 205, 274, 277 ;• his 
hostility to Wordsworth, 280, 332; 
last meeting with Lockhart, 367; 
death, 386 

mison, Mrs. (wife of <<Chr»topher 
North"), attributes i^tut Blackwood 
attack on Sharpe to Uogg^ L 164 
noU ; dted for the authorship of the 
letter to Dr. Qialmers on his con- 
nection with the Edinburgh, 182 ; 
on the contest for the Chair of 
Moral Philosophy in Edinburgh 
University, 238 

Wilson, Sir J., ii. 345 

Wilson, James, iL 81 

Wilson, Mrs. James, ii. 209 

Wilson, Miss Scott, one of Miss 
Charlotte Lockhart's bridesmaids, 
ii. 300 

Winchilsea, Lord, his dud with the 
Duke of Wellington, ii 50 

Wiseman, Nicolas Patrick (Cardinal), 
in Rome, iL 372, 375 ; hispreaching 
compared with that of Manning, 

Wolf, Christian Wilhehn Friedrich 
August, Homeric critic, L 334 ; iL 
259, 264 

Woc^ord, Mr., iL 386 

Wordsworth Sdiool, Lockhart Uamed 
for his tolerance of it, L 81 

Wordsworth, l^miiam, his works 
rtudied by Lockhart, L X02; de- 
rided by the JSdMwgA^ 123; 
opinion of the reading public of 
Edinburgh regarding him, 2x9; 
quoted in "Biatthew Wald," 347 ; ^ 

on Canning, 355; a reduse, 383; OffC 
visits Scott at Abbotsford, ii. 73, ^^^ 
87, 195; compared witii Scott, itj^ 
ri<^ 280. 281 ; death, 336; dted, ' 

"Wordsworth, Memoirs of William," 

Wright, William, recommends Lock- 
hart as Editor of the Qisarterfy, L 
361 note, 362, 364, 366 ; on Ben- 
jamin Disraeli, 368, 372; informs 
Lockhart of Constable's finandal 
position, 373 ; believes Canning to 
have been instrumental in bringing 
Lodchart to London, ii. 8, 77 

Wyltt, Merdinn, quoted, iL 245 

Young, Professor, of Glasgow College, 
i. 22 ; his personality, 23 

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